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Development Prototype: Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

Puget Sound

The greater Puget Sound region is bounded on the west and east by the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges and by the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the north to Olympia in the south. Thousands of streams and rivers drain this total land area of about 35,500 km2 into Puget Sound, designated by the USEPA as an Estuary of National Significance. This region is experiencing significant population growth and development pressures. In 2005 the Puget Sound Basin had approximately 4.4 million people, a 25% increase from 1991, and the population is expected to grow to 4.7 to 6.1 million residents by 2025 (WOFM 2005).

Because of an abrupt gradient in topography and bathymetry in Puget Sound, only a narrow fringe of vegetated shoreline habitat exists where light can penetrate the water (Sound Science 2007). Yet this nearshore zone, encompassing 4000 km of shoreline, represents one of the highest areas of primary productivity in the region, which drives valuable shellfish, fisheries, and recreation industries (Gelfenbaum et al. 2006). The Puget Sound nearshore performs critical ecosystem functions and supports Valued Ecosystem Components (VECs) (Leschine and Petersen 2007) by providing the substrate for eelgrass and kelp, supporting shellfish production, rearing and migration for juvenile salmon, and spawning habitat for forage fish (see PSNERP VEC publications Fresh 2006, Penttila 2007, Mumford 2007, and Dethier 2006 http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_reports.htm).

Puget Sound project area
Puget Sound project area

References

Dethier, M. N. 2006. Native shellfish in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2006-04. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington. http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_papers/shellfish.pdf

Fresh, K. L. 2006. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2006-06. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington. http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_papers/pacjuv_salmon.pdf

Gelfenbaum, G., T. Mumford, J. Brennan, H. Case, M. Detheir, K. Fresh, F. Goetz, M. van Heeswijk, T. M. Leschine, M. Logsdon, D. Myers, J. Newton, H. Shipman, C.A. Simenstad, C. Tanner, and D. Woodson. 2006. Coastal habitats in Puget Sound: a research plan in support of the Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2006-1. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey, Seattle, WA. http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_papers/coastal_habitats.pdf

Leschine, T.M., and A.W. Petersen. 2007. Valuing Puget Sound’s Valued Ecosystem Components. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-07. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington. http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_papers/social_values.pdf

Mumford, T. F. 2007. Kelp and Eelgrass in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-05. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, WA. http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_papers/kelp.pdf

Penttila, D. 2007. Marine Forage Fishes in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-03. Published by Seattle District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington. http://www.pugetsoundnearshore.org/technical_papers/marine_fish.pdf

Sound Science: Synthesizing ecological and socioeconomic information about the Puget Sound ecosystem. 2007. Mary H. Ruckleshaus and Michelle M. McClure, coordinators; prepared in cooperation with the Sound Science collaborative team. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NMFS), Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Seattle, WA. 93 pp. http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/shared/sound_science/documents/SoundScience07.pdf

Washington State Office of Financial Management. 2005. Washington State Data Book. OFM Forecasting Division, Olympia, WA. http://www.ofm.wa.gov/pop/default.asp

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