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Carbon Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Subtropical Forested Cypress and Pine Wetlands

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
W. Barclay Shoemaker, Frank Anderson, Jordan G. Barr, Scott Graham and Daniel B. Botkin
Publication_Date: Unpublished material
Title:
Carbon Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Subtropical Forested Cypress and Pine Wetlands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Maps and Data
Online_Linkage: Data Exchange: https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/carbon_exchange/
Online_Linkage:
Publication: https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/carbon_exchange/
Online_Linkage:
SOFIA Project Page: https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=cflux_ghousegas
Description:
Abstract:
Carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and forested subtropical wetlands is largely unknown. Here we report a first step in characterizing this atmospheric-ecosystem carbon (C) exchange, for cypress strands and pine forests in the Greater Everglades of Florida as measured with eddy covariance methods at three locations (Cypress Swamp, Dwarf Cypress and Pine Upland) for two years. Links between water and C cycles also are examined at these three sites, and methane emission measured only at the Dwarf Cypress site. Each forested wetland showed net C uptake from the atmosphere both monthly and annually, as indicated by net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2). For this study, NEE is the difference between photosynthesis and respiration, with negative values representing uptake from the atmosphere that is retained in the ecosystem or transported laterally via overland flow (unmeasured for this study). NEE was greatest at the Cypress Swamp (-900 to -1000 g C per m2 year), moderate at the Pine Upland (-650 to -700 g C per m2 year), and least at the Dwarf Cypress (-400 to -450 g C per m2 year). Changes in NEE were clearly a function of seasonality in solar insolation, air temperature and flooding which suppressed heterotrophic soil respiration. We also note that changes in the satellite-derived enhanced-vegetation index (EVI) served as a useful surrogate for changes in -NEE at these forested wetland sites.
Purpose:
We address several specific objectives on daily, monthly and annual time scales, including (1) the magnitude of cypress (tall and dwarf) and pine forested wetlands as net atmospheric C sources or sinks, (2) site differences in water and C exchange metrics (i.e., -NEE, GEE, RE, and surface energy fluxes), and (3) the magnitude of methane emission over a dwarf cypress wetland. Results from this study are expected to help define and predict subtropical forested wetland responses to regional (e.g., freshwater discharge) and global (e.g., air temperature) environmental change.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 201212
Ending_Date: 201412
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.38
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.84
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.61
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: carbon balance
Theme_Keyword: carbon exchange
Theme_Keyword: net ecosystem exchange
Theme_Keyword: methane emission
Theme_Keyword: cypress swamp
Theme_Keyword: dwarf cypress
Theme_Keyword: pine upland
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: Environment
Theme_Keyword: InlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: ClimatologyMeterologyAtmosphere
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Cite primary authors and database when using or publishing these data
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: W. Barclay Shoemaker
Contact_Organization: USGS Florida Water Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 7500 SW 36th Street
City: Davie
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33314
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954-377-5956
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bshoemake@usgs.gov
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Microsoft Excel Binary Worksheets

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
See publication for additional information on Attribute Accuracy
Logical_Consistency_Report:
See publication for additional information on Logical Consistency
Completeness_Report: See publication for additional information on Completeness
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
The eddy covariance method (Dyer, 1961; Tanner and Greene, 1989) is a one-dimensional (vertical) approach for measuring the exchange of gases within the atmospheric surface layer (Campbell and Norman, 1998). Key instrumentation (Table 2) includes sonic anemometers that rapidly (10-Hz) measure wind velocity and gas analyzers that rapidly measure heat/gas concentrations (See Table 2 of publication) in the atmosphere. The covariance between vertical wind velocities and heat/gas concentrations determines the net exchange of these quantities between the ecosystem and atmosphere. Additional instrumentation (Table 2) was installed at each site to measure net radiation, soil-heat flux, soil temperatures, air temperature and relative humidity, and distance of water above or below land surface (pressure transducers). Pressure transducers were corrected for drift using depth-to-water measurements from the top of well casings to the water surface. Monthly site visits were made to download data, perform sensor inspections and complete other site maintenance. All instrumentation was visually inspected, leveled, cleaned, or replaced as necessary.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Raw, 10-Hz, vertical wind speed, virtual temperature, and gas concentration data were processed to half-hourly fluxes using EddyPro software (version 4.0.0) following Advanced protocols that included random uncertainty estimates, spiking filters, double coordinate rotations, blocked-average detrending, statistical filters, air density and oxygen corrections (Tanner and Thurtell , 1969; Baldocchi et al., 1988; Webb et al., 1980; Tanner et al. 1993), and high-pass filtering.
Processed data yielded half-hourly mean values of NEE, methane, sensible and latent heat fluxes that were filtered to remove periods with unrealistic fluxes (Cypress Swamp - latent heat fluxes >800 and <-100 watts m-2, sensible heat flux >500 and <-150, NEE >25 and <-30 µmol m-2 s-1; Dwarf Cypress - latent heat fluxes >600 and <-150 watts m-2, sensible heat flux > 500 and <-100, NEE >20 and <-25 µmol m-2 s-1, FCH4 >0.5 and <-0.2; Pine Upland - latent heat fluxes >1000 and <-300 watts m-2, sensible heat >500 and <-200 watts m-2, NEE >125 and <-100 µmol m-2 s-1. See publication for reference citations.
Process_Date: 2013

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
dc_yr7_v2.xlsb is an Excel file containing data for the Dwarf Cypress sampling location. It includes the following data sheets: -working_stage - raw data from pressure transducer. Water distances above and below land-surface are computed in this worksheet. -raw_weather - raw data for wind direction, wind gust, incoming solar radiation, soil heat flux, net radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, temperature of air, water and soil, and volumetric water content. -work_weather - mean 30-minute calculations for data in raw_weather. Time is synced for weather and eddy covariance data. Wind speed correction for net radiation is performed on this worksheet. -GHG - raw data from EddyPro (processes 10Hz GHG files into 30-minute mean GHG fluxes). Includes sensible heat, latent heat, CH4 flux, NEE, air properties, wind velocities, QAQC checks such as Ustar, and measurement source area calculations. -GHG_working - contains gapfilling results for latent heat, sensible heat, NEE, CH4. Also performs daily and monthly NEE, Re, GEE, and WUE computations. -LUT –Gap-filling results from the Reichstein et al. (2005) look-up table. -CH4 - daily observed and simulated (equation 2) molar methane fluxes. Statistical estimates of model fit. Plot of observed and simulated results. -remove_NEE – removes 1, 5, 10, and 20% of observed NEE fluxes for gap-filling uncertainty calculation. -RU – results from random uncertainty estimates based on Finkelstein and Sims (2001). -ustar – calculation of the U* filter threshold.
-EVI_NDVI - contains EVI data from MODIS for comparison with GEE -weather_fig - plots of temperature, water levels and surface energy fluxes in the paper -DATA - CR1000 output for soil, air and water temperature, net radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation. Conversions of pressure transducer water depths into distances above and below land-surface. -DAVE_Rn - CNR-01 data including incoming and outgoing short and longwave radiation. Calculation of net radiation and albedo. -Baro - Barometric pressure data.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Shoemaker et al. 2015
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
cs_yr7_v2.xlsb is an Excel file containing data for the Cypress Swamp sampling location. It includes the following data sheets: -working_stage - raw data from pressure transducer. Water distances above and below land-surface are computed in this worksheet. -work_weather - mean 30-minute calculations for data in raw_weather. Time is synced for weather and eddy covariance data. Wind speed correction for net radiation is performed on this worksheet. -DAVE_Rn - CNR-01 data including incoming and outgoing short and longwave radiation. Calculation of net radiation and albedo. -GHG - raw data from EddyPro (processes 10Hz GHG files into 30-minute mean GHG fluxes). Includes sensible heat, latent heat, NEE, air properties, wind velocities, QAQC checks such as Ustar, and measurment source area calculations. -GHG_working - contains gapfilling models for latent heat, NEE. Also performs daily and monthly NEE, Re, GEE, and WUE computations. -remove_NEE – removes 1, 5, 10, and 20% of observed NEE fluxes for gap-filling uncertainty calculation. -LUT –Gap-filling results from the Reichstein et al. (2005) look-up table. -RU – results from random uncertainty estimates based on Finkelstein and Sims (2001). -daniel_WL - water level data collected by University of Florida. -EVI - contains EVI data from MODIS for comparison with GEE -ustar_filter – calculation of the U* filter threshold. -weather_fig - plots of temperature, water levels and surface energy fluxes in the paper -cr1000 - CR1000 output for soil, air and water temperature, net radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation. Conversions of pressure transducer water depths into distances above and below land-surface. -Ta_Ae - Linear regression of air temperature and available energy. This regression was used for gap-filling missing available energy.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Shoemaker et al. 2015
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
pu_year6.xlsb is an Excel file containing data for the Pine Upland sampling location. It includes the following data sheets: -cr1000 weather, bat, temp. - CR1000 output for soil, air and water temperature, net radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation. Calculation of available energy. -work_weather - calculation of water distance above and below landsurface. -weather_fig - plots of temperature, water levels and surface energy fluxes in the paper 1000_new - calculation of water distance above and below landsurface, available energy, photosynthetically active radiation, -GHG_full_output - raw data from EddyPro (processes 10Hz GHG files into 30-minute mean GHG fluxes). Includes sensible heat, latent heat, NEE, air properties, wind velocities, QAQC checks such as Ustar, and measurment source area calculations. -working_GHG - contains gapfilling for latent heat, NEE. Also performs daily and monthly NEE, Re, GEE, and WUE computations. -remove_NEE – removes 1, 5, 10, and 20% of observed NEE fluxes for gap-filling uncertainty calculation. -LUT –Gap-filling results from the Reichstein et al. (2005) look-up table. -RU – results from random uncertainty estimates based on Finkelstein and Sims (2001). -daily totals - calculation of daily total ET
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Shoemaker et al. 2015

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 4th Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-502-8028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-502-8182
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.
Custom_Order_Process:
Data are available from the SOFIA Data Exchange: https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/carbon_exchange/

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20150318
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 4th Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-502-8028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-502-8182
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Access_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata to be sure you have the most recent version.

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Last updated: 23 December, 2016 @ 01:49 PM (KP)