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Southeast Ecological Science Center
We are most grateful to a large number of individuals who generously provided assistance to us in preparing this species synopsis and risk assessment. In particular, we thank Ralf Britz of the University of Tbingen, Germany, currently on sabbatical leave at the Division of Fishes, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.; Maurice Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland; Sven Kullander, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm; Prachya Musikasinthorn, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand; Peter K. L. Ng, Department of Zoology and Raffles Museum, National University of Singapore; Rohan Pethiyagoda, World Heritage Trust, Columbo, Sri Lanka; the late Guy Teugels, Musee Royale de l‘Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium; and Hiroshi Ueda, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, for providing helpful information on snakehead taxonomy, distribution, and ecology; Nina Bogutskaya of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, for records, literature, and field collection information on channids in Russia and the former Soviet Union; Fang Fang, Swedish Museum of Natural History, and Ping Zhuang, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai, for their comments on snakehead culture in China; Jim Cambray, Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa; Karsten Hartel and James Stephen Lee, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Robert Howells, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Heart of the Hills Research Station, Ingram, Texas; Paul Loiselle, New York Aquarium, Brooklyn, New York; Ted Pietsch and Margarita Reimer, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Richard Rosenblatt, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, California; Paul Shafland, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Boca Raton, Florida; Leo Smith, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York; Franklin (Buck) Snelson, Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida; Ross B. Socolof, Bradenton, Florida; Wayne Starnes, North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, North Carolina; John Sunada, California Department of Fish and Game, San Bernardino, California; Camm Swift, Arcadia, California; and Michael Williams, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Blaine, Washington, for input on specimens collected or confiscated and/or general information; and Gerald R. Allen, Western Australian Museum, Perth; Robert K. Hamilton, Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Maryland; Phil Hastings, Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Prachya Musikasinthorn; Peter Ng; Rohan Pethiyagoda; Heok Hui Tan, National University of Singapore; the late Guy Teugels; Mark Sabaj, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Jrg Vierke, Husum, Germany, for permission to examine and/or use photographs and illustrations. Without their help, this effort would not have been possible.
Special thanks to Disney Publishing Worldwide, Disney Enterprises, Inc., for permission to use the illustrations in figure 1, and to Jean-Francois Helias of Fishing Adventures Thailand, for use of photographs of snakeheads caught by anglers in Thailand and Malaysia. Tom Darden, Governors office, Annapolis, Maryland, also provided several photos.
We also acknowledge Steve Early and Bob Lunsford, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, Maryland, for keeping us advised on the northern snakehead introduction and eradication in Crofton, Anne Arundel County.
Our thanks to many others for their assistance in providing information, including David Casey, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife, Frankfort, Kentucky; Vi Catrow, USGS, Leetown, West Virginia; Bill Chang, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.; Domingo Cravalho, Jr., Hawaii Department of Agriculture, Honolulu, Hawaii; Richard Feeney, Los Angleles County Museum, Los Angeles, California; Bill Foreman, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Inland Fisheries Division, Hartford, Connecticut; Pam Fuller, USGS, Gainesville, Florida; Bob Howells; Brett Houdyshell, Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, Kansas; Keith Johnson, Idaho Department of Game and Fish, Boise, Idaho; Deborah Koo, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia; John McCosker, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California; Tom Nesler, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Colorado; Jim Peterson, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Great Falls, Montana; Tyson Roberts, California Academy of Sciences; Robert H. Robins, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida; Beth Rogers, Maryland Department of Natural Resources; Dal Schaefer, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Colorado; Karl J. Scheidegger and Joseph Hennessy, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin; Russell Wong, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Raleigh, North Carolina; and Mike Yamamoto, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Special thanks go to Leo Nico, USGS, Gainesville, Florida, for providing several important references, hand-carrying snakehead specimens to us from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, and for his encouragement. For loans of preserved specimens, we thank David Catania, California Academy of Sciences; Barry Chernoff, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois; Ron Englund, Bernice P. Bishop Museum; Karsten Hartel; and Mel Stiassny, American Museum of Natural History.
Support for this research was provided by Interagency Grant Agreement 94400-1-0100 from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Scientific Authority and Fisheries Management and Division of Environmental Quality, Branch of Invasive Species, Washington, D.C. Pam Hall, Sharon Gross, and Kari Duncan, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, provided snakehead import data and information of Service policy on non-native fishes. Pingfu Chen, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, assisted with translation of some Chinese literature. Ken Sulak, USGS, Gainesville, Florida, and James Joeriman, Department of Romance Languages and Literature, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, provided translation assistance of some Russian literature. Sherry L. Bostick, USGS, Gainesville, Florida, assisted greatly with illustrations, manuscript assembly, and mapping modification; and Britton Wilson, U.S. National Park Service, Homestead, Florida, prepared the basic distribution maps when she was with the USGS in Gainesville. Julie Mounts, Division of Fishes, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., assisted in obtaining original descriptions of several species of snakeheads. Susan Trammell, Archer, Florida, created the illustration of the northern snakehead that appears on the cover.
Finally, we thank the members of the Risk Assessment and Management Committee of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force for their review and comments on an earlier version of the manuscript: Richard Orr, Chairperson, U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Riverdale, Maryland; Jim Andreasen, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.; Shawn Alam, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, Virginia; Fred Kern, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service, Oxford, Maryland; Marshall Myers, Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council, Washington, D.C.; Edwin Theriot, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experimental Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi; and Paul Zajicek, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, Florida. Our gratitude is also extended to Ralf Britz, Carter R. Gilbert, University of Florida, Robert Howells, Peter Ng, and Hoek Hui Tan for their careful evaluation and comments on the manuscript.
Our sincere apologies to those we may have overlooked.
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