Home Archived October 29, 2018
(i)

South Florida Information Access (SOFIA)

1995 - 2007 Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database Version 8

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
1995 - 2007 Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database Version 8
Abstract:
The 1995 - 2007 Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database contains listings of all sites (modern and core), modern monitoring site survey information (water chemistry, floral and faunal data, etc.), and published core data.
Two general types of data are contained within this database: 1) Modern Field Data and 2) Core data - primarily faunal assemblages.
Data are available for modern sites and cores in the general areas of Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the southwest (Florida) coastal mangrove estuaries. Specific sites in the Florida Bay area include Taylor Creek, Bob Allen Key, Russell Bank, Pass Key, Whipray Basin, Rankin Bight, park Key, and Mud Creek core). Specific Biscayne Bay sites include Manatee Bay, Featherbed Bank, Card bank, No Name Bank, Middle Key, Black Point North, and Chicken Key. Sites on the southwest coast include Alligator Bay, Big Lostmans Bay, Broad River Bay, Roberts River mouth, Tarpon Bay, Lostmans River First and Second Bays, Harney River, Shark River near entrance to Ponce de Leon Bay, and Shark River channels.
Modern field data contains (1) general information about the site, description, latitude and longitude, date of data collection, (2) water chemistry information, and (3) descriptive text of fauna and flora observed at the site.
Core data contain either percent abundance data or actual counts of the distribution of mollusks, ostracodes, forams, and pollen within the cores collected in the estuaries. For some cores dinocyst or diatom data may be available.
  1. How might this data set be cited?
    Wingard, Lynn, 201503, 1995 - 2007 Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database Version 8.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?
    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.83
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.5
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.75
    Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and southwest Florida coast
  3. What does it look like?
    https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/145-96 (GIF)
    map showing Biscayne Bay region, seagrass, hardbottom and barren bottom communities
    https://sofia.usgs.gov/flaecohist/images/maps/FlaEcoHist-map.jpg (JPEG)
    satellite image showing sampling and core locations in Florida Bay
    https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2006-1271/images/fig1satx.jpg (JPEG)
    satellite image of the southwest coast of Florida showing general location of cores
    http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3108/fs2004-3108.html (JPEG)
    satellite image map of Biscayne Bay, Florida showing sites where USGS cores were collected
    https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/LocationPaleoCoreswZoneslg.jpg (JPEG)
    satellite image showing general areas of cores collection
  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?
    Beginning_Date: 27-Sep-1994
    Ending_Date: 03-Apr-2007
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition
  5. What is the general form of this data set?
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: MS Access database
  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?
    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?
      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: south Florida
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (252)
    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?
      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.01. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Degrees and decimal minutes. The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.
  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?
    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The following attributes are possible for records in the Modern Field Data: Site #, ID Number, Site (name), Location (Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay or Southwest coast), General Area Description, Changes Observed, Comments, Clarity, Collectors, Date Collected, Time, Longitude, Latitude, Salinity, Temperature, pH, Dissolved O2, Redox potential, Specific Conductance, Resistivity, Subsample #, Sample Type, Site Category, Position, Depth, Subsite Sampling Description, Sediment Description, Vegetative Description, Faunal Description, Comments, Vegetation Number, Site Category, Flora, Fauna, Particles, Lab Description, Notes, Presence/Absence - Debris/Live for Vegetation, Gastropods, Pelecypods/Other, and Terrestrial Vegetation. Not all attributes apply to all sites. The appropriate attributes are populated for each site.
    The possible attributes for the Core Locations are: General Location, Core ID #, Core Name, Related Modern Site, Public Information, Date Collected, Collectors, Longitude, Latitude, State, County, 7.5 minute quad, Core Length in Barrel, H20 Depth, General Area Description, Substrate Description, and Additional Information. These attributes are populated as appropriate for each core.
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
    See the Ecosystem History Access Database at https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/ for more detailed information on the attributes for the Modern Field Data and Core Locations.
  8. What biological taxa does this data set concern?
    Taxonomy:
    Keywords/Taxon:
    Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
    Taxonomic_Keywords: mollusks
    Taxonomic_Keywords: vegetation
    Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
    Taxonomic_Keywords: invertebrates
    Taxonomic_Keywords: ostracodes
    Taxonomic_Keywords: pelecypods
    Taxonomic_Keywords: gastropods
    Taxonomic_System:
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    Garbett, E. C.
    Maddocks, R. F.
    Publication_Date: 1979
    Title:
    Zoogeography of Holocene cytheracean ostrocodes in the bays of Texas
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
    Series_Information:
    Series_Name: Journal of Paleontology
    Issue_Identification: v. 53, n. 4, p. 841-919
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Iowa City, IA
    Publisher: The Paleontological Society
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Keyser, D.
    Publication_Date: 1975
    Title: Ostracoden aus den Mangrovegebieten von Sudwest-Florida
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
    Series_Information:
    Series_Name:
    Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg
    Issue_Identification: NF 18/19
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Hamburg, Germany
    Publisher: unknown
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Keyser, D.
    Publication_Date: 1976
    Title:
    Zur kenntnis der brackigen mangrovebewachsenen Weichboden Sud-West Floridas unter besonderer Berucksichtigung ihrer Ostracodenfauna
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Ph. D thesis
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Hamburg, Germany
    Publisher: Hamburg University
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Keyser, D.
    Publication_Date: 1977
    Title: Brackwasser-Cytheracea aus Sud_Florida
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
    Series_Information:
    Series_Name: Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins
    Issue_Identification: NF 20
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Hamburg, Germany
    Publisher: unknown
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Teeter, J. W.
    Publication_Date: 1975
    Title: Distribution of Holocene marine Ostracoda from Belize
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
    Series_Information:
    Series_Name: Studies in Geology
    Issue_Identification: No. 2
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
    Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists
    Other_Citation_Details:
    in, Belize shelf-carbonate sediments, clastic sediments and ecology
    Wantland, K. F., and Pussey, C., III, editors
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Abbott, R. T.
    Publication_Date: 1974
    Title: American Seashells
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: New York, NY
    Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    Warmke, G. L.
    Abbott, R. T.
    Publication_Date: 1961
    Title: Caribbean Seashells
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Narbeth, PA
    Publisher: Livingston Publishing Co.
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    Perry, L. M.
    Schwengel, J. S.
    Publication_Date: 1955
    Title: Marine shells of the western coast of Florida
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
    Publisher: Paleontological Research Institution
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    Loeblich, A. R.
    Tappan, H.
    Publication_Date: 1988
    Title: Foraminiferal genera and their classification
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: New York, NY
    Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
    Other_Citation_Details: V. 1 and 2
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Andrews, J.
    Publication_Date: 1971
    Title: Shells and shores of Texas
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Austin, TX
    Publisher: University of Texas
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    Turgeon, D. D.
    Quinn, J. F., Jr.; Bogan, A. E.; Coan, E. V.; Hochberg, F. G.; Lyons, W. G.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Neves, R. J.; Roper, C. F. E.; Rosenberg, G.; Roth, B.; Scheltema, A.; Thompson, F. G.; Vecchione, M.; Williams, J. D.
    Publication_Date: 1998
    Title:
    Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks
    Edition: 2nd
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Series_Information:
    Series_Name: Special Publication
    Issue_Identification: 26
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Bethesda, MD
    Publisher: American Fisheries Society
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator: Mikkelsen, P. M.; Bieler, R.
    Publication_Date: 2008
    Title:
    Seashells of Southern Florida: Living Marine Mollusks of the Florida Keys and Adjacent Regions: Bivalves
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Princeton, NJ
    Publisher: Princeton University Press
    Taxonomic_Procedures:
    Cores were sampled every 2 centimeters from the top to base for faunal and geochemical analysis. All samples were washed through a set of nested 63 micron and 850 micron sieves. Sample components from less than 63 microns were dried at 50 deg. C and weighed for 210 Pb analysis. The fractions of samples greater than 63 microns were dried at 50 deg. C and analyzed for ostracodes, formaninfers, and molluscs. All identifiable molluscs (ranging between 5 and 184 specimens) between 97 and 152 ostracode specimens, and 300 foraminifers (when attainable) were picked from each sample with a fine brush. Samples yielding less than 300 foraminifers were picked in their entirety. Every other sample from the core was examined. Faunal groups and species were identified, counted, and standardized by calculating percent abundance within each sample.
    Pollen assemblages and geochronology were analyzed from samples collected at 1-2 cm intervals throughout the cores. Pollen was isolated from the samples using standard palynological techniques, including carbonate and silicate removal with HCl and HF when necessary, acetolysis to reduce the amount of phytodebris, sieving through 8 micron mesh to remove clay-size particles, heavy liquid treatment when needed, and staining with Bismarck Brown before mounting on microscope slides with glycerin jelly.
    Taxonomic_Completeness:
    Ostracode species were identified using the taxonomy of Teeter (1975), Keyser (1975, 1976, 1977), and Garbett and Maddocks (1979). Thomas Cronin and others reviewed the ecology of the ostracode species. Molluscs were identified primarily using Abbott(1974), Warmke and Abbott (1961), Perry and Schwengel (1955) and Andrews (1971), and taxonomic nomenclature was updated following Turgeon et al (1998). Taxonomy of the benthic foraminiferal species was identified using Loeblich and Tappan (1988). Faunal slides are housed in the Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
    General_Taxonomic_Coverage:
    Flora and fauna are identified to the "common" names shown on the front page of the database
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Empire
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Biovitae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Mollusca
    Applicable_Common_Name: molluscs
    Applicable_Common_Name: mollusks
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Arthropoda
    Applicable_Common_Name: arthropodes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Crustacea
    Applicable_Common_Name: crustaceans
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Ostracoda
    Applicable_Common_Name: ostracodes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Chromista
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Bacillariophyceae
    Applicable_Common_Name: diatoms
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Chromalveolata
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Superphylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Alveolata
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Dinoflagellata
    Applicable_Common_Name: algae
    Applicable_Common_Name: dinocysts
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Protozoa
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Protozoa
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Sarcodina
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Superclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Rhizopoda
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Granuloreticulosea
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Foraminiferida
    Applicable_Common_Name: foraminifers
    Applicable_Common_Name: forams

Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)
    • Lynn Wingard
  2. Who also contributed to the data set?
    Principal investigators of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem History projects include Lynn Wingard, Debra Willard, Charles Holmes (retired), Thomas Cronin, Bruce Wardlaw, Scott Ishman (Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), and Jacqueline Huvane (Duke University Wetland Center)
    Data collected by G. Lynn Wingard, Scott Ishman, Thomas Cronin, Jessica Albietz, James Murary, Joseph Murray, Joel Hudley, Rob Stamm, Bane Schill, Carleigh Trappe, Guy Means, Marci Marot, Casey Saenger, James Gillespie, Chuck Holmes, Eugene Shinn, Margot Corum, Sara Schwede, Jacqueline Huvane, Gary Dwyer, Kristi Alger, Jeffery Stone, Lauren Hewitt, Tom Scott, Carlos Budet, Laura Pyle, Jill D'Ambrosio, Stephen Wandrei, Casey Lowe, Christopher Williams, Bethany Stackhouse, Christopher Wingard, Ruth Ortiz, Frank Marshall, Andy Anderson, and Herb Pierce
    The ecosystem history projects, which collected these data, have been funded by the USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GEPES). Biscayne Bay data were funded in part by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). Biscayne National Park and Everglades National Park have made the sites accessible to project personnel.
    This database was originally designed and developed by Jeffery Stone (1998-2000), under the supervision of G. Lynn Wingard. Carleigh Trappe revised the original design and maintained the database from 2000-2002. Carlos Budet maintained the database from 2002-2009, and Carlos Budet, Ruth Ortiz, Joel Hudley, and Jim Murray assisted G. Lynn Wingard in preparing the database for initial release in fall 2005 (version 1). Database is currently maintained by Bethany Stackhouse. As of February 2012, no new field data will be added to this database. For new data please refer to the 2008 - Present Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database.
  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?
    Lynn Wingard
    U.S. Geological Survey
    926A National Center
    Reston, VA 20192
    USA

    703 648-5352 (voice)
    703 648-6953 (FAX)
    lwingard@usgs.gov

Why was the data set created?

Scientists over the past few decades have noticed that the South Florida ecosystem has become increasingly stressed. The purposes of the ecosystem history projects (started in 1995) are to determine what south Florida's estuaries have looked like over time, how they have changed, and what is the rate and frequency of change. To accomplish this, shallow sediment cores are collected within the bays, and the faunal and floral remains, sediment geochemistry, and shell biochemistry are analyzed. Modern field data are collected from the same region as the cores and serve as proxies to allow accurate interpretation of past depositional environments.
The USGS South Florida Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies from a number of researchers compiling data from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems within south Florida. The project is divided into 3 regions: Biscayne Bay and the Southeast coast, Florida Bay and the Southwest coast, and Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems of Southern Florida. The purpose of the projects is to provide information about the ecosystem's recent history based on analyses of paleontology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology of cores taken from the south Florida region. Data generated from the South Florida Ecosystem History project will be integrated to provide biotic reconstructions for the area at selected time slices and will be useful in testing ecological models designed to predict floral and faunal response to changes in environmental parameters.
Biscayne Bay is of interest to scientists because of the rapid urbanization that has occurred in the Miami area and includes Biscayne National Park. Dredging, propeller scars, and changes in freshwater input have altered parts of Biscayne Bay. Currently, the main freshwater input to Biscayne Bay is through the canal system, but many scientists believe subsurface springs used to introduce fresh groundwater into the Bay ecosystem. Study of the modern environment and core sediments from Biscayne Bay will provide important information on past salinity and seagrass coverage which will be useful for predicting future change within the Bay.
Plant and animal communities in the South Florida ecosystem have undergone striking changes over the past few decades. In particular, Florida Bay has been plagued by seagrass die-offs, algal blooms, and declining sponge and shellfish populations. These alterations in the ecosystem have traditionally been attributed to human activities and development in the region. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are studying the paleoecological changes taking place in Florida Bay in hopes of understanding the physical environment to aid in the restoration process.
As in Biscayne Bay, scientists must first determine which changes are part of the natural variation in Florida Bay and which resulted from human activities. To answer this question, scientists are studying both modern samples and piston cores that reveal changes over the past 150-600 years. These two types of data complement each other by providing information about the current state of the Bay, changes that occurred over time, and patterns of change.
Terrestrial ecosystems of South Florida have undergone numerous human disturbances, ranging from alteration of the hydroperiod, fire history, and drainage patterns through implementation of the canal system to expansion of the agricultural activity to the introduction of exotic species such as Melalueca, Australian pine, and the Pepper Tree. Over historical time, dramatic changes in the ecosystem have been documented and these changes attributed to various human activities. However, cause-and-effect relationships between specific biotic and environmental changes have not been established scientifically. One part of the South Florida Ecosystem History group of project is designed to document changes in the terrestrial ecosystem quantitatively, to date any changes and determine whether they resulted from documented human activities, and to establish the baseline level of variability in the South Florida ecosystem to estimate whether the observed changes are greater than what would occur naturally.
Specific goals of this part of the project are to 1) document the patterns of floral and faunal changes at sites throughout southern Florida over the last 150 years, 2) determine whether the changes occurred throughout the region or whether they were localized, 3) examine the floral and faunal history of the region over the last few millennia, 4) determine the baseline level of variability in the communities prior to significant human activity in the region, and 5) determine whether the fire frequency, extent, and influence can be quantified, and if so, document the fire history for sites in the region.

How was the data set created?

  1. What methods were used to collect the data?
    Method 0 of 2
    Type: Field
    Core Collection.
    Core collection sites are determined on the basis of examination of digital orthophotoquadrangles, aerial photos, maps, reconnaissance, and discussion with land managers. Collecting cores is essential to the purpose of this project - to reconstruct the history of the ecosystem over biologically significant periods of time (decades to centuries) and to determine what the system looked like prior to significant human alteration. The sediments, faunal and floral remains in the cores retain this record.
    All cores are collected via the "piston" coring method. This provides a minimum of disruption to the sediments. The technique of obtaining the piston core varies somewhat from site to site depending on water depth and accessibility. Following are the general procedures:
    1. Marking the site: Specific core site is selected in advance by snorkeling before the boat or equipment is brought up to the site. The chosen site is marked with a float. 2. Set up: If the water depth allows, the boat is floated up to the site, anchored on at least two sides, and coring conducted through a "moon pool" (hatched hole in the bottom or back of the boat). If water depth does not allow us to float the boat over the site, we place the coring equipment on a raft or rubber dinghy, snorkel and float to the site, and proceed with coring. A tripod may be set up and utilized to assist in extracting the core. This is especially useful if the cores are long (>1.5 m) and/or if the substrate is very firm. If used, the tripod is set up prior to starting the actual coring. The purpose of the tripod is to keep tension on the piston while the core is being pushed down into the substrate. 3. Inserting the core barrels: 1. The piston (a hard rubber plug with 2 O-rings) is inserted into the bottom of a 4" outside-diameter clear acrylic tube, and a rope attached to an eye-ring in the top of the piston is threaded back through the core barrel. 2. The core barrel is lowered to just above the substrate and any air trapped in the space between the piston and the bottom of the barrel is removed and filled with water. Tension is then placed on the line attached to the piston, so when the core barrel penetrates the sediment the piston remains in a fixed position a few cm above the sediment surface; this produces a vacuum that retards compaction. 3. When the barrel is set in position it is forced down into the sediments (via muscle power) until we hit bedrock or until we cannot push the core any further. If a replicate core is being taken (side by side cores), the second core is pushed in place at this time, before the first core is extracted so that no disruption of the sediments for the second core will occur due to sediment movement during the extraction process. An aluminum clamp device with handles is usually placed around the barrel to provide a good grip for pushing. 4. Extracting the core barrels: 1. If a tripod was not set up, the aluminum clamp handles are used to extract the cores via muscle power. If a tripod is used, a cable and pulley system can be used to lift the core via a hand winch. With either method, it is critical to keep tension on the piston, because the piston provides the vacuum to retain the sediments in the core barrel as it is lifted. A benefit of the clear core barrel is that it allows us to determine if the piston is moving or if any leakage around the piston's O-ring seal occurs during the extraction process. 2. As soon as the core barrel clears the sediment surface, a person standing in the water quickly places a plastic cap over the bottom of the barrel. The barrel is hoisted vertically onto the boat and the bottom cap secured via waterproof tape. 3. Excess tubing is cut off just above the sediment surface using a large pipe cutter, and any space between the sediment surface and the top of the barrel is filled with water to prevent sloshing and disruption of the surface during transport. A top cap is placed on the barrel and sealed with waterproof tape. 4. If a replicate core is taken, the replicate also is extracted following the same procedures in a-c above.
    During the coring process we are very careful to not stand on or damage any organisms (coral, sponges, etc.) or to damage the substrate other than the actual hole from the coring. In many areas, the mud is so soft that the hole caves in/collapses immediately after extraction, and no visible sign of the core is left.
    Data recorded at the time of coring include: 1) GPS location (recorded on at least two instruments); 2) water depth to the substrate; 3) water depth to the sediment in the barrel (items 2 & 3 allow calculation of compaction during the coring process); 4) water properties including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH.
    Method 0 of 2
    Type: Lab
    Core processing:
    Cores are transported vertically and most are x-rayed as soon as possible (sometimes in the field at local hospitals). Cores are extruded vertically using the piston in reverse to push the sediment out of the barrel into one or two centimeter slices (resembling hockey pucks). The slices are trimmed around the edges to remove any contaminants due to contact with the barrel, bagged and weighed. Wet and dry weights are obtained for each sample.
    Processing procedures may vary slightly for each core, depending on the different analyses being conducted and these procedures are reported with results for individual cores. In general, all material is retained. Small (1 cm3) plugs of sediment are removed for palynological analyses and for archival purposes. The remainder of the sample is washed with distilled and deionized water through 63 and 850 micron nylon mesh sieves and all material passing through the sieves is trapped in buckets and allowed to settle out for a period of days or weeks. The water is then siphoned off and the fine (<63 micron) fraction is air dried on filter paper under a hood, then distributed for geochemical and geochronological analyses. The 63 and 850 micron fractions are dried in a 50 degree C oven and distributed for faunal analyses.
    Modern Samples:
    Actual sampling methods and frequencies vary from site to site, depending on the substrate, water depth, and conditions, and the specific purpose of the sampling. In some cases we have collected small push core samples (10 cm deep by 2"diameter); in others, small samples of vegetation, scoops of sediment, or petite ponar grab samples. At every site we record information on water properties including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, and where ever possible, we conduct a snorkel survey of the site listing presence/absence of various indicator macrofauna and flora.
    Processing of modern samples follows procedures similar to the core samples, except the <63 micron fraction is rarely retained.
  2. From what previous works were the data drawn?
  3. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?
    Date: Not complete (process 1 of 3)
    Shallow sediment cores are collected within the bays and the faunal and floral remains, sediment geochemistry, and shell biochemistry are analyzed. Modern field data are collected from the same region as the cores and serve as proxies to allow accurate interpretation of past depositional environments. Person who carried out this activity:
    Lynn Wingard
    U.S. Geological Survey
    926A National Center
    Reston, VA 20192
    USA

    703 648-5352 (voice)
    703 648-6953 (FAX)
    lwingard@usgs.gov
    Date: Not complete (process 2 of 3)
    Modern samples
    Actual sampling methods and frequencies vary from site to site, depending on the substrate, water depth, and conditions, and the specific purpose of the sampling. In some cases we have collected small push core samples (10 cm deep by 2"diameter); in others, small samples of vegetation, scoops of sediment, or petite ponar grab samples. At every site we record information on water properties including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, and where ever possible, we conduct a snorkel survey of the site listing presence/absence of various indicator macrofauna and flora.
    Processing of modern samples follows procedures similar to the core samples, except the <63 micron fraction is rarely retained. Person who carried out this activity:
    Lynn Wingard
    U.S. Geological Survey
    926A National Center
    Reston, VA 20192
    USA

    703 648-5352 (voice)
    703 648-6953 (FAX)
    lwingard@usgs.gov
    Date: Not complete (process 3 of 3)
    This database was originally designed and developed during the period 1998-2000, under the supervision of G. Lynn Wingard.
    As of February 2012, no new modern field data will be added to this database. For new data please refer to the 2008-Present Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database. Person who carried out this activity:
    Bethany Stackhouse
    U.S. Geological Survey
    926A National Center
    Reston, VA 20192
    USA

    703 648-6092 (voice)
    bstackhouse@usgs.gov
  4. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?
    Poag, C. W., 1981, Ecologic atlas of benthic foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico: Academic Press, New York, NY.

    Ishman, Scott E., 1997, Ecosystem History of South Florida: Biscayne Bay Sediment Core Descriptions: USGS Open-File Report 97-0437, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 1/11/2011
    Ishman, Scott E. Graham, Ian; D'Ambrosio, Jill, 1997, Modern Benthic Foraminifer Distributions in Biscayne Bay: Analogs for Historical Reconstructions: USGS Open-File Report 97-034, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Stone, Jeffery R. Cronin, Thomas M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Ishman, Scott E.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Holmes, Charles W., 2000, A Paleoecologic Reconstruction of the History of Featherbed Bank, Biscayne National Park, Biscayne Bay, Florida: USGS Open-File Report 00-191, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Wingard, G. L. Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.; Ishman, S. E.; Willard, D. A.; Holmes, C. W.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Williams, C. P.; Marot, M. E.; Murray, J. B.; Stamm, R. G.; Murray, J. H.; Budet, C., 2003, Ecosystem History of Southern and Central Biscayne Bay: Summary Report on Sediment Core Analyses: USGS Open-file Report 03-375, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Wingard, G. Lynn Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Dwyer, Gary; Ishman, Scott E.; Orem, William; Williams, Christopher P.; Albietz, Jessica; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Budet, Carlos A.; Landacre, Bryan; Lerch, Terry; Marot, Marci; Ortiz, Ruth E., 2004, Ecosystem History of Southern and Central Biscayne Bay: Summary Report on Sediment Core Analyses - Year Two: USGS Open-File Report 2004-1312, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Trappe, Carleigh A. Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn, 2001, Molluscan Fauna from Core 25B, Whipray Basin, Central Florida Bay, Everglades National Park: USGS Open-File Report 01-143, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Pyle, Laura Cooper, Sherri R.; Huvane Jacqueline K., 1998, Diatom Paleoecology Pass Key Core 37, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay: USGS Open-File Report 98-522, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn Ishman, Scott E.,; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Holmes, Charles W., 1998, Preliminary Paleontologic Report on Core 37, from Pass Key, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay: USGS Open-File Report 98-0122, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Scott, Thomas M. Means, Guy H.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn, 1997, Progress Report on Sediment Analyses at Selected Faunal Monitoring Sites in North-central and Northeastern Florida Bay: USGS Open-File Report 97-0534, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Willard, Debra A. Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Fellman, Claire; Ishman, Scott E., 1997, Paleontological Data from Mud Creek Core 1, southern Florida: USGS Open-File Report 97-0736, U. S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Wingard, G. Lynn Ishman, Scott; Cronin, Thomas; Edwards, Lucy E.; Willard, Debra A.; Halley, Robert B., 1995, Preliminary Analysis of Down-Core Biotic Assmeblages: Bob Allen Keys, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay: USGS Open-File Report 95-628, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn Stone, Jeffery R.; Holmes, Charles W., 2001, Molluscan Faunal Distribution in Florida Bay, Past and Present: An Integration of Down-Core and Modern Data: Bulletins of American Paleontology 361, Paleontological Research Institute, Ithica, NY.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Originally published in Bulletins of American Paleontology, Number 361, November 28, 2001
    accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn Ishman, S. E.; Edwards, L. E.; Willard, D. A., 1996, Preliminary Report on the Distribution of Modern Fauna and Flora at Selected Sites in North-central and North-eastern Florida Bay: USGS Open-File Report 96-0732, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Ishman, S. E. Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Holmes, C. W., 1996, Preliminary paleontologic report on core T-24, Little Madeira Bay, Florida: USGS Open-File Report 96-0543, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Wingard, G. Lynn Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E., 2005, Descriptions and Preliminary Report on Sediment Cores from the Southwest Coast Area, Everglades National Park, Florida: USGS Open-File Report 2005-1360, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston,VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Wanless, H. R. Cottrell, D. J.; Tagett, M. G.; Tedesco, L. P.; Warzeski, E. R., Jr., 1995, Origin and growth of carbonate banks in south Florida: Special Publicaton v. 23, International Association of Sedimentologists, Cambridge, MA.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    in, Carbonate Mud-mounds
    Monty, C. V., Boscence, D. W. J., Bridges, P. H., and Pratt, B. R., editors
    Schweitzer, P. N., 1994, ANALOG: A program for estimating paleoclimatic parameters using the method of modern assemblages: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Kovach, W. L., 1999, MVSP - A MultiVariate Statistical Package for Windows: Kovach Computing Services, Pentraeth, Wales, UK.

    Bock, W. D., 1971, A handbook of the benthonic foraminifera of Florida Bay and adjacent waters: Memoir 1, Miami Geological Society, Miami, FL.

    Hazel, J. E., 1983, Age and correlation of the Yorktown (Pliocene) and Croatan (Pliocene and Pleistocene) formations at the Lee Creek Mine: Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 53, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

    Cronin, T. M., 1979, Late Pleistocene marginal marine ostracodes from the southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain and their paleoenvironmental interpretation: Geographie Physique et Quaternaire v. 2, Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Cronin, T. M., 1990, Evolution of Neogene and Quaternary marine Ostracoda: United States Atlantic Coastal Plain: Evolution and speciation in Ostracoda IV: USGS Professional Paper 1367-C, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
    Wingard, Lynn, 2004, Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Prepared in cooperation with South Florida Water Management District and Biscayne National Park
    accessed as of 1/11/2011

How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?
    All data are cross checked at least twice to original field notes so entries are correct. In terms of reproducibility, these are living ecosystems, so part of the purpose of the database is to compare repeat observations at the same site over time to note the changes.
    The data on occurence of plants and animals are qualitative not quantitative assessments. An absence in the database does not necessarily mean an absence of the species at the sampling site. Observations of plants and animals were noted but this may not have been the primary focus of the data collection at a particular site.
  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?
    Much of the data were collected using a GPS system to accurately capture the location of the collection site. The accuracy of the positions range from none shown to +/- 493 feet. Many of the sites fall in the +/- 92 feet range. Most of the sites in the database have a GPS accuracy value given. The earlier dates for data collection are usually the ones without an accuracy value.
  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?
    Water depth data are accurate to within 0.25 meter
  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?
    The data on occurrence of plants and animals are qualitative notes - not quantitative assesments. Simply put, an absence in the database does not necessarily mean the species was absent at the site. Fieldwork was conducted for a variety of purposes over the years, and these data merely represent observations made at specific times and places, but cannot be quantitatively compared to each other. For example, a species may not have been detected at a specific site on a given date, because we were at the site to collect a core - not do a site survey. We always noted any observations made and these are recorded here, but more species would obviously be detected if we spent 30 minutes doing a snorkeling transect looking for species, than if we were there to collect a core and in the process noted the presence of certain species. Keep this in mind when looking at the data and treat the data on the biotic distributions as observational and qualitative.
  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?
    The field data contained in this database have not been reviewed for publication and therefore may contain inconsistencies or errors. The field measurements (such as salinity and temperature) were made on an variety of instruments over the years. Project personnel have made every attempt to calibrate and standardize the instruments and check the data, however, the field data should be considered preliminary. Also taxonomic names may not represent the most up to date usage, but are internally consistent.
    All data are cross checked at least twice to original field notes so entries are correct. In terms of reproducibility, these are living ecosystems, so part of the purpose of the database is to compare repeat observations at the same site over time to note the changes.

How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
The field data contained in the database have not been reviewed for publication and, therefore, may contain inconsistencies or errors. The field measurements (such as salinity and temperature) have been made on a variety of instruments over the years. Every effort has been made to calibrate and standardize the instruments and check the data, however, the field data should be considered preliminary. Also, taxonomic names may not represent the most up-to-date usage, but are internally consistent.
  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)
    Heather S. Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set? Ecosystem History of South Florida Estuaries Data
  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?
    The field data contained in this database have been compiled, standardized and verified to the original records.
  4. How can I download or order the data?
    • Availability in digital form:
      Data format: MS Access (version 2007) The Access database is available as a zipped file Size: 3.2
      Network links: https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/
    • Cost to order the data: none


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-May-2015
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, Part 1: Biological Data Profile (FGDC-STD-001.1-1999)

Generated by mp version 2.9.31 on Wed May 6 16:18:02 2015

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
This page is: http://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/eco_hist_db.faq.html
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Last updated: 23 December, 2016 @ 01:48 PM (KP)