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Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades Project Database

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Cynthia Gilmour, Smithsonian Estuarine Research Center
Originator: David Krabbenhoft, USGS Middleton, WI
Originator: William Orem, USGS Reston, VA
Originator: George Aiken, USGS Boulder , CO
Publication_Date: 2012
Title: Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades Project Database
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Maps and Data
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/acme>
Description:
Abstract:
Between 1995 and 2008, the Aquatic Mercury Cycling in the Everglades (ACME) project examined in detail the biogeochemical parameters that influence methylmercury (MeHg) production in the Florida Everglades. The interdisciplinary ACME team studied Hg cycling in the Everglades through a process-based, biogeochemical lens (Hurley et al. 1998). In the Everglades, as in most other ecosystems, inorganic mercury is transformed into methylmercury primarily by the action of anaerobic bacteria in surficial sediments and soils.
The ACME project has been a collaborative research effort designed to understand the biogeochemical drivers of mercury cycling in the Greater Florida Everglades. The project is led be a team of scientists from the USGS and the Smithsonian Institution, with additional collaborators from the University of Wisconsin, Texas A&M, the SFWMD and FL DEP.
ACME’s main objective has been to define the key processes that control the fate and transport of Hg in the Everglades. The study has used a process-oriented, multi-disciplinary approach, focusing on a suite of intensively-studied sites across the trophic gradient of the Water Conservation Areas and Everglades National Park. Since 1995, a core set of sites has been examined in detail through time, including changes in season and in hydrology. The biogeochemical parameters examined focus on those that impact net methylmercury (MeHg) production, and include sulfur, carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry. The study examined Hg and MeHg concentrations, and associated biogeochemical parameters in surface waters, soils, periphyton, emergent plants and biota. The core study sites have been supplemented with survey data across many additional sites in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. The field study was also supplemented with experimental studies of Hg complexation, photochemistry, and bioavailability. The ACME project has been funded by a variety of agencies including the USGS, NSF, EPA, SFWMD and FL DEP.
Purpose:
In the mid-1990’s, the State of Florida began to recognize elevated MeHg accumulation in Everglades fish. Concentrations of MeHg in fish posed health risks to people utilizing that resource, and bioaccumulation of MeHg posed risks to fish, wading birds, and mammals in the ecosystem. ACME was designed to evaluate the processes that led to excessive net MeHg production and bioaccumulation in parts of the Everglades.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1995
Ending_Date: 200809
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
The ACME project included core long term study sites in WCA1 (LNWR), WCA2A, WCA2B, WCA3 and ENP. These sites were supplemented with over 300 additional survey sites in within the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, including additional sites in the WCAs and ENP, in the STAs, the Okeechobee drainage, Big Cypress, canals surrounding the Everglades, Florida Bay, and mangrove systems in ENP and Indian River.
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.6
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.1
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 27.6
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Mercury
Theme_Keyword: methylmercury
Theme_Keyword: Greater Everglades Ecosystem
Theme_Keyword: sulfur
Theme_Keyword: dissolved organic matter
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: Environment
Theme_Keyword: Inland waters
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Collier
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade
Place_Keyword: Monroe
Place_Keyword: St. Lucie
Place_Keyword: Martin
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach
Place_Keyword: Broward
Place_Keyword: Hendry
Place_Keyword: Glades
Place_Keyword: Okeechobee
Place_Keyword: Highlands
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Info System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Cite primary authors and database when using or publishing these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Cynthia Gilmour
Contact_Organization: Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 647 Contees Wharf Rd
City: Edgewater
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 21037
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 443-482-2498
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gilmourc@si.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
The ACME project has been funded by a variety of agencies including the USGS, NSF, EPA, SFWMD and FL DEP.
Project personnel included:
USGS Middleton: David Krabbenhoft, John DeWild, Randy Hunt, Michael Tate, Mark Olson.
USGS Reston: William Orem, Terry Lerch, Anne Bates, Margo Corum, Marissa Beck, Palma Botterell, Matthew Varonka, Cheryl Hedgman, Ann Boylan
USGS Boulder: George Aiken, Michael Reddy, Kenna Butler, Paul Schuster
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center: Cynthia Gilmour, Georgia Riedel, Tyler Bell, Gerhardt Riedel, Jani Benoit, Melissa Ederington-Hagy, Mark Ward, Jane Kostenko, Evan Malczyk, Carrie Miller
USGS Menlo Park: Mark Marvin-DiPasquale, Ronald Oremland
University of Wisconsin: James Hurley, Lisa Cleckner, Sue King
University of Maryland: Andrew Heyes
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: Paul Garrison
The ACME team thanks their many collaborators including:
USGS: Judd Harvey, Carol Kendall, Georgiana Wingard, Debra Willard
SFWMD: Sue Newman, Paul McCormick, Larry Fink, Mark Gabriel, Ben Ghu
University of Connecticut: Robert Mason
Texas A&M: Gary Gill
Florida Gulf Coast University: Darren Rumbold
Louisiana State University: Irv Mendelssohn
University of Florida: Alan Wright
Everglades Foundation: Juliana Corrales, Melodie Naja
Florida Atlantic University: Dale Gawlik, William Louda
US EPA: Dan Scheidt, Peter Kalla
The ACME team thanks the USGS, SFWMD, LNWR and ENP for logistical support during the study.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Online database. Comma-separated value (csv) and/or tab-delimited files can be downloaded imported into most spreadsheet programs

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Unavailable
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Data collected include water, pore water and soil chemistry data, plus some microbial rate measurements, for multiple sites in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Site types focused on marsh sites in sloughs, but also included canals, mangrove systems, rivers and Lake Okeechobee. The full parameter list is given in the parameter table. The site list is given in the sites table. Not all sites have data for all parameters. On any given sampling, samples were generally collected at one time during daylight hours, although replicate samples were often collected.
Completeness_Report:
Data were collected from more than 300 sites on more than 100 dates over the course of the study. Not all sites were sampled on all dates, nor were data collected for all parameters at all sites. Sampling sites and dates varied over the course of the study. A core set of 10 intensively studied sites (WCA1LOX, ENR103, WCA2AF1, WCA2AU3, WCA2BS, WCA3A33, WCA3A15, WCA3ATH, ENPTS7 and ENPTS9) have the highest data density and the most complete set of parameters. These sites were sampled from one to 6 times per year over the course of the study.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Horizontal positions were established with the use of GPS equipment, often from multiple measurements and/or GPS units, and checked against GoogleEarth.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
Site Selection for Core Intensive Sites:
Sampling sites for intensive biogeochemical study were located along a rough north to south transect across most of the length of the freshwater Everglades, from Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in the north to Taylor Slough in Everglades National Park in the south (Figure 1; Supplemental Table 1 - coordinates). Sites were located in Water Conservation Areas, 1, 2A, 2B and 3A, which are large diked marshes that make up the remnant northern Everglades, and in Taylor Slough within Everglades National Park. A site in the Everglades Nutrient Removal (ENR) project was also monitored. The ENR was the original Stormwater Treatment Area (STA) for the greater Everglades, designed to remove phosphorus from Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) runoff before it enters the WCAs. The ENR site was chosen as both as a high nutrient end point in the gradient, and as part of a larger investigation into how Hg will behave in re-created nutrient-removal wetlands.
In general, sites were chosen to represent the gradients in nutrient and sulfur concentration, and the accompanying gradients in vegetation and food web structure that are found across the Everglades ecosystem. All of the intensive ACME sampling sites were located in sloughs or relatively open areas of emergent vegetation, often along the margins of stands of sawgrass or cattails.
The number of study sites increased over the course of the study in response to the data collected and to answer specific research questions. Not all sites were sampled in all years. The first year of ACME research (1995), focused on the northern Everglades, especially nutrient-impacted Water Conservation Area 2 (WCA 2; Figure 1). Most of the water entering WCA-2A is derived from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). In 1995, water from the EAA was mainly discharged to the northeastern edge of WCA-2A from the Hillsborough Canal, through the S-10 control structures. This input created a strong north-to-south gradient in nutrient and sulfur concentrations, and in plant community structure across WCA-2A (DeBusk et al. 1994). The most visible change has been the invasion and spread of cattail (Typha sp.) that over the past two decades has replaced sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) as the dominant species in the northern region of WCA-2A (Jensen et al. 1995). In 1995, intensive biogeochemical sampling was done at sites WCA2A-F1 and WCA2A-U3, both along nutrient transects established by the SFWMD; at a site in southern WCA2 (site WCA2BS), a site in ENR (ENR 103), and two sites in WCA3A (3A33 and 3A15) (Gilmour et al. 1998; Hurley et al. 1998; Krabbenhoft et al. 1998). Sites were sampled between one and four times in 1995.
From 1996 through 1998, the ACME study continued bi- to tri-annual intensive study of Hg cycling at the original sites, plus added additional sites in oligotrophic, low-sulfate areas of the Everglades, freshwater Taylor Slough in Everglades National Park (sites ENP-TS7 and ENP-TS9), and a site in central Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge and another in southern WCA3A (3ATH). Our objective in adding sites was to examine patterns in MeHg production and bioaccumulation in oligotrophic portions of the system, for comparison with the northern, more nutrient-impacted areas. Sampling of all sites continued through 2008, although sampling frequency declined somewhat after 2000 and not all sites were sampled in all years.
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Sampling Methods:
Study sites were accessed by helicopter or airboat, and visited in different seasons under a variety of hydrologic conditions. On each trip, surface waters, soil, and soil porewater were collected simultaneously at each site. Other important matrices, generally including algal mats, benthic infauna and small fish, were also collected. Basic field parameters like DO, temperature, and water depth were recorded.
Non-contaminating, Hg clean techniques were used through all stages of sample collection, storage, handling and analysis. Samples were collected using methods that minimized contamination through the use of clean sampling equipment, sample containers, gloves, and plastic bags to prevent sample contact with unclean surfaces. Sample integrity was carefully maintained throughout the sampling process, from field collection to delivery of samples to the laboratory. All samples were stored away from sunlight to limit the effects of photo-reduction and photo-demethylation,, biological activity and assure sample integrity. Samples were individually numbered and tracked by each participating laboratory.
Surface water measurements included T-Hg and MeHg, anions, dissolved Fe and Mn, pH, ANC, DOC, sulfide, sulfite, thiosulfate, nutrients, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved phosphorous, and base cations. Water sampling methods are described in detail on the USGS Mercury Lab website (<http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab/collecting.html>). To summarize, gloved personnel collected surface water samples directly into sample bottles appropriate to each analysis. For Hg analyses, the type of bottle used evolved over the course of the study, beginning with rigorously acid-cleaned Teflon bottles. As clean manufacturing techniques began to provide Hg-clean bottles off the shelf, water samples were collected in glass, and later in PETG bottles. In all cases bottle blanks were used intensively to evaluate contribution from bottles. Unfiltered, filtered and particulate samples were collected. Redox-sensitive analytes like sulfide were filtered in the field using techniques to exclude air (samples collected underwater without headspace, and syringe filtered directly into preservative buffer). Raw water samples were collected for Hg and other analyses in large volume (1-2 L) and placed on ice for clean filtration in the field lab later the same day.
For bulk water filtration, samples were filtered by vacuum-desiccator filtration with a modified Savillex® PFA/PFTE filtration assembly attached. Samples were filtered through 47-mm 0.7-µm pre-combusted and pre-weighed quartz-fiber filters. Sample volumes were measured gravimetrically. Details are provided in the USGS manual for low-level Hg sampling (<http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/pdf/5.6.4.B_v1.0.pdf>). Filters loaded with particulate samples were immediately frozen on dry ice in Hg-clean petri dishes.
Soil parameters measured included T-Hg, MeHg, elemental content, solid phase sulfur species, organic matter content, bulk density and porosity. Short sediment cores were collected by hand pushing clear 20 cm long 5 or 7 cm diameter clear PVC tubes into the sediment. Cores included whatever material was in place including plants, periphyton, the surficial floc layer, and underlying peat. Longer cores were collected by piston coring (Orem et al. 1997). The cores were transported back to the field lab for processing within a few hours of sampling. Core used for microbial rates measurement were held in coolers filled with site water to maintain the core temperatures. Core used for chemical analyses were immediately iced.
Soils were sectioned for analysis, generally at 2 cm intervals. Most of the MeHg production activity in Everglades soils occurs in the top few cm (Gilmour et al. 1998), and so in this report we focus on the top 4 cm of soil. In all cases, this section included the algal mat, calcareous floc layer or detritus that was present at the surface of the soil. These are often the most active layers of Hg cycling (Cleckner et al. 1999).
Replicate depth profiles of soil parameters were made on each date at each site. Often, additional samples from the top 4 cm of soil were analyzed to improve statistical comparisons among sites. All data shown represent averages of measurements made from replicate cores at each site on any given date.
Soil interstitial waters (pore waters) were collected by multiple methods for the ACME study. Porewater measurements included T-Hg and MeHg, anions, dissolved Fe and Mn, pH, ANC, DOC, sulfide, sulfite, thiosulfate, nutrients, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved phosphorous, and base cations.
For detailed depth profiles, porewaters were extracted by sectioning and filtering soil cores; or using squeeze cores for longer profiles. For evaluation of pore waters on slightly wider intervals, sippers were deployed in the field. The sectioned cores and squeeze cores provide detailed depth profiles while the sippers provide broad spatial coverage, and higher sample volumes. The data collected correlated well between sampling methods.
To collect pore water profiles from soil cores, multiple soil cores were collected at each site, by hand, as above, and returned to the field lab on ice for processing with a few hours. Cores were sectioned in an O2-free environment in a Coy® anaerobic glove bag. The overlying water was removed and the cores were extruded vertically, sliced at 2 cm intervals over the first 8 cm and at 4 cm intervals to 16 cm. The sediment slices were placed 0.45 μm cellulose nitrate Nalgene® filter housings and porewater extracted under light (<10 psi) vacuum. For Hg analyses, filters were acid-washed and DI rinsed. Filter blanks were created by filtering low-Hg DI/RO water through the filter housings before use.
Marsh soils for squeezing were collected by piston coring, using methods described previously (Orem et al. 1997). Filtered pore-water (0.4 μm) was collected for non-Hg analyses at various depths downcore by squeezing into airtight plastic syringes through lateral ports in the coring cylinder. Sipper samples were taken using a Teflon sipper and battery-powered Geo-pump. Porewater samples were filtered using an in-line Teflon filter holders containing pre-ashed, glass fiber filter pack (0.7 mm). (0.45 mm).
Hg methylation rate measurements in intact soil cores. Hg methylation rates were estimated by injecting 203Hg or 201Hg at near-tracer concentrations into intact cores as described in Gilmour and Riedel (1995). Methylation measurements were made within a few hours of core sampling, at the in situ sediment temperature, in the dark. Most of the water overlying the core was replaced with fresh site water to maintain chemical gradients. Samples of surface and overlying water were taken to check that sulfate had not been depleted. Core incubation times ranged from 30 min to 6 h, depending on temperature. Incubation times were selected to minimize depletion of sulfate, and to stay with the linear part of the MeHg production curve. Time course measurements of MeHg production were made at the beginning of the study to assess linearity (Gilmour et al. 1998). In both cases, the Hg spike was equilibrated in site water for an hour prior to use.
From 1995- 1998, the methylation rate constant was calculated based on the fraction of in 203Hg converted to Me203Hg. High specific-activity 203HgCl2 was produced for this work by custom synthesis from 202Hg(II)O obtained from Oak Ridge National Labs. Isotope processing was performed by the Buffalo Materials Research, Center, Buffalo, NY. Me203Hg was measured using extraction and gamma counting (Gilmour et al. 1998).
From 2000 on, methylation rate constants were estimated using enriched Hg stable isotopes (Mitchell et al. 2008, Hollweg et al. 2009). Enriched 201Hg (98.11% purity) was obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. On average 203Hg and 201Hg spike additions increased the total Hg concentration in sediments by 0.5 – 2X. Me201Hg was analyzed directly using distillation/ethylation/GC/ICP-MS, using isotope dilution calibration methods (Mitchell and Gilmour 2008; Hollweg et al. 2009).
Methylation rate constants (kmeth) were determined from the formation rate of Me203Hg or Me201Hg from the measured amount of 203Hg or 201Hg in samples, as described in Hollweg et al. 2009. For both isotopes, the amount of isotope spike (203Hg or 201Hg) was measured directly in each sample, and used in the kmeth rate calculation. In the past, we have estimate methylation rates from kmeth, using the ambient total or porewater Hg concentration as substrate. However, experience has shown that neither pool adequately describes the bioavailable Hg substrate (e.g Gilmour and Riedel 1995; Krabbenhoft et al. 1998).
Detection limits for kmeth using radioactive 203Hg spikes were dependent on the carryover of inorganic 203Hg during extraction, and also any Me203Hg created as an analytical artifact during the extraction process. (Cleckner et al. 1999). Blanks and duplicates were determined at 10% of samples. The method detection limit (DL), based on three times the standard deviation of the blank, ranged from 0.0005 – 0.002 d-1. The average RPD for duplicate extractions was about 25%.
Detection limits for kmeth using stable 201Hg spikes were between 0.001 and 0.01 d-1, using similar calculations as described in Mitchell and Gilmour (2008). For the stable isotope method, the detection limit is driven by the analytical precision of the isotope ratio measurement, and the background concentration of MeHg in soils. For laboratory analysis of ambient Hg standards over two years, the average relative standard deviation of the ratio of 201:202-Hg was about 1.5%.
Replicate depth profiles of soil parameters were made on each date at each site. Often, additional rate measurements were made in the top 4 cm of soil. All data shown represent averages of measurements made from all replicate cores at each site on any given date.
Sulfate-reduction rates: Dissimilatory sulfate-reduction was measured by the reduction of tracer 35SO4 spiked into intact sediment cores at 1 cm intervals (Fossing and Jorgensen 1989), as described in detail in Gilmour et al. 1998. Carrier-free 35SO4 was used in all measurements. Incubation times ranged from 30 min to 6 h, depending on temperature. Time course measurements of SRR were made at the beginning of the study to assess linearity (Gilmour et al. 1998). Incubations were terminated by extruding and sectioning cores at 2-4 cm intervals. Sections were placed in sample cups, spiked with ZnOAc to help preserve sulfide, then immediately quick-frozen on dry ice. Sulfate reduction into both acid-volatile (AVS) and chromium-reducible (CRS) reduced sulfur phases was analyzed and summed.
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Analytical Methods:
Mercury Methods: In general, Hg and MeHg analyses followed or were derived from standard published methods. Clean sampling and processing methods were strictly followed by the team. Hg and MeHg measurements were carried out at both USGS Middleton and SERC. Both labs participated in a number of inter-laboratory calibrations during the ACME study, including the Florida DEP program.
Aqueous Hg and MeHg: Surface water Hg and MeHg measurements were done at the USGS Middleton Hg lab. Water samples for both analyzes were preserved in 1% HCl and held cool and in the dark until analysis. THg analysis in water was done by CVAFS after BrCl oxidation and SnCl2 reduction following EPA Method 1631E (USEPA, 2002). Samples for MeHg were distilled, ethylated, and analyzed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Bloom, 1988; Horvat et al., 1993; Liang et al., 1994), using modified EPA Method 1630. After about 2000, ICP-MS detection supplanted CVAF for both analyses. Since about 2003, most ICP-MS analyses have been carried out via isotope dilution methods (Hintelmann and Orgrinc 2003). Detection limits for both MeHg and THg analysis were between 0.01 and 0.05 ng L-1. Matrix spike recoveries for MeHg and THg were generally >80% and >90%, respectively. Detailed methods are provided on the Wisconsin USGS web page: <http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab/analysis-methods.html>
Soil and periphyton Hg and MeHg: Soil and periphyton analyses were carried out at SERC. Samples were preserved frozen. Samples were mechanically homogenized under N2 prior to analysis. All sediment THg and MeHg analyses were performed on wet homogenized samples. Subsamples were used to determine dry weights and organic matter content. All THg and MeHg concentrations are expressed ng g-1 dry weight of Hg. For THg analysis, solid samples were digested in a 5:2 HNO3:H2SO4 warm reflux digestion, followed by BrCl. Analysis of Hg and MeHg in soils was done with detection by CVAF through 1999. After 2000, ICP-MS was substituted for CVAF. Isotope-dilution methods were implemented in about 2003 . Sample digests were analyzed for total Hg using EPA Method 1631e. Prior to 2000, THg analysis was carried out manually using bubblers and a lab-built purge and trap system (Gilmour et al. 1998). After 2000, an automated flow-injection system (Perkin Elmer) was substituted for bubblers, using the same chemistry (Mitchell et al. 2008, Hollweg et al. 2009). The detection limit for THg analysis in soils was roughly 0.01 ng gdw -1. SRM’s were analyzed at a rate of 20% of samples. The SRM’s primarily used were BEST (Beaufort Sea sediment, NRC, Canada), BCSS (estuarine sediment from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, NRC, Canada), MESS-2 and 1572. SRM recoveries were FILL. Matrix spike recoveries THg were analyzed at a frequency of 10-20%, and averaged 90-110% from 1995-1998 and 95-105% after 2000. The RPD of replicates sample and replicate matrix spikes decreased from 10-20% in samples analyzed between1995-1998 to 5-10% for samples analyzed after 2000. At SERC, MeHg was extracted from the sediment, periphyton and porewater by distillation (Horvat et al. 1993). The MeHg in the distillate was ethylated and purged from solution by UHP nitrogen and trapped on Tenax®. The Hg was released by flash heating the trap in a stream of argon, after which the mercury species were separated chromatographically and reduced to elemental mercury in a pyrolysis tube. MeHg was measured by atomic fluorescence, following EPA Method 1631E (USEPA, 2002). Prior to about 2005, MeHg analysis was carried out manually using bubblers and a lab-built purge and trap/GC system. Between 1995 and 1998, detection limits for MeHg in soils were between 0.005 and 0.01 ng gdw -1. Matrix spike recoveries MeHg in solids were analyzed at a frequency of 10-20%, and averaged 82±24 % between 1995 and 1998, and ADD newer. The RPD of replicates sample and matrix spikes decreased from 15-25% between1995-1998 to <10% for samples analyzed after 2000. No certified sediment SRM exists for MeHg and all existing tissue SRM’s are orders of magnitude higher than ambient sediment MeHg concentrations. In place we first used the BEST SRM, certified by Horvat et al. (1993) as being 160 ± 54 pg g-1. SRM’s were analyzed at a rate of 20% of samples. Over the 1995 to 1997 period, 80% of the SRM analyses fell within the certified range. From 1997 on, a lab-derived reference material was used. Recoveries generally ranged from 90-110%.
Pore water Hg and MeHg: Both USGS Middleton and SERC carried out pore water analyses, using methods described above. SERC detection limits for THg and MeHg in porewaters ranged between 0.005 and 0.05 ng L -1. Matrix spike recoveries were analyzed at a frequency of 10-20%, and averaged >90% for THg and >80% for MeHg in porewater. The RPD of replicate analysis of THg in samples or matrix spikes decreased from 10-20% in samples analyzed between1995-1998 to 5-10% for samples analyzed after 2000. The RPD of replicate analysis of MeHg in samples or matrix spikes decreased from 15-30% in samples analyzed between1995-1998 to <10% for samples analyzed after 2000.
Major anions including sulfate. Anions were collected and measured by both SERC and USGS Reston. Samples were filtered on the day of collection through 0.4 μm Nuclepore filters or 0.45 μm glass fiber filters, and stored refrigerated until analysis by ion chromatography. Anions were measured using ion chromatography, included nitrate, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, chloride, and bromide. Detection limits ranged from 1- 5 μM , depending on the analyte and the sample matrix. Nitrate, nitrite and phosphate were sometimes also analyzed by more sensitive analytical methods.
Dissolved organic carbon and SUVA. Samples were filtered on the day of collection through 0.4 μm Nuclepore filters or 0.45 μm glass fiber filters, and stored refrigerated until analysis at the USGS laboratory in Boulder, CO. DOC measurements were made using the Pt-catalyzed persulfate wet oxidation method on an OI Analytical Model 700 TOC Analyzer (Aiken 1992). Standard deviation for the DOC measurement was determined to be ± 0.2 mg C L-1. UV absorbance measurements at λ = 254 nm, a wavelength associated with the aromatic moieties in a sample (Chin et al. 1994) were made at room temperature on a Hewlett- Packard Model 8453 PhotoDiode array spectrophotometer utilizing a 1 cm path length quartz cell (standard deviation ±0.002). Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) was determined by dividing the UV absorbance measured at λ = 254 nm by the DOC concentration as described by Weishaar et al. (2003). SUVA values are reported in units of L mg C-1 m-1 and have a standard deviation of ± 0.0015 L mg C-1 m-1.
Other parameters. Samples for conductivity were taken in polycarbonate bottles, filtered using either 0.45 μm glass fiber or Gelman AquaPrep 600 capsule filters, and shipped on ice to the USGS laboratory in Boulder, CO. Conductivity was analyzed using standard methods (Amber Science Model 2052 Meter).
Sulfide concentrations were determined using ion specific electrode within 24 hrs of preservation in sulfide anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB; Brouwer & Murphy 1994). Samples for sulfide analysis were collected and filtered immediately into SAOB in the field without exposure to air. The SAOB buffer was prepared daily, using deoxygenated water. Sulfide was quantified using an ion-specific electrode and a sulfide standard curve made daily in SAOB. The method detection limit was about 100 nM, however, the error associated with replicate analysis increases rapidly below 1 μM.
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field and Lab
Methodology_Description:
Methodology References:
Aiken G. R, 1992, Chloride interference in the analysis of dissolved organic carbon by the wet oxidation method: Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 26, pp. 2435-2439.
Bates, A.L., W.H. Orem, H.E. Lerch, M.D. Corum and M. Beck. 2005. An Evaluation of a Field-Based Method to Prepare Fresh Water Samples for Analysis of Sulfite and Thiosulfate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1436, 21 pp.
Bates, A. L., Spiker, E. C., and Holmes, C. W. (1998). Speciation and isotopic composition of sedimentary sulfur in the Everglades, Florida, USA. Chemical Geology, 146, 155–170.
Bates, A. L., Orem, W. H., Harvey, J. W., and Spiker, E.C. (2002). Tracing sources of sulfur in the Florida Everglades. J. Environ. Qual., 31, 287–299.
Bates, A. L., Orem, W. H., Harvey, J. W., and Spiker, E. C. (2001). Geochemistry of Sulfur in the Florida Everglades: 1994 through 1999. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01–0007, 54 pp.
Bloom, N., and W. F. Fitzgerald. 1988. Determination of volatile mercury species at the picogram level by low-temperature gas-chromatography with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta 208:151-161.
Brouwer, H., and T. P. Murphy. 1994. Diffusion method for the determination of acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) in sediment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13:1273-1275.
Cleckner, L. B., C. C. Gilmour, J. P. Hurley, and D. P. Krabbenhoft. 1999. Mercury methylation in periphyton of the Florida Everglades. Limnology and Oceanography 44:1815-1825.
De Wild, J.F., Mark L. Olson, and Shane D. Olund. 2005. Determination of Methyl Mercury by Aqueous Phase Ethylation, Followed by Gas Chromatographic Separation with Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Detection. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open-File Report 01-445. Version 1.0 <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-445/>
DeWild, J.F. S.D. Olund, M.L. Olson and M.T. Tate. 2004. Methods for the Preparation and Analysis of Solids and Suspended Solids for Methylmercury. Chapter 7 of Book 5, Laboratory Analysis Section A, Water Analysis. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm5A7/>
Fossing, H., and B. B. Jorgensen. 1989. Measurement of bacterial sulfate reduction in sediments - evaluation of a single-step chromium reduction method. Biogeochemistry 8:205-222.
Gilmour, C. C., and G. S. Riedel. 1995. Measurement of Hg methylation in sediments using high specific-activity Hg-203 and ambient incubation. Water Air and Soil Pollution 80:747-756.
Hollweg, T. A., C. C. Gilmour, and R. P. Mason. 2009. Methylmercury production in sediments of Chesapeake Bay and the mid-Atlantic continental margin. Marine Chemistry 114:86-101.
Horvat, M., N. S. Bloom, and L. Liang. 1993. Comparison of distillation with other current isolation methods for the determination of methyl mercury-compounds in low-level environmental-samples. 1. Sediments. Analytica Chimica Acta 281:135-152.
Krabbenhoft, D. P., C. C. Gilmour, J. M. Benoit, C. L. Babiarz, A. W. Andren, and J. P. Hurley. 1998. Methyl mercury dynamics in littoral sediments of a temperate seepage lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55:835-844.
Lewis, M.E. 2006. Dissolved oxygen (ver 2.1): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.2, July 2006. <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.2_contents.html>
Mitchell, C. P. J., and C. C. Gilmour. 2008. Methylmercury production in a Chesapeake Bay salt marsh. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 113.
Nordstrom, D.K. and F.D. Wilde. 2005. Reduction Oxidation Potential (Electrode Method)(ver 1.2): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.5, Sep. 2005. <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.5_contents.html>
Ogorek, J, and J. Dewild. 2011. Analysis of Methylmercury in Plant, Sediment, and Soil Samples by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Detection with the Brooks-Rand “MERX” Automated Methylmercury Analytical System. <http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab/analysis-methods.html>
Ogorek, J. and C.D. Thompson. 2010. Analysis of Total Mercury in Waters, Soils, and Sediments with the Tekran 2600 by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry. WDML Tekran 2600 HgT Analysis SOP Revision 1 July 2010. <http://wi.water.usgs.gov/mercury-lab/analysis-methods.html>
Olund, S.D., J.F. DeWild, M.L. Olson, and M.T. Tate. 2005. Methods for the Preparation and Analysis of Solids and Suspended Solids for Total Mercury. Chapter 8 of Book 5, Laboratory Analysis Section A, Water Analysis. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm5A8/>
Olund, S.D., J.F. DeWild, M.L. Olson, and M.T. Tate. 2005. Methods for the Preparation and Analysis of Solids and Suspended Solids for Total Mercury. Chapter 8 of Book 5, Laboratory Analysis Section A, Water Analysis. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm5A8/>
Radtke, D.B. J.V. Davis, and F.D. Wilde. 2005. Specific electrical conductance (ver 1.2): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.3, Aug. 2005. <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.3_contents.html>
Ritz G.F. and J.A. Collins. 2008. pH (ver 2.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.4, Oct. 2008. <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.4_contents.html>
Rounds, S.A., 2006, Alkalinity and acid neutralizing capacity (ver. 3.0): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.6, July 2006. <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/section6.6/>
Suzuki, Y., E. Tanoue, and H. Ito. 1992. A high-temperature catalytic-oxidation method for the determination of dissolved organic-carbon in seawater - analysis and improvement. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 39:185-198.
Wasserman, M.D., R.O. Rye, P.M. Bethke, and A. Arribas Jr. 1992. Methods for separation and total stable isotope analysis of alunite. Open-File Rep. 92-9. U.S. Geol. Survey, Reston, VA.
Weishaar, J. L., G. R. Aiken, B. A. Bergamaschi, M. S. Fram, R. Fujii, and K. Mopper. 2003. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 37:4702-4708.
Wilde, F.D. Temperature (ver. 2): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A6, sec. 6.1, Mar. 2006. <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter6/6.1_contents.html>
Process_Step:
Process_Description: No process steps have been described for this data set
Process_Date: Unknown

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: ACME Database
Entity_Type_Definition: ACME Database
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Dry Bulk Density
Attribute_Definition: Dry bulk density
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: g dry weight/cm3
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: NH4
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Ammonium Ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Peat Depth
Attribute_Definition: Peat Depth
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: cm
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: PO4
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Phosphate
Attribute_Definition_Source: µM
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: g dry weight/cm3
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Porosity
Attribute_Definition: Porosity
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ml/cm3
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Salinity
Attribute_Definition: Salinity
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ppt
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TDN
Attribute_Definition: Total Dissolved Nitrogen
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg N/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TDS
Attribute_Definition: Total Dissolved Solids
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Total S
Attribute_Definition: Total Sulfur
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: δ34S Sulfate
Attribute_Definition: ?
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: δ34S
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: δO18
Attribute_Definition: Ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: δO18
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Sulfite
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Sulfite Ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Thiosulfate
Attribute_Definition: Thiosulfate
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Sulfide
Attribute_Definition: Sulfide ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: MeHg-solid
Attribute_Definition: Methymercury in Solids
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ng/g dry weight
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: UNFMeHg
Attribute_Definition: Unfiltered methylmercury in aqueous sample
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ng/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: FMeHg
Attribute_Definition: Filtered Methylmercury
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ng/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: PMeHg
Attribute_Definition: Particulate methylmercury
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ng/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Br
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous bromide ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Cl
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Cloride Ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: F
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Floride Ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: NO3
Attribute_Definition: Nitrate Ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SO4
Attribute_Definition: Sulfate ion
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: THg-solid
Attribute_Definition: Total Mercury in Solids
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: ng/g dry weight
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: As
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous total arsenic
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: FTHg
Attribute_Definition: Filtered Total Mercury
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: PTHG
Attribute_Definition: Particulate total mercury
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: UNFTHg
Attribute_Definition: Unfiltered total mercury in aqueous sample
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µM
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: AVS
Attribute_Definition: Acid Volatile Sulfide
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µmoles/g dry weight
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: CRS
Attribute_Definition: Chromium Reducible Sulfide
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µmoles/g dry weight
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SRR_AVS
Attribute_Definition: Sulfate Reduction Rate to Acid Volatile Sulfide
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: nmoles/cm3 h
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SRR_CRS
Attribute_Definition: Sulfate Reduction Rate to Chromium Reducible Sulfide
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: nmoles/cm3 h
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: kmeth
Attribute_Definition: Mercury methylation rate constant
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: per day
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DO
Attribute_Definition: Dissolved oxygen
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Al
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Al
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: B
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Boron
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Ba
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Barium
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Ca
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Calcium
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Fe
Attribute_Definition: Dissolved Iron
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: K
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Potassium
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Mg
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Magnesium
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Mn
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Manganese
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: g dry weight/cm3
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Na
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Sodium
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Si
Attribute_Definition: Aqueous Total Silicon
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Solid-Fe
Attribute_Definition: Iron in solids
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µg/g dry weight
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Solid-Mn
Attribute_Definition: Manganese in solids
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µg/g dry weight
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: LOI
Attribute_Definition: Loss on ignition
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: percent
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Redox
Attribute_Definition: Redox (platinum electrode)
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mV
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Specific Cond.
Attribute_Definition: Specific Conductivity
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µS
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: pH
Attribute_Definition: Hydrogen Ion Activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: pH
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: ANC
Attribute_Definition: Acid Neutralizing Capacity
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µEquiv/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Chl
Attribute_Definition: Chlorophyll a
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Alk
Attribute_Definition: Total Alkalinity
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: µEquiv/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: DOC
Attribute_Definition: Dissolved Organic Carbon
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: mg C/L
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SUVA 254
Attribute_Definition: SUVA = UV Absorbance @ 254 nm per unit DOC
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: (AU)/(mg C/L)
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: UV 254
Attribute_Definition: Ultraviolet Absorbance at 254 nm
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: AU
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Water depth
Attribute_Definition: Water depth
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: cm
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Temp
Attribute_Definition: Temperature
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: deg C
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Wet Bulk Density
Attribute_Definition: Wet Bulk Density
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: g wet weight/cm3
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: δD
Attribute_Definition: δD
Attribute_Definition_Source: ACME
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: Unknown
Range_Domain_Maximum: Unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: δD

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-803-8747 x3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20130923
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-803-8747 x3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

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This page is: http://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/ACME_DB.html
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Last updated: 23 December, 2016 @ 01:49 PM (KP)