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Aerial Photos of the 1940s

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, Thomas J. III

Foster, Anne M., Briere, Peter R., Coffin, Alisa W., Jones, John W., Van Arsdall, Carson, Frye, Laurinda J.

Publication_Date: 2006
Title: Aerial Photos of the 1940s
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/index.html>
Description:
Abstract:
The images are available as .jpeg and as georeferenced .tiff files. With the exception of three images, all images are subset to 7500 pixels square. Individual photos can be selected from the 1940 flight lines image at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_flight.html>.

The numbering scheme for the aerial photos is an identification number consisting of the flight number followed by the photo or frame number.

Purpose:
A foundation for Everglades research must include a clear understanding of the pre-drainage south Florida landscape. Knowledge of the spatial organization and structure of pre-drainage landscape communities such as mangrove forests, marshes, sloughs, wet prairies. And pinelands, is essential to provide potential endpoints, restoration goals and performance measures to gauge restoration success. Information contained in historical aerial photographs of the Everglades can aid in this endeavor.

The earliest known aerial photographs are from the mid-to-late 1920s and resulted in the production of what are called T-sheets (Topographic sheeets) for the coasts and shorelines of far south Florida. The position of the boundary between differing vegetationcommunities (the ecotone) can be accurately measured. If followed through time, changes in the position of these ecotones could potentially be used to judge teffects of drainage on the Everglades ecosystem and to monitor restoratio success.

The Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), a center of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Biological Resources Discipline (BRD), in collaboration with the Eastern Region Geography (ERG) of the Geography Discipline has created digital files of existing 1940 (1:40,000-scale) Black and White aerial photography for the South Florida region. These digital files are available through the SOFIA web site at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/index.html>.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19400214
Ending_Date: 19400821
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.9
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -79.98
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.22
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.41
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: aerial photography
Theme_Keyword: digital image
Theme_Keyword: mapping
Theme_Keyword: historical photos
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 010
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Glades County
Place_Keyword: Hendry county
Place_Keyword: Lee County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Everglades
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: mangrove
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 1
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3
Place_Keyword: WCA1
Place_Keyword: WCA2
Place_Keyword: WCA3
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Ten Thousand Islands NWR
Place_Keyword: Crocodile Lake National Wildlife refuge
Place_Keyword: Arthur R. Marshall- Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Place_Keyword: Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Place_Keyword: Biscayne National Park
Place_Keyword: Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
None. Acknowledgement of the U.S. Geological Survey will be appreciated for products derived from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization:
U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: 1940 Greater Everglades and South Florida Aerial Photoset
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
R. Johnson, W. Perry, D. Buker, and T. Mullins of the South Florida Natural Resources Center at Everglades National Park provided access to the Park's aerial photographic archives. L. Brandt (Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge), T. Polizos (Collier County office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service) and C. Coffin (Miami-Dade Co., NRCS) generously assisted by providing the photos of their respective geographic regions of south Florida. K. Rutchey provided access to the archives of the South Florida Water Management District.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Images are available as .jpeg and georeferenced .tiff files
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fennema, R. J.

Neidrauer, C. J.; Johnson, R. A.; MacVicar, T. K.; Perkins, W. A.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title: A computer model to simulate natural Everglades hydrology
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Delray Beach, FL
Publisher: St. Lucie Press
Other_Citation_Details:
in The Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration

S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden, editors

Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Blake, N. M.
Publication_Date: 1980
Title: Land into water - water into land
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: University Presses of Florida
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Davis, J. H.
Publication_Date: 1943
Title: The natural features of southern Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin
Issue_Identification: 25
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Davis, S. M.

Gunderson, L. H.; Park, W. A.; Richardson, J. R.; Mattson, J. E.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Landscape dimension, composition, and function in a changing Everglades landscape
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Delray Beach, FL
Publisher: St. Lucie Press
Other_Citation_Details:
in The Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration

S. M. Davis and J.C. Ogden, editors

Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Steinman, A. D.

Havens, K. E.; Carrick, H. J.; VanZee, R.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
The past, present, and future hydrology and ecology of Lake Okeechobee and its watersheds
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boca Raton, FL
Publisher: CRC Press
Other_Citation_Details:
in The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys

J. W. Porter and K. G. Porter, editors


Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The photos are all from a survey done by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1940
Completeness_Report:
Areas 1-7 and 10 contain mosaic sheet images only, no over-flight images are available for viewing. Of the 1401 images are known to have existed in the 1940s set of aerial photographs. Only 920 distinct images were located and scanned. Of these 793 were rectified and 127 were not rectified. See tables at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_method.html> for a list of photos not rectified and the problems preventing rectification. Of the rectified photos 79 images were not used due to protocol violations shown at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_method.html>
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The total RMSE for the transformation model was well below a threshold of 0.25.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Department of Agriculture
Publication_Date: 1940
Title: Aerial Photographs
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: aerial photographs
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Department of Agriculture
Source_Scale_Denominator: 40000
Type_of_Source_Media: paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19400214
Ending_Date: 19400821
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: USDA photos
Source_Contribution:
Photos converted to digital form and archived; provided spatial and attribute information.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Photographs were cataloged individually into Everglades Historical Aerial Photographic Database. Attribute information about each photograph was recorded, including identity, content, condition as well as general information about the flight and the photography.

Photographs were scanned using UMAX Mirage II Scanner: Scan resolution of optical 800 dpi; final radiometric resolution of 8-bit per channel; true color (RGB) compatibility; TIFF format output. Two images which were inadvertently scanned as grayscale are noted in the 'oddities' section at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/40s_method.html>

Scanned images were rectified using Erdas Imagine 8.7. Rectification process followed protocol developed in house and described in the report 'Guidelines for quality checking of digital ortho imagery, Issue 2.0.' Images were rectified with image to image rectification, using basemaps derived from digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQs). The DOQQs were from a statewide set flown in 1995 and available for download from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Land Boundary Information System (LABINS) website. These images were mosaicked into basemaps of four quadrangles, resampled to 2 meter pixel resolution and reprojected as UTM Zone 17 North. For a few images, the 1995 basemap images were unavailable or unusable and were rectified to a 1999 DOQQ. These are listed in the 'oddities' section.

To register the historic images, a first-order polynomial geometric model was used. Due to a variety of possible factors, such as the age and warping of the original media and irregularities of the camera (about which we had no information) or the flight, we found that a second-order polynomial model improved overall edge matching in some cases. Those images that used a second order polynomial geometric transformation model are listed in the 'oddities' section'.

Operators manually selected 10 to 15 tie points per image scattered evenly throughout the image. In some cases additional tie points were subsequently added automatically using the prediction function of Imagine. In all cases the total RMSE for the transformation model was well below a threshold of 0.25. Following the selection of tie points, images were resampled to 1 meter pixel resolution using a bilinear interpolation method. The resulting image was checked with respect to edge matching in a geographic data viewer (ESRI ArcMap 8.3).

Once the operator was satisfied the image was properly registered and appeared to match up with its neighbors, the edges of the image were cropped using a subset function. All images, with the exception of 3 (listed in the 'oddities' section were subset to a square of 7500 pixels and saved in their final file format as geotiff files. Oddities There are 1401 images that were known to have existed in the 1940s set of aerial photography. Of these, we were able to locate and scan 920 distinct images. Of these images, we were able to rectify 793 images.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: USDA photos
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization:
U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Cloud_Cover: 10

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Greater Everglades
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 7500
Column_Count: 7500

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 17
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -81
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 1
Ordinate_Resolution: 1
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: 1940 Greater Everglades and South Florida Aerial Photoset
Distribution_Liability:
This report was prepared by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Although the data published herein has been reviewed by the USGS, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and related material. Publication and distribution of these data should not be construed to constitute any such warranty and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or favor by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: JPEG
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content: contains the scanned aerial photos at a resolution of 800 dpi
Transfer_Size: 77
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/>
Access_Instructions: Photos may be downloaded from the SOFIA web site
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: georeferenced TIFF
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Transfer_Size: 0.12
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/aerial-photos/index.html>
Access_Instructions: Photos may be downloaded from the SOFIA web site
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070403
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/aerial-photos.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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