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Ecosystem History of the Southwest Coast-Shark River Slough Outflow Area

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
G. Lynn Wingard

Thomas Cronin, Debra Willard, Charles Holmes, William Orem, Gary Dwyer (Duke University)

Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Ecosystem History of the Southwest Coast-Shark River Slough Outflow Area
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/eh_swcsrs/>
Description:
Abstract:
The objectives of this project are to document impacts of changes in salinity, water quality, coastal plant and animal communities and other critical ecosystem parameters on a subdecadal-centennial scale in the southwest coastal region (from Whitewater Bay, north to the 10,000 Islands), and to correlate these changes with natural events and resource management practices. Emphasis will be placed on 1) determining the amount, timing and sources of freshwater influx (groundwater vs. runoff) into the coastal ecosystem prior to and since significant anthropogenic alteration of flow; and 2) determining whether the rate of mangrove and brackish marsh migration inland has increased since 20th century water diversion and what role sealevel rise might play in the migration.

First, the environmental preferences and distributions of modern fauna and flora are established through analyses of modern samples in south Florida estuaries and coastal systems. Much of these data have already been obtained through project work conducted in Florida Bay and the terrestrial Everglades starting in 1995. These modern data are used as proxies for interpreting the historical data from Pb-210 and C-14 dated sediment cores based on assemblage analysis. On the basis of USGS data obtained from cores in Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay, the temporal span of the cores should be at a minimum the last 150 years; this is in agreement with University of Miami data showing sedimentation rates in Whitewater Bay to be approximately 1cm/year. For the estuarine/coastal ecosystems, a multidisciplinary, multiproxy approach will be utilized on cores from a transect from Whitewater Bay north to 10,000 Islands. Biochemical analyses of shells and chemical analyses of sediments will be used to refine data on salinity and nutrient supply, and isotopic analyses of shells will determine sources of water influx into the system. Nutrient analyses will be conducted to determine historical patterns of nutrient influx. To examine the inland migration of the mangrove/coastal marsh ecotone, transects from the mouth of the Shark and Harney Rivers inland into Shark River slough will be taken. These cores will be evaluated for floral remains, nutrients, charcoal, and if present, faunal remains.

This project will provide 1) baseline data for restoration managers and hydrologic modelers on the amount and sources of freshwater influx into the southwest coastal zone and the quality of the water, 2) the relative position of the coastal marsh-mangrove ecotone at different periods in the past, and 3) data to test probabilities of system response to restoration changes.

Purpose:
One of the primary goals of the Central Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is to restore the natural flow of water through the terrestrial Everglades and into the coastal zones. Historically, Shark River Slough, which flows through the central portion of the Everglades southwestward, was the primary flow path through the Everglades Ecosystem. However, this flow has been dramatically reduced over the last century as construction of canals, water conservation areas and the Tamiami Trail either retained or diverted flow from Shark River Slough. The reduction in flow and changes in water quality through Shark River have had a profound effect on the freshwater marshes and the associated coastal ecosystems. Additionally, the flow reduction may have shifted the balance of fresh to salt-water inflow along coastal zones, resulting in an acceleration of the rate of inland migration of mangroves into the freshwater marshes. For successful restoration to occur, it is critical to understand how CERP and the natural patterns of freshwater flow, precipitation, and sea level rise will affect the future maintenance of the mangrove-freshwater marsh ecotone and the coastal environment.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20031001
Ending_Date: 20080930
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.75
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.83
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: ecosystem history
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: freshwater flow
Theme_Keyword: biochemistry
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: model
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme_Keyword: salinity
Theme_Keyword: geochronology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Shark River Slough
Place_Keyword: Ten Thousand Islands
Place_Keyword: Whitewater Bay
Place_Keyword: Big Sable Creek
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
These data are subject to change and are not citeable until reviewed and approved for official publication.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lynn Wingard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5352
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lwingard@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/LocationPaleoCoreswZoneslg.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Map showing the genreal location of modern sites and cores included in the Ecosystem History database
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Project Personnel include James Murray, Carlos Budet, Rob Stamm, Marci Marot, Ruth Ortiz, Margo Corum, Thomas Sheehan, Terry Lerch, Mark Savarese, and K. Waylen
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wingard, G. Lynn

Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E.

Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Descriptions and Preliminary Report on Sediment Cores from the Southwest Coast Area, Everglades National Park, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1360
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston,VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2005-1360>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, Debra A.

Weimer, Lisa M.; Riegel, W. L.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Issue_Identification: v. 113, n. 4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B.V.
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00346667>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, D. A.

Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
The Florida Everglades Ecosystem: Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts over the Last Two Millenia
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletins of American Paleontology
Issue_Identification: v. 361
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
Publisher: Paleontological Research Institute
Other_Citation_Details: in Paleoecology of South Florida, B. R. Wardlaw, ed.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wingard, G. Lynn

Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E.; Hudley, Joel; Murray, James B.

Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Descriptions and Preliminary Report on Sediment Cores from the Southwest Coastal Area, Part II: Collected July 2005, Everglades National Park, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2006-1271
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2006-1271/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Geochronology and Paleoecology of Southwest Coastal Area

Processing of all core samples from the southwest coastal area has been completed. Core samples were processed using standard methods and all fractions were retained for analyses. A portion of the less than 63-micron fraction has been used for Pb-210 geochronology. The greater than 63-micron fraction has been sorted for faunal analyses; ostracodes, molluscs and benthic forams have been picked and sorted and identification of the Shark River Transect cores completed. Identification and analyses of the Harney and Lostmans transect cores will be completed in FY08. Percent abundance is calculated for the faunal data, and these data are compared to the modern proxy data. The down-core faunal assemblages and the presence or absence of key indicator species allows interpretation of trends in salinity, water quality and the presence of SAV at the site.

Analysis of faunal and floral remains, geochemistry and geochronology of three cores forming a transect up Shark River Slough have been completed and are currently being compiled for a report planned for release in Fall 2007. Age models for the cores have been completed and a database of modern analogue data for nearshore environments has been significantly augmented in FY07, improving our interpretation of the downcore data. Processing of all cores from the southwest coastal area was completed in FY07. Sorting and identification of samples from the Harney River Transect is underway.

Process_Date: 2007
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lynn Wingard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5352
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lwingard@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Vegetational response to alterations in freshwater inflow: mangrove-freshwater marsh ecotone of southwest Florida

Analyses of Shark River transect cores was completed in FY07, and Harney River and Lostmans River transects will be completed in FY08. Pollen work will be coordinated with faunal assemblage analyses under the geochronology and paleoecology task. Additional marsh core transects may be planned for collection in FY08, or material from previous collections in the area may be utilized.

We will reconstruct the position of the coastal marsh-mangrove ecotone at selected time slices during the last few centuries, with the greatest detail provided for the last century. Reconstructions will be based on analysis of pollen, seeds, charcoal, and microfaunal assemblages from sediment cores collected in a transect along Shark River from fresh water marshes to mangroves at the river mouth. (Location of transects will be coordinated with task 1.) These sites correspond to existing vegetation and SET (Surface Elevation Table) sites SH1-5 and some water monitoring sites that are part of the Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) study. Cores also will be collected at Big Sable Creek. Cores will be described sedimentologically before paleoecological analyses.

Based on previous radiometric dating of peat cores from the Everglades (Willard et al, 2001a; 2001b), sampling intervals of 1 - 2 cm should provide adequate temporal resolution to identify vegetational and environmental changes on sub-decadal scales for the 20th century. Geochronology will be established using a combination of cesium-137 and lead-210, which provides good age control over the last 100 years, and radiocarbon dating, which provides age control over centennial to millennial time scales.

The natural variability of the system will be established through analysis of pre-drainage sediments. Globally documented climatic events may have elevated temperature as much as climate models predict for the 21st century, and an understanding of the past response of the system to such perturbations will provide important information to policymakers in designing restoration plans that incorporate expected climate variability.

Data on the timing and extent of salinity changes at the freshwater wetland-mangrove marsh ecotone will be used for calibration and verification of the TIME Study hydrodynamic and transport model being developed for the entirety of Everglades National Park.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Debra Willard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5320
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dwillard@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Patterns, Causes, and Impacts of Salinity Changes in Southwest Coastal Zone

Extensive work in the nearshore area of Biscayne Bay has provided relevant additional proxy information on species present in the southwest area. We plan to conduct modern field work in FY08 in the southwest area to fill in a few remaining gaps in the modern analogue dataset. In addition, we plan to collaborate with Florida Gulf Coast University (Dr. Michael Savarese) and share data and resources for modern calibration work.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Tom Cronin
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-6363
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tcronin@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Geochemical History of Southwest Coastal Zone: Nutrients and Organics

In FY08, we will conduct analyses for C,N,P, and S on the remaining priority cores collected in the SW coast area by Wingard and others. Results will be included in the existing SW Coast Geochemical Database. This database also includes nutrient data from upstream (Shark Slough and Big Cypress National Preserve), and nutrient, sulfur, and mercury biogeochemistry collected in the SW coastal area, as part of the Linking Land, Air and Water Management in the Southern Everglades and Coastal Zone to Water Quality and Ecosystem Restoration project (Orem and Krabbenhoff). The Open-File Report begun in FY07 will be completed (corrections and Director’s Approval). Data, figures, interpretations, and text will also be contributed toward publication of a journal article on the SW Coast paleoecology (Wingard et al.)

The approach we are taking is to examine the historical record of nutrients from dated sediment cores. Results will also be compared to water flow records to determine if known changes in the water control system of south Florida may correspond to distinct nutrient changes within the cores. Historical changes in sulfur geochemistry of the cores will also provide information on historical changes in salinity related to construction of canals within the Everglades. Work conducted on this project will link to work being conducted in the Integrated Biogeochemical Studies in the Everglades project (Orem and Krabbenhoff), which includes: (1) studies of nutrients, sulfur, and mercury geochemistry in upstream areas of Shark Slough and Big Cypress National Preserve, and (2) studies of nutrient, sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry in the SW coastal area (Florida Bay to Rookery Bay). Results will be compiled with faunal and floral data from the project in order to reconcile the timing of changes in nutrient input to that of changes in the biological community, and to permit determination of whether eutrophication of the coastal zone and changes in biota are directly linked.

Splits of the <63-micron fraction from selected cores will be analyzed for nutrient history studies. Results from 210Pb and 137Cs dating of these cores, and paleoecological studies will be available for comparison to the nutrient data. Once cores are collected and processed, nutrients will be analyzed from selected 2-cm intervals for TC, OC, TN, and total S using a Leco elemental analyzer available in USGS biogeochemistry labs (Orem) in Reston, VA. TP content will be analyzed using a standard geochemical method involving baking at 550?C, extraction in acid, and colorimetric analysis. All equipment for this procedure is also available at USGS labs in Reston. Organic geochemical studies will involve the use of published methods. These methods involve soxhlet extraction of biomarkers from sediments, isolation procedures involving column chromatography, and identification and quantification using GC and GC/MS. All organic geochemical equipment and instrumentation needed from this work is available in lab facilities at the USGS in Reston, VA. All geochemical data will be plotted down-core, and compared to results of other tasks. Accumulation rates for TC, OC, TN, TP, and total S will be calculated using sediment accumulation rates calculated from 210-Pb dating and the concentrations of these chemical species in the sediments. Accumulation rates for these elements in Taylor Slough and the C-111 Basin, and eastern Florida Bay have already been published by Orem. Comparison of accumulation rates in Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and the SW coast cores may provide additional insights into processes and flow patterns

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: William Orem
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 956 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-6273
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6419
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: borem@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Southwest coast-Shark River Slough outflow area

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Ecosystem History of South Florida Estuaries Data
Distribution_Liability:
The field data contained in this database have not been reviewed for publication and therefore may contain inconsistencies or errors.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Access
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: The Access database is available as a zipped file
File_Decompression_Technique: The file must be "unzipped" before use
Transfer_Size: 4.8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist>
Access_Instructions: The database may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20080620
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/eco_hist_swcoast_srs_04.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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