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The History and Effects of Exotic Species in San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay Project, Water Resources Division
J. Thompson, F. Parchaso, A. Alpine, J. Cloern, B. Cole, O. Mace, J. Edmunds, J. Baylosis, S. Luoma, F. Nichols
What have the exotic species done?
Click on any photo to see larger images.
Damage from Atlantic ShipwormThe Atlantic Shipworm (Teredo navalis), introduced in 1913, resulted in $3.1 billion (in today's dollars) in damage to wooden structures on the Bay between 1919 and 1921. Girl with Striped BassStriped Bass was first introduced in 1879 and was commercially harvested from 1889 until 1935. It is estimated to bring the Bay Area economies about $45 million annually.
Isopod Sphaeroma quoyanumThe isopod Sphaeroma quoyanum, introduced in 1893, burrows into the mud banks and thus increases the erosion rate of the salt marsh. MudsnailThe Eastern Mudsnail, introduced in 1901-07, forced the native Horn Snail from the mudflats and into the hypersaline salt marsh ponds.

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