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Table 1. continued
Monitoring programs can target each type of distributional pattern or habitat listed below, depending upon the objectives of the researchers and the funds and personnel available. For example, whereas a few people can easily monitor the status of the Southern Zigzag Salamander, a much more elaborate protocol will be necessary to monitor populations of the Southern Red-backed Salamander. A number of these species are syntopic, making multispecies monitoring a realistic objective. As much as possible, single species sampling and monitoring should be avoided in favor of multispecies sampling and data recording. Some examples of typical distribution patterns follow:
Species restricted in distribution
Southern Zigzag Salamander (Plethodon ventralis).
Wide ranging, but not common, species
Southern Appalachian Salamander (Plethodon oconaluftee).
Species that are common and wide ranging at higher elevations
Pigmy Salamander (Desmognathus wrighti); Jordan’s Salamander (Plethodon jordani); Southern Gray-cheeked Salamander (Plethodon metcalfi).
Species that are common and wide ranging at lower elevations
Northern Slimy Salamander (Plethodon glutinosus); Southern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon serratus).
Creek and stream salamanders have larvae that develop in the creeks and streams of the Park (figs.10,11,12), whereas the adults may be aquatic, semi-aquatic, or even terrestrial to a greater or lesser degree. Many of these species are widespread in the Park because of the large number of creeks and streams available for colonization. A few species are found only at higher mountain elevations (for example, the Ocoee and Imitator Salamanders), whereas others are lowland species (Spotted Dusky, Threelined, and Long-tailed Salamanders). Instead of a circumscribed area, their habitat is often linear, following the streams and streamsides.
Nearly aquatic species
Shovel-nosed Salamander (Desmognathus marmoratus).
Predominantly aquatic and streamside species
Spotted Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus conanti); Seal Salamander (Desmognathus monticola); Black-bellied Salamander (Desmognathus quadramaculatus);
Species with aquatic larvae but are largely terrestrial as adults
Imitator Salamander (Desmognathus imitator); Ocoee Salamander (Desmognathus ocoee); Three-lined Salamander (Eurycea guttolineata); Long-tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda); Blue Ridge Twolined Salamander (Eurycea wilderae).
A few salamanders require very specialized habitats in the Great Smokies, or at least are usually found in these habitats. Some of these species have larvae which are found in the same streams and creeks as the preceding species, although the adults prefer to
Cave inhabitants (fig. 13)
Cave Salamander (Eurycea lucifuga).
Known only from Stupkas Cave, the Calf caves, and one record from Whiteoak Sink. Other salamanders in the Smokies may live in caves, especially around the entrances (Dodd and others, 2001). The larvae of some salamanders (for example, E. longicauda in Gregorys Cave) develop in pools well inside cave passages (fig. 14).
Rock face inhabitants (fig. 15)
Spotted Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus conanti); Seal Salamander (Desmognathus monticola).
Permanent to near permanent wet rock walls with hiding places, particularly along trails, road cuts, and in the vicinity of waterfalls, especially at lower elevations.
Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus); Black-chinned Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber).
Inhabitants of swampy and mucky habitats (fig. 16)
Mud Salamander (Pseudotriton montanus). Known only from a few scattered locations in the lowlands of the northern side of the Park.
Inhabitants of wet seepages (fig. 17)
Seepage Salamander (Desmognathus aeneus).
Known only from drainages on the southwestern side of the Park. Finally, there are salamanders that breed in ponds, and it is virtually only at this time that these species can be censused. Five species fall into this category: the Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum); Marbled Salamander (A. opacum); the rare Mole Salamander (A. talpoideum); Four-toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum); and Eastern Red-spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens). Breeding ponds are limited within the Park,
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