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1940 Greater Everglades and South Florida Aerial Photoset
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1940 Greater Everglades and South Florida Aerial Photoset


Methodology

Photographs were cataloged individually into Everglades Historical Aerial Photographic Database. Attribute information about each photograph was recorded, including identity, content, condition as well as general information about the flight and the photography.

Photographs were scanned using UMAX Mirage II Scanner: Scan resolution of optical 800 dpi; final radiometric resolution of 8-bit per channel; true color (RGB) compatibility; TIFF format output. Two images which were inadvertently scanned as grayscale are noted in the 'oddities' section below.

Scanned images were rectified using Erdas Imagine 8.7. Rectification process followed protocol developed in house and described in the report 'Guidelines for quality checking of digital ortho imagery, Issue 2.0.' Images were rectified with image to image rectification, using basemaps derived from digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQs). The DOQQs were from a statewide set flown in 1995 and available for download from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Land Boundary Information System (LABINS) website. These images were mosaicked into basemaps of four quadrangles, resampled to 2 meter pixel resolution and reprojected as UTM Zone 17 North. For a few images, the 1995 basemap images were unavailable or unusable and were rectified to a 1999 DOQQ. These are listed in the 'oddities' section below.

To register the historic images, a first-order polynomial geometric model was used. Due to a variety of possible factors, such as the age and warping of the original media and irregularities of the camera (about which we had no information) or the flight, we found that a second-order polynomial model improved overall edge matching in some cases. Those images that used a second order polynomial geometric transformation model are listed in the section called 'oddities' below.

Operators manually selected 10 to 15 tie points per image scattered evenly throughout the image. In some cases additional tie points were subsequently added automatically using the prediction function of Imagine. In all cases the total RMSE for the transformation model was well below a threshold of 0.25. Following the selection of tie points, images were resampled to 1 meter pixel resolution using a bilinear interpolation method. The resulting image was checked with respect to edge matching in a geographic data viewer (ESRI ArcMap 8.3).

Once the operator was satisfied the image was properly registered and appeared to match up with its neighbors, the edges of the image were cropped using a subset function. All images, with the exception of 3 (listed in the 'oddities' section below) were subset to a square of 7500 pixels and saved in their final file format as geotiff files.

Oddities

There are 1401 images that were known to have existed in the 1940s set of aerial photography. Of these, we were able to locate and scan 920 distinct images. Of these images, we were able to rectify 793 images. The following tables list the 127 images that were not rectified and the 79 rectified images that violated our protocol in one way or another. We also give a brief description of the nature of the problem.

Table 1. List of 127 images that were not rectified due to various problems.
NO. IMAGE # PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
1. 06_122 LANDSCAPE TRANS
2. 06_123 LANDSCAPE TRANS
3. 07_031 LANDSCAPE TRANS
4. 07_036 LANDSCAPE TRANS
5. 07_043 LANDSCAPE TRANS
6. 07_044 LANDSCAPE TRANS
7. 10_104 LANDSCAPE TRANS
8. 10_105 LANDSCAPE TRANS
9. 10_173 LANDSCAPE TRANS
10. 10_174 LANDSCAPE TRANS
11. 10_175 LANDSCAPE TRANS
12. 10_176 LANDSCAPE TRANS
13. 11_103 LANDSCAPE TRANS
14. 11_104 LANDSCAPE TRANS
15. 11_105 LANDSCAPE TRANS
16. 11_106 LANDSCAPE TRANS
17. 11_107 LANDSCAPE TRANS
18. 15_071 LANDSCAPE TRANS
19. 15_074 LANDSCAPE TRANS
20. 15_075 LANDSCAPE TRANS
21. 15_076 LANDSCAPE TRANS
22. 15_077 LANDSCAPE TRANS
23. 15_115 LANDSCAPE TRANS
24. 15_116 LANDSCAPE TRANS
25. 15_117 LANDSCAPE TRANS
26. 15_118 LANDSCAPE TRANS
27. 10_007 LOW RES IMAGE
28. 10_008 LOW RES IMAGE
29. 05_036 LOW RES IMAGE
30. 05_037 LOW RES IMAGE
31. 15_059 LOW RES IMAGE
32. 06_090 NOT ON MAP
33. 06_091 NOT ON MAP
34. 06_092 NOT ON MAP
35. 06_093 NOT ON MAP
36. 06_094 NOT ON MAP
37. 10_118 NOT ON MAP
38. 12_088 NOT ON MAP
39. 12_089 NOT ON MAP
40. 12_090 NOT ON MAP
41. 10_111 OMMISSION
42. 10_172 OMMISSION
43. 15_095 OMMISSION
44. 09_095 OMMISSION
45. 09_096 OMMISSION
46. 09_099 OMMISSION
47. 10_117 OMMISSION
48. 12_121 OMMISSION
49. 14_165 WARPED IMAGE
50. 01_096 Sugar Cane
51. 01_097 Sugar Cane
52. 01_098 Sugar Cane
53. 01_099 Sugar Cane
54. 01_100 Sugar Cane
55. 01_101 Sugar Cane
NO. IMAGE # PROBLEM DESCRIPTION (cont.)
56. 01_102 Sugar Cane
57. 01_103 Sugar Cane
58. 01_104 Sugar Cane
59. 01_105 Sugar Cane
60. 01_106 Sugar Cane
61. 01_107 Sugar Cane
62. 01_108 Sugar Cane
63. 01_109 Sugar Cane
64. 01_110 Sugar Cane
65. 07_015 Sugar Cane
66. 07_016 Sugar Cane
67. 07_017 Sugar Cane
68. 07_018 Sugar Cane
69. 07_019 Sugar Cane
70. 07_020 Sugar Cane
71. 07_052 Sugar Cane
72. 07_053 Sugar Cane
73. 07_054 Sugar Cane
74. 07_055 Sugar Cane
75. 07_056 Sugar Cane
76. 07_057 Sugar Cane
77. 07_059 Sugar Cane
78. 07_060 Sugar Cane
79. 07_061 Sugar Cane
80. 07_062 Sugar Cane
81. 07_063 Sugar Cane
82. 07_064 Sugar Cane
83. 08_015 Sugar Cane
84. 08_016 Sugar Cane
85. 08_017 Sugar Cane
86. 08_018 Sugar Cane
87. 08_032 Sugar Cane
88. 08_033 Sugar Cane
89. 08_034 Sugar Cane
90. 08_035 Sugar Cane
91. 08_036 Sugar Cane
92. 08_037 Sugar Cane
93. 08_038 Sugar Cane
94. 08_039 Sugar Cane
95. 08_040 Sugar Cane
96. 08_041 Sugar Cane
97. 08_042 Sugar Cane
98. 14_026 Sugar Cane
99. 14_027 Sugar Cane
100. 14_028 Sugar Cane
101. 14_029 Sugar Cane
102. 14_033 Sugar Cane
103. 14_034 Sugar Cane
104. 14_035 Sugar Cane
105. 14_036 Sugar Cane
106. 14_037 Sugar Cane
107. 14_038 Sugar Cane
108. 06_027 WATER
109. 06_074 WATER
110. 06_075 WATER
NO. IMAGE # PROBLEM DESCRIPTION (cont.)
111. 09_161 WATER
112. 09_163 WATER
113. 09_164 WATER
114. 09_165 WATER
115. 09_166 WATER
116. 10_038 WATER
117. 10_039 WATER
118. 10_140 WATER
119. 11_140 WATER
120. 14_080 WATER
121. 14_151 WATER
122. 14_152 WATER
123. 14_156 WATER
124. 15_040 WATER
125. 15_158 WATER
126. 15_159 WATER
127. 17_117 WATER

Table 2. List of 79 rectification protocol violations.
NO. IMAGE # DESC. OF VIOLATION
1. 09_019 RECT. TO 1999DOQQ
2. 09_018 RECT. TO 1999DOQQ
3. 09_017 RECT. TO 1999DOQQ
4. 09_016 RECT. TO 1999DOQQ
5. 09_015 RECT. TO 1999DOQQ
6. 01_095 RECT. TO 1999DOQQ
7. 15_020 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
8. 15_021 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
9. 15_022 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
10. 15_023 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
11. 15_024 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
12. 10_019 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
13. 10_020 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
14. 10_021 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
15. 09_181 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
16. 09_182 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
17. 09_184 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
18. 09_185 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
19. 09_186 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
20. 09_187 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
21. 09_188 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
22. 15_017 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
23. 15_018 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
24. 15_019 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
25. 09_183 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
26. 14_095 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
27. 14_097 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
28. 14_098 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
29. 14_099 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
30. 14_100 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
31. 14_101 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
32. 14_103 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
33. 15_034 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
34. 15_036 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
35. 15_037 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
36. 15_038 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
37. 09_172 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
38. 09_173 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
39. 10_026 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
40. 10_027 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
NO. IMAGE # DESC. OF VIOLATION (cont.)
41. 10_028 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
42. 10_029 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
43. 10_030 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
44. 10_031 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
45. 10_032 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
46. 10_033 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
47. 10_034 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
48. 10_035 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
49. 10_036 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
50. 10_037 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
51. 09_174 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
52. 09_175 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
53. 09_176 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
54. 09_168 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
55. 09_169 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
56. 09_170 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
57. 09_171 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
58. 09_167 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
59. 15_162 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
60. 15_163 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
61. 15_164 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
62. 15_165 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
63. 06_019 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
64. 06_020 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
65. 06_021 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
66. 06_035 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
67. 06_037 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
68. 14_143 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
69. 14_144 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
70. 14_145 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
71. 14_166 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
72. 14_167 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
73. 05_039 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
74. 09_177 LANDSCAPE 2nd ORD POLY TRANS
75. 17_106 NOT STANDARD SIZE
76. 09_162 NOT STANDARD SIZE
77. 10_193 NOT STANDARD SIZE
78. 14_024 GRAYSCALE
79. 14_032 GRAYSCALE

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Last updated:15 January, 2013 @ 12:42 PM(KP)