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Remote Sensing of Water Turbidity and Sedimentation in Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Richard P. Stumpf (no longer with USGS)

Megan L. Frayer

Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Remote Sensing of Water Turbidity and Sedimentation in Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: project
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=sed_turbidity>
Description:
Abstract:
A decline in water clarity in Florida Bay has been observed following the seagrass dieoffs starting in the late 1980's. Algal blooms and discolored water have been reported in Florida Bay over the last several years and factors such as resuspension of material and nutrients from the bottom have been suggested as a cause. Monthly monitoring programs by Florida International University (FIU) and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) have provided documentation of blooms through chlorophyll measurements. This study used remote sensing to examine resuspension events, the distribution of turbid water and changes in the patterns of water clarity in the Bay.

This project used data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on water reflectance for the Florida Bay region over the 12-year period from July 1985 to September 1997, and field data on light attenuation and changes in bottom cover.

Purpose:
The project is conducting comparisons between chlorophyll values collected from the shipboard monitoring programs and pre-cruise reflectances to assess whether there is a link between resuspension events and algal blooms. The next stage in the project is to expand the AVHRR data set backward to before the seagrass dieoffs and to incorporate Landsat data for limited high resolution analysis.
Supplemental_Information:
As of March 15, 2005, USGS is no longer processing AVHRR images. For recent imagery, please visit the Institute for Marine Remote Sensing (IMaRS) website at <http://imars.usf.edu/cgi-bin/db?site=gulf&index=1&type=st&mode=daily>.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 198507
Ending_Date: 199709
Currentness_Reference: Publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.25
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.8
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.75
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: hydrogeology
Theme_Keyword: mapping
Theme_Keyword: algal blooms
Theme_Keyword: chlorophyll
Theme_Keyword: reflectance
Theme_Keyword: remote sensing
Theme_Keyword: seagrass
Theme_Keyword: secchi depths
Theme_Keyword: turbidity
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 010
Theme_Keyword: 014
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Johnson Key
Place_Keyword: Sprigger Bank
Place_Keyword: Twin Key
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: Rankin Lake
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Rob Wertz
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext. 3045
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rwertz@usgs.gov
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Ransibrahmanakul, Varis

Stumpf, Richard P.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
The Use of AVHRR Satellite Data for Estimating Spatially Varying Critical Wind Stress in Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Coastal Research
Issue_Identification: v. 18, no. 2, p. 267-273
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Royal Palm Beach, FL
Publisher: Coastal Education and Research Foundation (CERF)
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/10/2011

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The first page of the article may be viewed on the website below.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.jstor.org/pss/4299073>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stumpf, R. P.

Frayer, M. L.; Durako, M. J.; Brock, J. C.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Variations in water clarity and bottom albedo in Florida Bay from 1985 to 1997
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: v.22, n. 2B, p. 431-444
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/10/2011
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/108013678486nk25/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Mueller-Dombois, D.

Ellerberg, H.

Publication_Date: 1974
Title: Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stumpf, R. P.

Pennock, J. R.

Publication_Date: 1989
Title:
Calibration of a general optical equation for remote sensing of suspended sedimetns in a moderately turbid estuary
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans
Issue_Identification: v. 94, n. C10, p. 14363-14371
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/10/2011

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1989/JC094iC10p14363.shtml>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stumpf, R. P.

Pennock, J. R.

Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Remote Sensing of Environment
Issue_Identification: v. 38, n. 3, p.183-191
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/10/2011

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below by selecting the volume and issue number.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00344257>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Iverson. R. L.

Bittaker, H. F.

Publication_Date: 1986
Title:
Seagrass distribution and abundance in eastern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 5, p. 577-602
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/16/2011

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website by selecting the volume and issue number.

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_cdi=6776&_pubType=J&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=91c7416b7963284487cc2de903417873&jchunk=22#22>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rao, C. R. N.

Chen, J.

Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Inter-satellite calibrations for the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, NOAA-9, and NOAA-11 spacecraft
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: International Journal of Remote Sensing
Issue_Identification: v. 16, n. 11, p. 1931-1942
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: online
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Gourp
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/16/2011

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a777880524~frm=titlelink>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rao, C. R. N.

Chen, J.

Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Post-launch calibraiton of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: International Journal of Remote Sensing
Issue_Identification: v. 17, n. 14, p. 2743-2747
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: online
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/16/2011

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a777974124~frm=titlelink>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Stumpf, R. P.
Publication_Date: 1992
Title: Remote sensing of water quality in coastal waters
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ann arbor, MI
Publisher: Environmental Research Institute of Michigan
Other_Citation_Details:
in Proceedings of Remote Sensing of Marine and Coastal Environments, Society of Photo-Instrumentation Engineers 1930; N. Wallman, ed.

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The AVHRR on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationís polar-orbiting meteorological satellite provides almost daily imagery at 1-km pixel resolution.

Monthly average image values were corrected month-by-month for a systematic bias for greater offsets with earlier scenes at the Gulf Stream site (Stumpf et al. 1997). In addition to reflectance calculations, cloud-contaminated pixels were flagged using a combination of techniques: thresholds on sea-surface temperature and channel 2, and spatial variations on channel 2 and a thermal band.

While each AVHRR sensor is calibrated prior to launch, the lack of onboard calibration raised concerns for post-launch calibration and sensor deterioration. The problem was resolved when a relative calibration of the sensors on the afternoon satellites was developed (Rao and Chen, 1995 & 1996)

Completeness_Report:
Nearly 1700 scenes were used from over 2000 scenes processed with about 1000 nominally cloud-free scenes. The analysis used the afternoon satellites, NOAA-9, NOAA-11, and NOAA-14, as these have the best relative calibration and provided more robust datasets in the winter when the sun is lowest.

The failure of NOAA-13 on launch in 1993 left NOAA-11 as the primary satellite in 1994. The orbit of NOAA-11 had precessed to late afternoon precluding quality imagery in winter 1994 due to low sun angles. NOAA-11 failed in September 1994 and an afternoon satellite was not available till the launch of NOAA-14 in late December.

Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The datasets were mapped to a Mercator projection with a pixel size of 1.13 km at latitude 25 deg North and residual navigational errors were removed by registering the image within a pixel of the NOAA digital shoreline.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The datasets were mapped to a Mercator projection with a pixel size of 1.13 km at latitude 25 deg North and residual navigation errors were removed by registering the image within a pixel of the NOAA digital shoreline. The Gulf Stream site showed a slight trend of decreasing reflectance over the 12 years, suggesting a systematic bias to greater offsets with earlier scenes, Monthly average image values were corrected for this bias. In addition cloud-contaminated pixels were flagged using a combination of techniques: thresholds on sea-surface temperatures and channel 2, and spatial variations on channel 2 and a thermal band.

In the dataset the typical month has 3-9 nominally cloud-free scenes prior to a1994 and 8-16 scenes starting in 1995. Winter 1994 had only four acceptable scenes owing to the extremely late overpass time of NOAA-11 (1600 local standard time). Scenes with solar angles >70 degrees were discarded. Gaps occur in late summer months for 1988-1989. From the available images, monthly average images were determined using the cloud-free pixels. Then the mean winter reflectance from December to March and the mean summer reflectance June to September were determined.

Field ecologists in the project area document light attenuation using scalar radiometers that measure photo-synthetically-active radiation (PAR, 400-700nm). We used a Licor 4pi PAR sensor for profiles of scalar irradiance at 0.25-m increments from 0.25 m (or 0.5m) depth to the bottom.

SEAGRASSES Bottom coverage of Thalassia testudium in Rankin Lake, Johnson Key Basin, and Rabbit Key Basin was determined using a modified Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance method (Mueller-Dombois and Ellerberg, 1974). Coverage for 1991 was obtained by randomly sampling 10 locations per basin from a 0.5-nautical (nmi) grid. Coverage for 1994-1996 was obtained by systematic random sampling within 30-35 tessellated hexagons per basin. All data were obtained by sampling four 0.25 meter square quadrats per station (north, east, south and west of the vessel). The density values correspond to the following modified Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance scale: 5=cover of more than 75% of the quadrat; 4=50-75% cover; 3=25-50% cover; 2=5-25% cover, 1=numerous stems with less than 5% cover or scattered with up to 5% cover; 0.5=few stems with small cover; 0.1=solitary, with small cover, and 0=not present. Frequency of occurrence and density information for each species within a particular basin was calculated using the formulas: Frequency = no. of occupied quad/total no. of quads and Density = sum of B-B scale values/total no. of quads. The areal extent of each cover was estimated by kriging the mean station data for each basin using Surfer software package Golden Software. With the nominal 1-km spacing of the samples, each 1-m sq sample site fell in a different pixel. Reflectances for all pixels with sites in a basin were averaged; the combination of kriging and averaging dampens out the scaling problems between the 1-m sq samples with the individual 1.2 km sq pixels.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Rob Wertz
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext. 3045
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rwertz@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Rob Wertz
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext. 3045
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rwertz@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Florida Bay satellite images
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: GIF
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flbay/>
Access_Instructions:
Images may be downloaded through SOFIA from the USGS Coastal & Marine Geology Program website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20110516
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/FBturbidity.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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