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The Role of Aquatic Refuges in the Wetland Complex of South Florida in Relation to Restoration

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: William F. Loftus (retired)
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
The Role of Aquatic Refuges in the Wetland Complex of South Florida in Relation to Restoration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=aq_refuge>
Description:
Abstract:
We defined fish and macro-invertebrate composition, movements, and ecology in surface and near-surface subterranean aquatic habitats. We also cooperated to define the habitat/topographic characteristics that make this region unique. Our objectives were to help define the seasonal movements of fishes in the region in relation to hydrology to provide data for modeling the interactions of hydrology, geology, and aquatic organisms.

The primary goal was to define the interactions of the aquatic-animal community with the geologic structure and hydrologic conditions of the Rocky Glades. This project addressed questions that have arisen from past work there. How do composition, size-structure, and recruitment of aquatic animals change during the flooding period? Are the dispersal patterns of animals related to water flow? Are the animals dispersing from the main sloughs to recolonize the Rocky Glades, or is the Rocky Glades a source of animal colonists for the sloughs? Do roadways act as barriers to movement? The objectives of this study segment were:

1. Collect baseline ecological data on the epigean aquatic communities in the karst landscape of the Rocky Glades.

2. Quantify the direction and degree of dispersal by fishes and invertebrates during the wet season.

3. Document the seasonal changes in species composition, size structure, and reproductive patterns of animals on the wetland surface.

4. Survey the topography of representative areas of the Rocky Glades, particularly around the sampling sites, to provide depth-distribution data for the simulation model of the region.

5. Develop a visual survey method for sampling fish communities in open, rugged terrain to follow community dynamics in the Rocky Glades in the wet season.

6. Identify the extent of near-surface voids.

The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is another area affected by urbanization and changing hydrologic management. Aquatic habitats, such as the transverse glades that cut through the Ridge, have been replaced by canals and will not be restored. Ground-water habitats and animal communities may have been less affected. As in karst areas elsewhere, deeper geological formations (>5 m) beneath the Rocky Glades and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge have voids of various dimensions known to house truly subterranean aquatic species (Radice and Loftus 1995, Bruno et al., 2001). These include the Miami Cave Crayfish (Procambarus milleri), known only from a few wells in southern Florida (Hobbs 1971). The composition, distribution, and abundance of other hypogean animals are poorly known. Ground-water withdrawal and saltwater intrusion (Leach et al. 1972), limestone mining, and pollution may threaten these communities before they have been fully catalogued.

The second goal of this project was to identify the composition, distribution by depth and space, and ecological relations of this subterranean fauna. The objectives of the second study element included:

1. Develop effective traps to capture invertebrates and possibly fishes from subterranean habitats.

2. Inventory hypogean communities and relate the composition and distribution to environmental factors.

3. Collect life-history data for the Miami cave crayfish from a large captive population.

Purpose:
The Rocky Glades habitat of the South Florida ecosystem is poorly understood biologically. The highly eroded landscape offers dry-season refuge to aquatic animals through access to ground water via solution holes. This region is a high priority for restoration because it is the largest remnant short-hydroperiod wetland in the eastern Everglades, a habitat that has been disproportionately disturbed by drainage and land conversion.
Supplemental_Information:
Data fron this project is presented in the poster Fish Community Colonization Patterns in the Rocky Glades Wetlands of Southern Florida and in Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2000
Ending_Date: 2002
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: south Florida wetland complex
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.88
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.25
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.75
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: karst
Theme_Keyword: aquatic animals
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: crayfish
Theme_Keyword: fish
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Rocky Glades
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Rockland
Place_Keyword: Atlantic Coastal Ridge
Place_Keyword: karstic wetlands
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Joel Trexler
Contact_Organization:
Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 11208 S.W. 8th Street
City: Miami
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33199
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 305 348-1966
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 305 348-4032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: trexlerj@fiu.edu
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/aq_refuge/images/seashydro03fig1x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Rocky Glades study sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/geer/2003/posters/fish_rockygld/locationsx.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: map showing array locations in Rocky Glades
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/aq_refuge/images/colpatterns03fig1x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: map showing drift-fence arrays 1-13 in Everglades National Park
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel included Mac Kobza, Joel Trexler, Sue Perry, and Kevin Cunningham
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Hobbs, H. H., Jr
Publication_Date: 1971
Title: A new troglobitic crayfish from Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Florida Scientist (Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences)
Issue_Identification: v. 21, p. 71-91
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Orlando, FL
Publisher: Florida Academy of Sciences
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Leach, S. D.

Klein, H.; Hampton, E. R.

Publication_Date: 1972
Title:
Hydrologic effects of water control and management of southeast Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Report of Investigation
Issue_Identification: n. 60
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, Fl
Publisher: Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/8/2010

Prepared in cooperation with the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, the Bureau of Geology Florida Department of Natural Resources, and other State, local, and Federal agencies

Online_Linkage: <http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00001247/00001>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Loftus, W. F.

Johnson, R. A.; Anderson, G.

Publication_Date: 1992
Title:
Ecological impacts of the reduction of ground water levels in the rock lands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: conference paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Proceedings
Issue_Identification: First International Conference on Groundwater Ecology
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Bethesda, MD
Publisher: American Water Resources Association
Other_Citation_Details:
p. 199-208 in the conference Proceedings, J. A. Stanford and H. M. Vallett (eds)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Radice, P.

Loftus, W. F.

Publication_Date: 1995
Title: Rediscovery of the Miami cave crawfish, Procambaris milleri
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Tropical Fish Hobbyist Magazine
Issue_Identification: July, 1995
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Neptune City, NJ
Publisher: Tropical Fish Hobbyist
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bruno, M. C.

Loftus, W. F.; Perry, S. A.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Prelininary data on microcrustacean communities from gournd water in the southern Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: conference paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 01-4011, p. 89-97
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Sruvery
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/8/2010

The paper was presented at the U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group meeting, St. Petersburg, FL, February 13-16, 2001

Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/kigconference/mcb_preliminarydata.htm>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Loftus, W. F.

Bruno, M. C.; Cunningham, K. J.; Perry, S. A.; Trexler, J. C.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
The ecological effects of the karst wetlands of southern Florida in relation to system restoration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: conference paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 01-4011, p. 8-15
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, Fl
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/8/2010

The paper was presented at the U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group meeting, St. Petersburg, FL, February 13-16, 2001

Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/kigconference/wfl_ecologicalwetlands.htm>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Loftus, W. F.

Kobza, R. M.; Padilla, D.; Trexler, J. C.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Fish community colonization patterns in the Rocky Glades wetlands of southern Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: poster
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Palm Harbor, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/8/2010

Poster presented at the Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (GEER) Conference, April, 2003

Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/geer/2003/posters/fish_rockygld/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: unknown
Completeness_Report:
In the visual sampling at the Rocky Gladesa, all individuals seen were counted, and identified to species and size-class.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
In the Rocky Glades, we selected four sites along the ENP main road to test the use of drift-fence arrays to describe directional animal dispersal and community successional patterns in the wet season. The four X-shaped arrays had 12-m wings made of black plastic ground cloth to direct animals into one of 3 traps that faced east, north, and west, based on the direction that they were moving. The road shoulder formed a barrier to the south of each array. The 3-mm mesh minnow traps were fished overnight for 24 hours to provide data on fish relative abundances, movements, and catch per unit effort (CPUE).

When the wetlands reflooded in June, we collected samples daily for the first two weeks, then reduced the frequency to twice weekly for the next two weeks, and finally made collections once a week until the marshes dried. All animals were identified, weighed, and measured in the lab, and the numbers of animals in each trap on a particular day was compared to the water flow and depth to assess directional movement. We processed samples of fishes and crayfish for stable-isotope analysis as they appeared on the surface to compare with isotope signatures after several weeks and several months aboveground. We also saved fishes for analysis of reproductive status to learn whether they are ready to spawn upon emergence onto the surface.

To complement data from the arrays, which are activity traps, we used visual sampling (Loftus et al. 1992; Frederick and Loftus 1993) to estimate fish composition and density on the surface of the Rocky Glades. We set up 24 survey plots, six at each array, that were scanned by binoculars each week in the wet season. Each 4-m2 plot was scanned for 2 minutes, and all individuals seen were counted, and identified to species and size-class.

We began to survey the micro-scale topography of representative areas of the Rocky Glades. The physical characteristics of the sampling sites are required in the simulation model. The surface extent and depth dimensions of solution holes and surrounding marsh surface are measured by standard surveying techniques. Those physical characteristics will be correlated with biological measures of species composition, survival, and density. We have begun to use ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to try to estimate belowground extent of deep solution holes.

To inventory the hypogean fauna beneath Rocky Glades and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, we selected a series of existing wells along four east-west transect lines from Miami to Homestead in which to sample routinely. Borehole videography is helping us to select the best wells and depths for sampling. We are using a combination of pumping and filtering ground water from wells to collect copepod crustaceans (Bruno et. al., 2001, WRIR 01-4011). We tested several designs for traps to collect larger invertebrates and possibly fishes in wells. We also used GPR to locate areas of high porosity in which hypogean animals might be likely to occur. Drilling of new wells to access subterranean cavities began in February 2001, in which a combination of videography and trapping was used to capture and record animals for study. Any fishes or invertebrates collected were identified, and then sent to specialists for confirmation.

We used YSI-6000 continuous recorders to measure water-quality in ground water to characterize the environment of hypogean organisms. We collected parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature at the surface, middle and bottom of the wells. We attempted to correlate the environmental variables with species distributions.

We collated data on the distribution of the Miami Cave Crayfish from wells, and trapped for it in existing and new wells. Because it is difficult to obtain enough wild-caught animals on which to base a life-history study, we gained access to a captive population at a local fish farm where we performed monthly assessments of the proportion of males, females, gravid females, and juveniles in the population, their size distributions, size at maturity, fecundity, egg size, and other important life-history parameters.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
In 2001, an additional 9 arrays (#s 5-13) were erected away from roads for wider spatial coverage. Arrays 7-13 were sampled less frequently because of logistical constraints.
Process_Date: 2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Hypotheses about dispersal patterns were tested in 2003-2004 using methods such as stable isotope and otolith microchemistry analyses, and radio-tracking of larger species.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Joel Trexler
Contact_Organization:
Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 11208 S.W. 8th Street
City: Miami
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33199
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 305 348-1966
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 305 348-4032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: trexlerj@fiu.edu

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: wetland complex of south Florida

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20101108
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
The principal investigator for this project retired and the Point of Contact has declined to provide a review of the information in the metadata record. Any questions about the information should be directed to the Point of Contact under Citation Information or the Process Contact(s).

This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.


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