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Development of YY male technology to control non-native fishes in the Greater Everglades

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Originator: Pam Schofield, Frank Chapman, Nick Funicelli
Publication_Date: 2010
Development of YY male technology to control non-native fishes in the Greater Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Maps and Data
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=yy_male>
Dozens of non-native fish species have established throughout south Florida (including Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, Biscayne National Park and various state and private lands). Thus far, research on these species has focused on documenting their distributions, natural history, and physiological tolerances. Research is beginning to emerge on interactions of native species with non-natives, although it is only in the early stages. Research on control of non-native fishes in South Florida is also lacking, although it is potentially the most important and useful to natural resource managers. At present, the only management techniques available to control non-native fishes are physical removal, dewatering or ichthyocides. Unfortunately, all of these methods negatively impact native fauna as well as the targeted non-native fishes and require a great deal of effort (and therefore, funding). Herein, we propose a research program focused on applying a genetic technique common in aquaculture to control of non-native fishes. This proposal focuses on developing a technique (YY supermales) to control a non-native fish in South Florida (African jewelfish Hemichromis letourneuxi). However, the concept can be applied to a wide variety of species, including other fishes (e.g., brown hoplo Hoplosternum littorale), invasive applesnails (Pomacea spp.), the Australian red claw crayfish (Cherax spp.) and the green mussel (Perna veridis).
The objective of this study is to develop the technology to produce YY males of a non-native cichlid fishes established in south Florida: the African jewelfish (Hemichromis letourneuxi).
Beginning_Date: 20091001
Ending_Date: Present
Currentness_Reference: observed
Progress: In work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Southern Florida, Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: non-native fishes
Theme_Keyword: management
Theme_Keyword: YY supermales
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
Taxonomic_Keywords: vertebrates
U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smithsonian Institution - National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)
Publication_Date: 2011
Title: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: database
Retrieved from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, <http://www.itis.gov>.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.itis.gov>
Taxonomic_Procedures: Unavailable
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Osteichthyes
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Actinopterygii
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Neopterygii
Taxon_Rank_Name: Infraclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Teleostei
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Acanthopterygii
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Perciformes
Taxon_Rank_Name: Suborder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Labroidei
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cichlidae
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hemichromis
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hemichromis letourneuxi
Applicable_Common_Name: African jewelfish
Applicable_Common_Name: north African jewelfish
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: None
Contact_Person: Pamela J. Schofield
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 7920 NW 7st Street
City: Gainesville
State_or_Province: Florda
Postal_Code: 32653
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 352-264-3530
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pschofield@usgs.gov

Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Unavailable
Logical_Consistency_Report: Unavailable
Completeness_Report: Unavailable
Methodology_Type: Lab
Juvenile and adult African jewelfish were collected in October 2009 and March 2010 from Fairchild Tropical Botanical Gardens using minnow traps. Mayan cichlids (> 10 cm) were collected in 2008-2009 from Big Cypress National Preserve, canals in Miami-Dade County and the A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge using hook and line. All fishes were transported back to the US Geological Survey laboratory, Gainesville, FL in aerated coolers. Upon arrival all fishes were treated using a salinity of 10 ppt for a period of 1-2 weeks to kill parasites and heal injuries from collection and transportation.
To determine the gender of individual fishes, we anesthetized them with clove oil dissolved in water (0.06 ml/L). The genital papillae of each fish was examined under a dissecting microscope to determine the presence (female) or absence (male) of the oviduct opening. Betadine dye was applied to the genital papillae to provide contrast to the oviduct opening. After this procedure, fishes were placed in a tub of well-aerated water to recover.
African jewelfish were kept in large same-sex groups in 130-gallon living streams (~ 50 fish per stream). Mayan cichlids were kept either individually in 35-gallon tanks or in small same-sex groups in 80 amd 130-gallon tanks (4-8 fish depending on size of tank). Species were held in single-sex groups to prevent un-monitored breeding and held at these densities to reduce disease and aggression associated with crowding. All fish were kept at temperatures > 28 °C and a 12L:12D light cycle to get them into breeding condition. Fishes were fed daily ad lib. African jewelfish were fed beef heart flake food (Aquatic Eco-systems). Mayan cichlids were fed a dense culture pellet food (Aquatic Eco-systems).
Both species are normally very aggressive, so we used different ratios and introduction methods to match up breeding pairs successfully.
For African jewelfish, male:female ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:3 were used to try to form breeding pairs. Three different introduction methods were also used: males and females introduced together at the same time, female introduced first followed by a male several days later, female and male introduced together but male held in a cage for several days. Only large (> 5 cm total length, TL) African jewelfish that had developed intense red breeding coloration were selected from the holding tanks to form pairs. Hemichromis bimaculatus, a closely related species, were sexually mature when reared in the lab at 5.3 and 6.5 cm TL for males and females, respectively (Noble and Curtis 1939). Pairs were considered formed when a male and female stayed together (and did not attack one another). Often breeding pairs would jointly attack any additional fish in the tank (e.g., extra females).
For the Mayan cichlids, two different pairing/introduction methods were used. In the first, four females were introduced into a large concrete tank located outdoors at the USGS laboratory (Gainesville, FL) under a clear plastic roof to provide natural light cycles during summer 2009 (as part of another project). A week later, the males were introduced. In the second method, a male and female were introduced into the breeding tank at the same time. In each case, the fish were size-matched and all were fish > 12 cm standard length (SL), larger than the minimum size at sexual maturity for female Mayan cichlids reported for Taylor River in south Florida (11.8 cm SL, Faunce and Lorenz 2000) or in Celestun Lagoon, Mexico (10.2 cm SL, Martinez-Palacios and Ross 1992). Pairs were considered formed when a male and female both developed breeding coloration (ventral surface flushed a pinkish-red and the vertical bars on the body turn black), were seen swimming together and/or constructing a nest.
African jewelfish breeding pairs were kept in 40-gallon round fiberglass tanks (1 pair to a tank) and Mayan cichlid breeding pairs were kept in ~200-gallon round plastic tanks (1 pair to a tank). All breeding tanks were on flow through well water (Floridan aquifer) and equipped with an air stone (African jewelfish) or sponge filters (Mayan cichlid). Under laboratory conditions, Mayan cichlid pairs construct a nest by moving substrate/plants to form a depression exposing the bottom of the tank where they laid their eggs, or on a hard vertical surface adjacent to the nest depression (i.e. the side of the tank). In the lab, African jewelfish pairs either construct a nest depression like Mayan cichlids or lay their eggs on hard structures such as rocks. To accommodate breeding pairs, all tanks had a 1-inch deep layer of sand and African jewelfish were provided with natural rocks and/or small blocks of concrete on which to deposit their eggs. Five artificial plants (black plastic strips tied to weights) were also added to each tank to provide additional structure. Temperatures > 28 °C and a 12L:12D light cycle were used to condition all pairs to breed. All breeding tanks were checked 6-7 days per week for the presence of eggs or larvae and fish were also fed at this time. African jewelfish were fed ad lib beef heart flake (Aquatic Eco-systems) while Mayan cichlids were fed ad lib dense culture floating pellets (Aquatic Eco-systems).
When fish bred, we collected the larvae and moved them to larval rearing tanks. These consisted of 10-gallon glass aquaria equipped with flow-through well-water and an air stone. The tanks did not contain any substrate or structure. A 12D:12L light cycle was maintained and temperature ranged from 25-28oC. When African jewelfish laid their eggs on the rocks/concrete blocks, the entire rock/concrete block was placed in a container underwater and the whole container was removed from the breeding tank and transferred to the rearing tank. When Mayan cichlids/African jewelfish laid their eggs on the bottom or sides of the tank, the eggs were allowed to hatch in the breeding tanks. Then the demersal larvae were either removed using a turkey baster or by sliding a clear plastic sheet under the larvae and scooping them into an underwater bucket. One batch of larvae was assigned to a single breeding tank. Large batches were divided up into 2-3 breeding tanks. Once the larvae started free-swimming they were fed 3-4 times daily commercial feed augmented with 100 mg/kg of estradiol benzoate. After the 60-day period, the larvae were fed high-protein finfish starter feed 3-4 times per day.
Process_Description: No process steps have been described for this data set
Process_Date: Unknown

Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-803-8747 x3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

Metadata_Date: 20130924
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Address_Type: mailing
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-803-8747 x3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

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Last updated: 23 December, 2016 @ 01:49 PM (KP)