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Assessment of Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPOCs) in Wastewater Influent and Effluent and Receiving Waters of South Florida

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Arthur Lietz (retired)
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Assessment of Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPOCs) in Wastewater Influent and Effluent and Receiving Waters of South Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=epocs>
Description:
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to provide insight to the following questions:

1. What Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPOCs) are present in the influent and effluent of the South Dade Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP)? 2. What is the extent of removal of EPOCs at the South Dade WWTP and its existing Reuse facility? 3. What are the potential removal methods that could be applied in principal to remove EPOCs from reuse water? 4. What future monitoring and assessment of EPOCs, if any, should be carried out at the planned South-Miami Dade Wastewater Reuse Pilot test facility?

Purpose:
The Wastewater Reuse Technology Pilot Project is a component of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP). This pilot project will investigate the economic and ecologic feasibility of using up to 150 million gallons per day (mgd) of highly treated wastewater effluent to re-hydrate impaired wetlands in south Miami-Dade County. The reuse pilot project includes the design, construction, and operation of a pilot scale (up to 5 mgd) advanced wastewater treatment plant that will discharge highly treated, low nutrient effluent into a small coastal freshwater wetland located within the Biscayne Bay drainage basin.

As part of developing the pilot project plan, the Project Delivery Team (PDT) will document the expected impact of discharging reuse water into the south Miami-Dade and Biscayne Bay ecosystems. In addition to ecological impacts caused by the discharge of typical wastewater pollutants, the PDT has determined that the presence of Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPOCs) in the wastewater effluent should be studied. The ecological and human health impact of EPOCs in wastewater effluent has in recent years come to the attention of scientists as well as environmental regulators. Biscayne Bay and Biscayne Bay National Park are Outstanding Florida Waters and as such have an "anti-degradation" criteria applied to them. Anti-degradation criteria require that new discharges cannot cause or contribute to a decrease in water quality. For this reason it is critical to have an inventory of EPOCs in the wastewater in order to design treatment to remove them prior to their being discharged into Biscayne National Park.

Supplemental_Information:
The results of this project are documented in USGS SIR 2006-5420.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Multiple_Dates/Times:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 200403
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 200407
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 20041005
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 20041020
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.35
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.31
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.56
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.53
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: contaminants
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: antibiotics
Theme_Keyword: pharmaceuticals
Theme_Keyword: hormones
Theme_Keyword: sterols
Theme_Keyword: household wastewater compounds
Theme_Keyword: industrial wasterwater compounds
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: utilitiesCommunication
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 019
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: South District Waste Water Treatment Plant
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Michael T. Meyer
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 4821 Quail Crest Place
City: Lawrence
State_or_Province: KS
Postal_Code: 66049
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 785 832-3544
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 785 832-3500
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mmeyer@usgs.gov
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Lietz, A.C.

Meyer, M. T.

Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Evaluation of Emerging Contaminants of Concern at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Seasonal Sampling Events, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2004
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Scientific Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2006-5240
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/3/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5240/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geologcial Survey
Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9) Chapter A5: Processing of water samples
Edition: 2.2
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations
Issue_Identification: Book 9, chapter A5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/3/2010
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter5/html/Ch5_contents.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (TWRI Book 9) Cahpter A3: Cleaning of equipment for water sampling
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations
Issue_Identification: Book 9, chapter A3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/3/2010
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/chapter3/Ch3_contents.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Zaugg, S. D.

Smith, S. G.; Schroeder, M. P.; Barber, L. B.; Burkhardt, M. R.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of Wastewater Compounds by Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene Solid-Phase Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Edition: 1.1; revised 2007
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 01-4186
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Denver, CO
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/3/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri014186/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cahill, J.D.

Furlong, E. T.; Burkhardt, M. R.; Kolpin, Dana; Anderson, L. G.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Chromatography A
Issue_Identification: v. 1041, issues 1-2, p. 171-180
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/3/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00219673>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Quality assurance rule: Chapter 62-160, Florida Administrative Code
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Quality Assurance Rules
Issue_Identification: 62-160
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: online
Publisher: Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/3/2010

current online version is effective 12/03/2008

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.dep.state.fl.us/legal/Rules/general/62-160/62-160.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Winslow, S. D.

Prakash, B.; Domino, M. M.; Pepich, B.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Considerations necessary in gathering occurrence data for selected unstable compounds in the USEPA unregulated contaminant candidate list in USEPA method 526:
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Environmental Science and Technoloogy
Issue_Identification: v. 35, n. 9, p. 1851-1858
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/3/2010

The full article is available only via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed at the address below.

Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es001683l>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Composite and discrete samples were collected using the same techniques during all sampling events, except for the sampling intervals used. Composite samples were collected as grab samples every 4 hours during the low-inflow and average-inflow sampling events using a 1-L stainless-steel, weighted-bottle sampler lowered into the waste stream. During the high-rate disinfection (HRD) tests, composite samples were collected in the same manner but at 2-hour intervals. All grab samples were composited in a Teflon churn splitter in the laboratory prior to filtration and processing. Contact with plastic was avoided during all sampling or processing procedures because many of the organic compounds adsorb to plastic surfaces, except during the HRD tests where this was impossible because certain components are composed of plastic. Discrete samples were collected in the same manner as composite samples during all sampling events.
Completeness_Report:
Samples were analyzed for organic wastewater compounds, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical compounds, veterinary and human antibiotic compounds, and hormones. Analyses for samples of organic wastewater compounds and pharmaceutical compounds were performed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) in Denver, Colorado. Analyses for samples of antibiotic compounds and hormones were performed at the Kansas Water Science Center, Organic Geochemistry Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Sampling and processing methods:

The dry-season, low-inflow sampling event was conducted during March 2-3, 2004, with a measured average inflow rate of 83.7 Mgal/d and the wet-season, average-inflow sampling event was conducted during July 20-21, 2004, with a measured average inflow rate of 89.7 Mgal/d.

To prevent contamination or sorption of analytes, water samples used to determine organic compounds should only have direct contact with inert materials such as glass, metal, fluorocarbon polymers (for example, Teflon), or ceramics during sampling and processing (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2004). In accordance with these requirements, water samples from the waste stream at the previously mentioned locations were collected using powderless nitrile laboratory gloves and a stainless-steel, weighted bottle sampler containing a 1-L amber borosilicate glass bottle with fluorocarbon polymer, fluorinated-ethylene-propylene lined caps. Because the chlorination process has been shown to facilitate degradation of certain organic constituents, samples collected at the reuse train and CLO2 pilot unit were dechlorinated with ascorbic acid (Winslow and others, 2001).

Collected samples were chilled immediately to 4 deg C and transported at the end of the 24-hour sampling period to the water-quality laboratory at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center in Miami (now in Fort Lauderdale). Samples for each respective site and type were then composited in a 14-L fluoropolymer (Teflon) churn splitter for processing. Samples were processed according to protocol (U.S. Geological Survey, 2002). Processing equipment was decontaminated before and after samples were processed for each respective site according to protocol (U.S. Geological Survey, 2004).

Samples were processed in the following order based on their physical properties: organic wastewater compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, antibiotic compounds, and hormones.

Sampling for emerging contaminants required the use of special precautions to minimize the risk of compromising sample integrity. In accordance with this requirement, contact and consumption of specific compounds during sampling and processing for this study were avoided according to protocol (U.S. Geological Survey, 2002). These compounds include the following wastewater products: soaps and detergents, insect repellents, fragrances, sunscreen, caffeine, and tobacco products. Caution also was exercised in avoiding contact with the following pharmaceutical compounds: prescription drugs, medications and hormonal substances, nonprescription medications, and selected human and veterinary antibiotics. Powderless nitrile gloves were changed during activity changes and sample bottle changes. Direct contact between samples and clothing also was avoided during sampling and processing activities.

For complete details of the sampling and processing methods, see USGS SIR 2006-5420 at <http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5240/>

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Process_Date: 2004
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Laboratory analytical methods:

Organic Wastewater Compounds The NWQL-approved method is designed for compounds in the dissolved phase; therefore, samples were filtered in the laboratory before shipment to the NWQL for analysis. When a sample is received by the laboratory, 60 g of sodium chloride is added prior to refrigeration at 4 °C to aid sample preservation (Zaugg and others, 2001). To ensure that samples are processed in a timely manner, the maximum holding time allowed for samples processed by this method is 14 days from the date of sample collection. This method is suitable for compounds that: (1) partition from the water phase onto a polystyrene-divinylbenzene organic phase, and (2) are sufficiently volatile and thermally stable for gas chromatography.

Pharmaceutical Compounds The provisional analytical method used for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds utilizes combined solid pahse extraction (SPE) isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). This method is sensitive for many compounds at concentrations less than 0.10 µg/L; method detection limit (MDL)s average 0.022 µg/L (Cahill and others, 2004).

Antibiotic Compounds Water samples were analyzed for compounds in the macrolide, sulfonamide, quinoline, tetracycline, and beta-lactam classes of antibiotics. The beta-lactams and macrolides (BLM), sulfonamides and quinolones (SQ), and tetracyclines (TET) were analyzed separately using on-line SPE methods and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) in positive-ion mode.

Hormones The analysis used for hormones is a provisional research method conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory. Semiquantitative analyses of the hormones 17 beta-estradiol (E2), ethenyl estradiol (EE2), and estrone (E1) were made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and an SPE-LC/MS method.

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays The analysis of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was performed using commercially available magnetic-particle ELISA kits (Abraxis, Warminster, Pennsylvania). The analytical protocol supplied by the manufacturer was followed, and the reported detection level is 1.5 ng/L.

Solid-Phase Extraction - Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Two subsets of samples, spiked and not spiked with estrone (E1), ethenyl estradiol (EE2), and 17 beta-estradiol (E2), were analyzed using SPE and LC/MS. Standard curves were prepared by spiking a 123-mL distilled-water sample using sample concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 µg/L. Additionally, a set of 10 samples was spiked with a 0.2-µg/L sample concentration.

For complete details of the analyses, see USGS SIR 2006-5420 at <http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5240/>

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Process_Date: 2004
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Michael T. Meyer
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 4821 Quail Crest Place
City: Lawrence
State_or_Province: KS
Postal_Code: 66049
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 785 832-3544
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 785 832-3500
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mmeyer@usgs.gov

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Laboratory analyses were done for the following organic componds: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene; 1-Methylnaphthalene; 2,6-Dimethylnaphthalene; 2-Methylnaphthalene; 3 beta-coprostanol; 3-Methyl-1H-indole (skatol); 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA); 4-Cumylphenol; 4-Nonylphenol (total, NP); 4-n-Octylphenol; 4-tert-Octylphenol; 5-Methyl-1H-benzotriazole; Acetophenone; Acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN); Anthracene; Anthraquinone; Benzophenone; beta-Sitosterol; beta-Stigmastanol; Bisphenol A; Bromacil; Caffeine; Camphor; Carbaryl; Carbazole; Chlorpyrifos; Cholesterol; Cotinine; Diazinon; Dichlorvos; Diethoxynonylphenol (total NPEO2); Diethoxyoctylphenol (OPEO2); d-Limonene; Fluoranthene; Hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB); Indole; Isoborneol; Isophorone; Isopropylbenzene (cumene); Isoquinoline; Menthol; Metalaxyl; Methyl salicylate; Metolachlor; Monoethoxyoctylphenol (OPEO1); N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET); Naphthalene; para-Cresol; Pentachlorophenol; Phenanthrene; Phenol; Prometon; Pyrene; Tetrachloroethylene; Tribromomethane; Tribromomethane; Tributyl phosphate; Triclosan; Triethyl citrate (ethyl citrate); Triphenyl phosphate; Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate; Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and Tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate.

Analyses were done for the following prescription and non-prescription pharmaceuticals: 1,7-dimethylxanthine; Aetaminophen; Azithromycin; Caffeine; Carbamazapine; Cimetidine; Codeine; Cotinine; Dehydronifedipine; Diltiazem; Diphenhydramine; Erythromycin; Fluoxetine; Furosemide; Gemfibrozil; Ibuprofen; Metformin; Miconazole; Ranitidine; Salbutamol; Sulfamethoxazole; Thiabendazole; Trimethoprim; and Warfarin.

Analyses were done for the following antibiotic and degradation products: macrolides, quinolines, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and beta lactams.

Analyses were done for the following hormones: 17 beta-estradiol (E2); Ethenyl estradiol (EE2); and Estrone (E1).

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20101103
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
The principal investigator for this project has retired and the Point of Contact has declined to provide a review of the information in the metadata record. Any questions about the information should be directed to the Point of Contact under Citation Information or the Process Contact(s).

This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/epocs.html>

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