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Biscayne Aquifer geologic data

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cunningham, Kevin J.

Carlson, Janine L.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Robinson, Edward; Wacker, Michael A.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Biscayne Aquifer geologic data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: data tables
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/cunningham/>
Description:
Abstract:
This report from which the data is taken identifies and characterizes candidate ground-water flow zones in the upper part of the shallow, eogenetic karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), cyclostratigraphy, borehole geophysical logs, continuously drilled cores, and paleontology.

About 60 mi of GPR profiles were acquired and used to calculate the depth to shallow geologic contacts and hydrogeologic units, image karst features, and produce a qualitative perspective of the porosity distribution within the upper part of the karstic Biscayne aquifer in the Lake Belt area of north-central Miami-Dade County. Descriptions of lithology, rock fabric, cyclostratigraphy, and depositional environments of 50 test coreholes were linked to geophysical data to provide a more refined hydrogeologic framework for the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer. Interpretation of depositional environments was constrained by analysis of depositional textures and molluscan and benthic foraminiferal paleontology. Digital borehole images were used to help quantify large-scale vuggy porosity. Preliminary heat-pulse flowmeter data were coupled with the digital borehole image data to identify potential ground-water flow zones.

Purpose:
The objectives of this cooperative project were to identify and characterize candidate ground-water flow zones in the upper part of the shallow, eogenetic karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer using ground-penetrating radar, cyclostratigraphy, borehole geophysical logs, continuously drilled cores and paleontology.

In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), initiated a study to provide a regional-scale hydrogeologic framework of a shallow semiconfining unit within the Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida. Initially, the primary objective was to characterize and delineate a low-permeability zone in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer that spans the base of the Miami Limestone and uppermost part of the Fort Thompson Formation. Delineation of this zone was to aid development of a conceptual hydrogeologic model to be used as input into the SFWMD Lake Belt ground-water model. The approximate area encompassed by the conceptual hydrogeologic model is shown as the study area at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/cunningham/bbwelllocation.html>. Subsequent analysis of the preliminary data suggested hydraulic compartmentalization occurred within the Biscayne aquifer, and that there was a need to characterize and delineate ground-water flow zones and relatively low-permeability zones within the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer. Consequently, preliminary results suggested that the historical understanding of the porosity and preferential pathways for Biscayne aquifer ground-water flow required considerable revision.

Supplemental_Information:
This project was carried out in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD).
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1998
Ending_Date: 2000
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Biscayne aquifer
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.6
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.5
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: wells
Theme_Keyword: GPR
Theme_Keyword: gound penetrating radar
Theme_Keyword: molluscs
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: benthic foraminifera
Theme_Keyword: borehole geophysics
Theme_Keyword: cyclostratigraphy
Theme_Keyword: surface geophysics
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: Lake Belt
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Stratum_Keyword: Biscayne aquifer
Stratum_Keyword: Fort Thompson Formation
Stratum_Keyword: Miami Limestone
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
Taxonomic_Keywords: invertebrates
Taxonomic_Keywords: mollusks
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Turgeon, D. D.

Quinn, J. F., Jr.; Bogan, A. E.; Coan, E. V.; Hochberg, F. G.; Lyons, W. G.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Neves, R. J.; Roper, C. F. E.; Rosenberg, G.; Roth, B.; Scheltema, A.; Thompson, F. G.; Vecchione, M.; Williams, J. D.

Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks
Edition: 2nd
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Special Publication
Issue_Identification: 26
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Bethesda, MD
Publisher: American Fisheries Society
Taxonomic_Procedures:
Mollusks from 46 samples collected from 12 test coreholes were prepared and identified at the USGS Paleontology Laboratory in Reston, Va. Most of the mollusks present in the strata were preserved as molds and casts. Core samples were initially examined under a binocular microscope to observe diagnostic characteristics of the molluscan remains and to make identifications based on their comparison with published species. Clay squeezes or latex casts were made of the molluscan molds where appropriate to aid in identification. After initial identifications were made, samples were split open to expose fresh surfaces and the process repeated.
Taxonomic_Completeness:
Identification of benthic foraminifera was made at the genus level, where possible, for 67 thin sections selected by lithology from five test coreholes. Six biofacies were recognized.
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Mollusca
Applicable_Common_Name: molluscs
Applicable_Common_Name: mollusks
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gastropoda
Applicable_Common_Name: gastropods
Applicable_Common_Name: escargots
Applicable_Common_Name: snails
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Neotaenioglossa
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Modulidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Modulus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cerithiidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cerithium
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Turritellidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Turritella
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bivalvia
Applicable_Common_Name: bivalves
Applicable_Common_Name: clams
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Heterodonta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Veneroida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cardiacea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cardiidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Trachycardium
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Veneroidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Veneridae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lirophora
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Dosinia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chione
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chione cancellata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superfamily
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucinoidea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucinidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anodontia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Codakia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucina
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucina pensylvanica
Applicable_Common_Name: Pennsylvania lucine
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucinisca
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucinisca nassula
Applicable_Common_Name: woven lucine
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kevin Cunningham
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 3110 SW 9th Ave.
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5913
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kcunning@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/cunningham/bbwelllocation.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Figure 1: map showing study area, Federal and State lands, and agricultural areas in southern Florida
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/cunningham/bbwelllocation.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Figure 2: map showing location of test corehole location and number
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
Several USGS employees assisted with this study. Dick Hodges and Alton Anderson provided initial support in geophysical logging. Anthony Brown, Debby Arnold, Claude Jean-Poix, David Schmerge, and Marc Stewart assisted with field activities. The USGS Branch of Geophysical Applications and Support provided essential geophysical instrumentation and technical advice during field activities of borehole image processing system (BIPS) and GPR data collection, especially Marc Buursink, Carol Johnson, John Lane, and John Williams. Claude Jean-Poix and Carlos Zarikian assisted with data analysis and illustrations. Joann Dixon created three-dimensional visualization products. John Lane, Robert Renken, Jane Eggleston, Mike Deacon, and Rhonda Howard at the USGS and Florentin Maurrasse at Florida International University provided reviews.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Data are in tables (html format).
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cunningham, Kevin J.

Carlson, Janine L.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Robinson, Edward; Wacker, Michael A.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Characterization of Aquifer Heterogeneity Using Cyclostratigraphy and Geophysical Methods in the Upper Part of the Karstic Biscayne Aquifer, Southeastern Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 03-4208
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri034208/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cunningham, Kevin J.

Wacker, Michael A.; Robinson, Edward; Gefvert, Cynthia J.; Krupa, Steven L.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow at Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida, July 2003 to May 2004
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Scientific Investigations Map
Issue_Identification: I-2846
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/sim/I-2846>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Annan, A. P.

Davis, J. L.

Publication_Date: 1976
Title: Impulse radar soundings in permafrost
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Radio Science
Issue_Identification: v. 11
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Davis, J. L.

Annan, A. P.

Publication_Date: 1989
Title:
Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Geophysical Prospecting
Issue_Identification: v. 37, no. 5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: The Hague, The Netherlands
Publisher: European Association of Exploration Geophysicists
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Mitchum, Jr, R. M.

Vail, P. R.; Sangree, J. B.

Publication_Date: 1977
Title:
Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, part 6: Stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection patterns in depositional sequences
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: AAPG Memoir
Issue_Identification: 26
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Other_Citation_Details:
in Seismic Stratigraphy - Applications to hydrocarbon exploration

Payton, C. E., ed.

Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dunham, R. J.
Publication_Date: 1962
Title:
Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional textures
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: AAPG Memoir
Issue_Identification: 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Other_Citation_Details:
in Classification of Carbonate Rocks

Ham, W. E., ed.

Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Embry, A. F.

Klovan, J. E.

Publication_Date: 1971
Title:
A late Devonian reef tract on Northeastern Banks Island, N. W. T.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology
Issue_Identification: v. 19, n. 4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Calgary, Canada
Publisher: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lucia, F. J.
Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Rock-fabric/petrophysical classification of carbonate pore space for reservoir characterization
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: AAPG Bulletin
Issue_Identification: v. 79, n. 9
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Geological Society of America
Publication_Date: 1991
Title: Rock color chart: Baltimore, MD, Munsell color
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boulder, CO
Publisher: Geological Society of America
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Paillet, F. L.
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
A field technique for estimating aquifer parameters using flow log data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Journal article
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ground Water
Issue_Identification: v. 38, n. 4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Westerville, OH
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Poag, C. W.
Publication_Date: 1981
Title: Ecologic atlas of benthic foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Academic Press
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rose, P. R.

Lidz, Barbara

Publication_Date: 1977
Title:
Diagnostic foraminiferal assemblages of shallow-water modern environments: South Florida and the Bahamas
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Sedimenta
Issue_Identification: VI
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
Comparative Sedimentology Laboratory, University of Miami, Florida

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Borehole geophysical logs were collected by the USGS in 45 of the 50 test coreholes drilled during this study and included induction resistivity, natural gamma ray, spontaneous potential, single-point resistivity, caliper, and digital borehole image logs.

See WRI 03-4208 for a more complete description of the data.

Completeness_Report:
Borehole geophysical logs were collected by the USGS in 45 of the 50 test coreholes drilled during this study. Borehole geophysical logs were not collected at the G-3694 and G-3697 test coreholes due to problems with locating the well or destruction of the well after drilling.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: not available
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Sixty-seven (67) thin sections obtained from Miami Limestone and Fort Thompson Formation core samples from five test coreholes were microscopically examined to identify significant benthic foraminifera and associated mollusks, ostracods, and echinoids. Each core sample was assigned to one of five biofacies and the associated paleoenvironment based on: (1) biofacies suggested by Poag (1981) and Rose and Lidz (1977); (2) fossil and sedimentologic associations; (3) sample locations within the vertical organization of rock-fabric facies; and (4) the observation that the large imperforate foraminifera of biofacies 5 occur in wading depths in seagrass meadows, and also in water as much as about 130 ft deep
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Two types of GPR field surveys were conducted for this study: (1) continuous measurement common offset reflection surveys, and (2) common mid-point (CMP) velocity surveys (Annan and Davis, 1976; Davis and Annan, 1989). The common-offset reflection surveys were performed to produce two-dimensional profiles of the GPR reflections, and the CMP surveys to calculate radar velocities propagating through the solid and fluid material comprising the Biscayne aquifer. All GPR data were collected using a subsurface interface radar (SIR) System-10A+ with a dual 100-MHz antenna fixed-offset array. A time-varying gain was used during collection of each GPR profile. The common-offset reflection surveys were collected while towing the antennas 55 ft behind a truck with a connecting rope and cable at a rate of about 0.5 mi/hr. The separation between the center point of antennas was 35 in. Processing of profiles included a horizontal filter pass and, for some profiles, a constant-velocity migration of the continuous survey data using radar data analyzer (RADAN) for WinNT software. Visual representation of the GPR data was accomplished using RADAN for WinNT software and RADAN-tobitmap conversion utility.

Nearly all of the 50 test coreholes were drilled following GPR data acquisition. Test coreholes were located along the GPR profile tracts where they would be most useful for verification of GPR attributes. Collection of continuous 3.4- or 4-in. diameter cores was preferred to the normal rotary method, which produces small cutting samples collected over relatively wide depth intervals. The test coreholes were drilled by either Amdrill Inc., employing a wireline coring method, or by U.S. Drilling Inc., using a conventional coring method. Borehole geophysical logs were collected by the USGS in 45 of the 50 test coreholes drilled during this study and included induction resistivity, natural gamma ray, spontaneous potential, single-point resistivity, caliper, and digital borehole image logs. Borehole geophysical logs were not collected at the G-3694 and G-3697 test coreholes due to problems with locating the well or destruction of the well after drilling. The borehole geophysical-logging tools were run in boreholes filled with clear freshwater. Each borehole was cased with 3.5- or 5-in. solid polyvinyl chlorinated (PVC) surface casing set to a depth between 4 and 19 ft below land surface. Data were acquired in digital format and archived in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The digital borehole image logs were acquired using an RaaX BIPS digital optical logging tool. A Mount Sopris Model HFP-2293 heat-pulse flowmeter was used to assess borehole fluid movement in the G-3710 test corehole. A technique described by Paillet (2000) to estimate vertical groundwater borehole flow was utilized with the flowmeter measurements collected in the G-3710 test corehole.

Core samples were described using a 10-power hand lens and binocular microscope to determine vertical patterns of microfacies, sedimentary structures, and lithostratigraphic boundaries, to characterize porosity, and to estimate "relative" permeability. Limestones were classified by combining the schemes of Dunham (1962), Embry and Klovan (1971), and Lucia (1995). The rock color of dry core samples was recorded by comparison to a Munsell rock-color chart (Geological Society of America, 1991). Core-sample descriptions were classified as rock-fabric facies.

Horizontal and vertical permeability of 71 whole-core samples, horizontal permeability of 36 core-plug samples, and porosity and grain density of all 107 samples were measured at Core Laboratories, Inc. Numerous (318) core-sample thin sections were examined using standard transmitted-light petrography to characterize and interpret rock properties and small-scale porosity.

Borehole images are digital photographs of the borehole wall recorded by a sonic-velocity or electrical-resistivity probe, or optical device. A BIPS borehole imaging tool was used to log continuous digital photographic images in 45 test coreholes. These images provide 100-percent circumferential coverage of the borehole wall and can yield critical information regarding the presence or absence of vuggy porosity, its spatial distribution, and vuggy pore shape and size.

Mollusks from 46 samples collected from 12 test coreholes were prepared and identified at the USGS Paleontology Laboratory in Reston, Va. Most of the mollusks present in the strata were preserved as molds and casts. Core samples were initially examined under a binocular microscope to observe diagnostic characteristics of the molluscan remains and to make identifications based on their comparison with published species. Clay squeezes or latex casts were made of the molluscan molds where appropriate to aid in identification. After initial identifications were made, samples were split open to expose fresh surfaces and the process repeated. Identification of benthic foraminifera was made at the genus level, where possible, for 67 thin sections selected by lithology from five test coreholes. Six biofacies were recognized.

Paleoenvironments and stratigraphic age of the Fort Thompson Formation were evaluated in the 46 core samples collected for molluscan paleontology from 12 test coreholes. Molluscan species diversity in the samples was low, and most of the species identified have a broad tolerance to change in salinity and water depth, so the samples have been classified within only three paleoenvironments based on the mollusks: shallow shelf to outer estuarine, inner estuarine, and freshwater.

Geophysical logging used Mount Sopris portable logging equipment and was completed by USGS Miami, Florida Integrated Science Center for Water and Restoration Studies personnel. Processing and display of results used WellCAD software from Advanced Logic Technology (ALT). WellCAD log display was then exported in PDF format and when possible individual log data sets were exported for archiving in LAS format.

See Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4208 for more complete information on the data processing.

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kevin Cunningham
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 3110 SW 9th Ave.
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5913
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kcunning@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Biscayne aquifer
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 50

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 1
Longitude_Resolution: 1
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
Altitude_Resolution: 1.0
Altitude_Distance_Units: feet
Altitude_Encoding_Method:
Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Specific data collected for each borehole include: depth in feet below land surface, formation, High Frequency Cycles (HFC), digital borehole image, rock-fabric facies, ground-water flow class, water depth (deeper to shallower), Gamma Ray (counts per second), resistivity (ohm-meters), digital borehole image vuggy porosity (percent), and caliper (inches).
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Data collected for the occurance of stratigraphically important benthic foraminiferal taxa, mollusks, ostracods, and echinoids for each well include: sample depth (below ground level in feeet), HCF, rock-fabirc facies, biofacies, and presence of species.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: geologic data
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: HTML
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/cunningham/>
Access_Instructions: Log onto the SOFIA website at <https://sofia.usgs.gov>
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090317
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata Part 1: Biological Data Profile
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/ba_geologic_data.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Tue Mar 17 17:46:23 2009