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Everglades Isotope Data

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Everglades Isotope Data
Abstract:
Data are available for the following sites: Cell 4, ENR-OUT, L7, Cell 3, LOX, North Holeyland, E0, F1, U3/Glory Hole, L35B, 2BS, L67, 3A-15, 3A-TH, Lostmans Creek, North Prong Creek, TS-7, and TS-9 for the plants and animals found at each site.
Supplemental_Information:
This work started as part of the Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the E verglades (ACME) project in 1996 and was made a separate project in 2000.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Carol Kendall Bryan E. Bemis Scott D. Wankel, 2005, Everglades Isotope Data.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.0202
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3069
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.6712
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.2475
    Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Everglades

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/lessons-evergl/images/sitesmapx.jpg> (JPEG)
    locations of USGS sites, USEPA REMAP sites 1996, and USEPA REMAP sites 1999
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3138/images/fig1x.jpg> (JPEG)
    satellite image of south Florida showing biota collection sites

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: Mar-1995
    Ending_Date: Oct-1999
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheet

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (18)

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Each data collection site has the following information: date (month-year), critter, common name, scientific name, sigma 15N mean, sigma 15N S(tandard) D(eviation), sigma 15N n, sigma 13C mean, sigma 13C SD, sigma 13C n, C:N mean, C:N SD, and C:N n
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

  8. What biological taxa does this data set concern?

    Taxonomy:
    Keywords/Taxon:
    Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: ITIS
    Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
    Taxonomic_Keywords: plants
    Keywords/Taxon:
    Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
    Taxonomic_Keywords: fish
    Taxonomic_Keywords: vertebrates
    Taxonomic_System:
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

    U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smithsonian Institution - National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)

    Publication_Date: 2000
    Title: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Database
    Other_Citation_Details:
    Retrieved from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, <http://www.itis.gov>.
    Online_Linkage: <http://www.itis.gov>
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    USDA, NRCS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service)
    Publication_Date: 2007
    Title: The Plants Database
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: online database
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Baton Rouge, LA
    Publisher: National Plant Data Center
    Online_Linkage: <http://plants.usda.gov/>
    Classification_System/Authority:
    Classification_System_Citation:
    Citation_Information:
    Originator:
    Guiry, M. D.

    Guiry, G. M.

    Publication_Date: 2007
    Title: AlgaeBase
    Edition: version 4.2
    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: electronic publication
    Publication_Information:
    Publication_Place: Galway, Ireland
    Publisher: National University of Ireland
    Online_Linkage: <http://www.algaebase.org>
    Taxonomic_Procedures: field identification of plants, invertebrates, and fish
    Taxonomic_Completeness:
    Taxonomic classification information could not be found for the following plants and animals listed in the datasets: Amiidae calva, Bellastomatia, Chironomus crassicaudarus, Cladium jamaicense, Classoma, Dytiseidae, Eleocharis, Gyrinid, Lepomis gulosus, Libellulid, Oligocheate, Palaeomenetes paludosus, Phragmites, and Podomogetan
    General_Taxonomic_Coverage: Plants and animals are identified to genus or species level
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Empire
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Biovitae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Arthropoda
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Malacostraca
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Decapoda
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cambaridae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Procambarus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Procambarus alleni
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Amphipoda
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Gammaridae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Gammarus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hyalellidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hyalella
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hyalella azteca
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Insecta
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hemiptera
    Applicable_Common_Name: true bugs
    Applicable_Common_Name: hemipterans
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Corixidae
    Applicable_Common_Name: water boatman
    Applicable_Common_Name: corises
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Trichoptera
    Applicable_Common_Name: caddisflies
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Ephemeroptera
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Caenidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Caenis
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Actinopterygii
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyprinodontiformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyprinodontidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Jordanella
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Jordanella floridae
    Applicable_Common_Name: American flagfish
    Applicable_Common_Name: flagfish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulus chrysotus
    Applicable_Common_Name: golden topminnow
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulus seminolis
    Applicable_Common_Name: Seminole killifish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucania
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucania goodei
    Applicable_Common_Name: blue-fintop minnow
    Applicable_Common_Name: bluefin killifish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Poeciliidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Gambusia
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Gambusia affinis
    Applicable_Common_Name: mosquitofish
    Applicable_Common_Name: western mosquitofish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Heterandria
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Heterandria formosa
    Applicable_Common_Name: dwarf livebearer
    Applicable_Common_Name: least killifish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Poecilia
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Poecilia latipinna
    Applicable_Common_Name: sailfin molly
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Perciformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cichlidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Astronotus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Astronotus ocellatus
    Applicable_Common_Name: oscar
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Oreochromis
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Oreochromis aureus
    Applicable_Common_Name: tilapia azul
    Applicable_Common_Name: blue tilapia
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Centrarchidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Chaenobryttus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Chaenobryttus gulosus
    Applicable_Common_Name: warmouth
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis macrochirus
    Applicable_Common_Name: bluegill
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis marginatus
    Applicable_Common_Name: dollar sunfish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis microlophus
    Applicable_Common_Name: redear sunfish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis punctatus
    Applicable_Common_Name: spotted sunfish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Micropterus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Micropterus salmoides
    Applicable_Common_Name: largemouth bass
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Pomoxis
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Pomoxis nigromaculatus
    Applicable_Common_Name: black crappie
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Percidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Etheostoma
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Etheostoma fusiforme
    Applicable_Common_Name: swamp darter
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguilliformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguillidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguilla
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguilla rostrata
    Applicable_Common_Name: American eel
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cypriniformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Catostomidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Erimyzon
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Erimyzon sucetta
    Applicable_Common_Name: lake chubsucker
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyprinidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Notemigonus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Notemigonus crysoleucas
    Applicable_Common_Name: golden shiner
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Siluriformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Clariidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Clarias
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Clarias batrachus
    Applicable_Common_Name: clarias catfish
    Applicable_Common_Name: walking catfish
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Ictaluridae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Ameiurus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Ameiurus natalis
    Applicable_Common_Name: yellow bullhead
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Ameiurus nebulosus
    Applicable_Common_Name: brown bullhead
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Loricariidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hypostomus
    Applicable_Common_Name: suckermouth catfishes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Esociformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Esocidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Esox
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Esox americanus
    Applicable_Common_Name: redfin pickerel
    Applicable_Common_Name: grass pickerel
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Esox niger
    Applicable_Common_Name: chain pickerel
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Semionotiformes
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Famly
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepisosteidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepisosteus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepisosteus platyrhincus
    Applicable_Common_Name: Florida gar
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Charophyta
    Applicable_Common_Name: stoneworts
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Charophyceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Charales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Characeae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Chara
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Nitella
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Tracheobionta
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliophyta
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliopsida
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Alismatales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Alismataceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Sagittaria
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Sagittaria latifolia
    Applicable_Common_Name: broadleaf arrowhead
    Applicable_Common_Name: wapato
    Applicable_Common_Name: duck potato
    Applicable_Common_Name: common arrowhead
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocharitales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocharitaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrilla
    Applicable_Common_Name: hydrilla
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Najadales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Najadaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Najas
    Applicable_Common_Name: water nymph
    Applicable_Common_Name: waternymph
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Arecidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Arales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Araceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Arum
    Applicable_Common_Name: arum
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Pistia
    Applicable_Common_Name: pistia
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Commelinidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium mariscus
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subspecies
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium mariscus ssp. Jamaicense
    Applicable_Common_Name: Jamaica swamp sawgrass
    Applicable_Common_Name: jamaica sawgrass
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Eleocharis
    Applicable_Common_Name: spikerush
    Applicable_Common_Name: spikesedge
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Poaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Phragmites
    Applicable_Common_Name: reed
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Typhales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Typhaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Typha
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Typha domingensis
    Applicable_Common_Name: southern cattail
    Applicable_Common_Name: southern cat-tail
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hymenocallis
    Applicable_Common_Name: spiderlily
    Applicable_Common_Name: hymenocallis
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliopsida
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Asteridae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Scrophulariales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Lentibulariaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Utricularia
    Applicable_Common_Name: bladderwort
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Scrophulariaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Bacopa
    Applicable_Common_Name: waterhyssop
    Applicable_Common_Name: waer hyssop
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Nymphaeales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Nymphaeaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Nymphaea
    Applicable_Common_Name: waterlily
    Applicable_Common_Name: water lily
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Rosidae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Apiales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Apiaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocotyle
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocotyle bonariensis
    Applicable_Common_Name: largeleaf pennywort
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Pteridophyta
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Filicopsida
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydropteridales
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Azollaceae
    Taxonomic_Classification:
    Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
    Taxon_Rank_Value: Azolla
    Applicable_Common_Name: mosquito ferns
    Applicable_Common_Name: water ferns
    Applicable_Common_Name: mosquitofern


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Carol Kendall

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Project personnel include Steven R. Silva, Ted Lange, Peter Rawlik, Darren Rumbold, Larry Fink, Robert Shuford, Joel Trexler, Jerry Stober, Doug White, and Doug Choy.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Carol Kendall
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Road, MS 434
    Menlo Park, CA 94025
    USA

    650 329-4576 (voice)
    650 329-5590 (FAX)
    ckendall@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

A first step of the Everglades restoration efforts is "getting the water right". However, the underlying goal is actually to re-establish, as much as possible, the "pre-development" spatial and temporal distribution of ecosystems throughout the Everglades. Stable isotope compositions of dissolved nutrients, biota, and sediments provide critical information about current and historic ecosystem conditions in the Everglades, including temporal and spatial variations in contaminant sources, biogeochemical reactions in the water column and shallow subsurface, and trophic relations. Hence, the scientific focus of this project is to use stable isotope techniques to examine ecosystem responses (especially variations in foodweb base and trophic structure) to temporal and spatial variations in hydroperiod and contaminant loading for the entire freshwater Everglades.

The major "long-term" objectives of this project have been to: (1) determine the stable C, N, and S isotopic compositions of Everglades biota, (2) use bulk and compound-specific isotopic ratios to determine relative trophic positions for major organisms, (3) examine the spatial and temporal changes in foodweb structures across the ecosystem, especially with respect to the effect of anthropogenically derived nutrients and contaminants from agricultural land uses on foodwebs, (4) evaluate the effectiveness of isotopic techniques vs. gut content analysis for determining trophic relations in the Everglades, (5) evaluate the role of algae vs. detritus/microbial materials in foodwebs for the entire freshwater marsh part of the Everglades, and (6) work with modelers to correctly incorporate food web and MeHg bioaccumulation information into predictive models. We have generally completed the sample analysis parts of objectives #1-5, and are writing interpretative reports on topics #1-5.

More recent and specific objectives include: (1) link our data on seasonal and temporal differences in foodweb bases and trophic levels with SFWMD, FGFFC, and USGS Hg datasets (first for large fish and, more recently, for lower trophic levels), (2) investigate the effects of seasonal/spatial changes in nutrients, water levels, and reactions on the isotopic compositions at the base of the foodweb (that affect our interpretation of relative trophic positions of organisms), and (3) continue our efforts to link our foodweb isotope data from samples collected at USGS-ACME and EPA-REMAP sites with the spatial environmental patterns observed by the REMAP program.


How was the data set created?

  1. What methods were used to collect the data?

    Method 0 of 1
    Type: Lab

    Samples were analyzed for stable isotopic composition (sigma 13C and sigma 15N) using a Micromass Optima continuous flow mass spectrometer coupled to a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer. Samples with carbonate (all algae and sediments) were acidified to remove carbonates. Carbonates were removed from the samples using the acid vapor method, except that the samples were acidified for 18 hours after being moistened with deionized/distilled water. Results are reported in the usual delta format as permil values for: (1) 13C relative to V-PDB, normalized to a scale where NBS-19 is + 1.95 permil and NBS-21 is -28.10 permil, and (2) for 15N relative to air, normalized to a scale where IAEA-N1 is +0.43 permil and IAEA-N2 is +20.41 permil. Analytical precision (1sigma level) was generally in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 permil for both C and N, but for some samples replication was no better than +/- 0.5 permil due to sample heterogeneity.

  2. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  3. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2002 (process 1 of 4)
    We expect to finish all the needed analyses for the synthesis reports in FY02 (unless we ask the SFWMD for selected STA samples to fill in some gaps in our dataset). Most of the year will be spent on continuing the statistical analyses, plots, and interpretation required for the three major synthesis papers: one on spatial variations in foodwebs across the entire Everglades (linking the ACME and 1999 REMAP datasets), one on spatial patterns in biogeochemical reactions, and the last on temporal variations in biogeochemical reactions and foodweb relations.

    The goal of these papers is to present a coherent explanation of how biota isotopes provide a simple means for (1) monitoring how future ecosystem changes affect the role of periphyton (vs. macrophyte-dominated detritus) in the foodchain leading to gambusia and its predators, and (2) for developing predictive models for MeHg bioaccumulation under different proposed land-management changes. With our recent success in linking the patterns observed in our ACME foodweb and REMAP 1996 synoptic samples, we can extrapolate the detailed foodwebs developed at ~15 well-studied ACME sites to the ~100 synoptic sites sampled by the REMAP in September 1996. This linkage allows us to determine what environmental variables (thus far, mainly water levels and a complicated reflection of the nature of the local reducing conditions but a lot more statistics are needed to deal with the spatial patterns) correlate with spatial and temporal changes in the dominant base of the foodweb. We will have a completely independent test of the foodweb models we are developing, when we finish analyzing the samples from the spring/fall REMAP 1999 synoptics (we have been careful to not quite finish analyzing the most critical 1999 samples, and to not look at the data, until our synthesis paper is submitted, so that the test is truly rigorous).

    Date: Unknown (process 2 of 4)
    Other possible activities for FY03-FY05 include: (1) collaborating on a comparison of gut-contents and isotope data for REMAP gambusia samples (with Trexler) and/or largemouth bass (with Lange); (2) working with Thorton on incorporating our REMAP isotope data into his spatial models to determine whether the spatial patterns we both seeare due to spatial changes in foodweb complexity or foodweb base; (3) writing a more comprehensive paper using our isotope data to explain spatial and temporal variations in Hg levels (with Rawlik, Krabbenhoft, and/or Lange); (4) collaborate (with Rawlik and Fink) on a paper on foodweb differences at cells in the ENR and various STA’s where we have analyzed samples collected by the SFWMD; or (5) we will finally report the results of our attempts at using compound-specific C isotopes as a tracer of trophic relations

    Date: Unknown (process 3 of 4)
    Investigation of the effects of temporal and spatial changes in utrients, water levels, and reactions on the isotopic compositions at the base of the foodweb.

    This effort has two major elements. The first element is a collaboration with the SFWMD where they will collect water and plant (and some animal) samples from selected sites (among the sites along the nutrient gradient that they are currently studying), for us to analyze for stable isotopes. Our main focus will be to analyze the water for d15N/d18O of nitrate, d15N of ammonium, d13C of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), d34S of sulfate, and d18O of phosphate (selected samples); biota will be analyzed for d15N/d13C/d34S. These data will allow us to (1) trace the sources of the nutrients in the water column (eg, original, recycled, or mixed-sources of N, S, C, and P), (2) provide information about the nature of the recycling reactions in the water column and floc layer (eg, denitrification vs nitrification of organic N, methane oxidation vs respiration vs exchange with the atmosphere, sulfate reduction), and (3) provide needed empirical data on specifically how changes in water level affect the complex interplay of biogeochemical reactions that result in the isotopic compositions of aquatic plants at the base of local foodwebs.

    There are virtually no data on the d15N of nitrate or ammonium, or d18O of phosphate, in the Everglades because such samples pose extreme analytical challenges. After several years of work, we finally have usable methods and we are currently analyzing our first few test samples. In particular, this study is now possible because some recently published methods will allow the analysis of d15N/d18O of nitrate on ml-sized samples instead of the L-sized samples required with our earlier methods (making it much more feasible for our collaborators to collect and transport us bimonthly samples from a number of sites); a newly purchased automated device that makes it easy to analyze d13C of DIC; and a successful collaboration with colleagues at Stanford that has resulted in the development of an improved method for d18O of phosphate. If resources permit, we would like to use phosphate d18O to see if we can distinguish between sources of phosphate along the nutrient gradient and into FL Bay.

    The second element is a collaboration with Bill Orem, Chuck Holmes, and others who have collected and age-dated sediment cores from the freshwater marshes; we are particularly interested in changes in the last 100 years. We want to analyze bulk organic matter for d13C, d15N, and d34S (and perhaps organic phosphate-d18O) to test our models for how the isotopic compositions in plants change over time in response to changes in water levels, nutrient conditions, and biogeochemical reactions (especially ones like sulfate reduction and denitrification, that have been significantly affected by recent anthropogenic activities).

    These organic matter isotope data will also be extremely useful for refining our understanding of the role of S in the environment.

    We will compare these core isotope data with our sediment isotope data for the 300+ REMAP 1996/1999 sites where we have samples, to show how one aspect of the methylation potential (as indirectly measured by sulfate reduction) has changed over time and space. These S results should be useful for the development of a sulfur module for Everglades predictive Hg models, and for modeling or land-management attempts to predict the potential for methylation based on easily measured environmental parameters (like those measured by REMAP). If resources permit, we would be interested in looking at temporal changes in d13C/ d15N/d34S at some of the USGS cores recently collected to assess the evolution of tree islands.

    Date: 2004 (process 4 of 4)
    Work planned for FY2004 includes:

    1. Continued evaluation and publication of data generated in previous collaborations with ACME, EPA, FGFFC, SFWMD, and FIU to include a paper on environmental controls on mercury in large mouth bass, spatial/temporal changes in foodwebs, a first isotope synthesis paper, and possibly a paper on isotope-gut contents.

    2. Investigation of temporal and spatial changes in nutruients, water levels, and reactions on the isotopoic compositions at the base of the foodweb

    We tried several times in 1998 to connect the isotopic compositions in the water column to those of plants, but failed to get reliable d13C of DIC and d15N of nitrate and ammonium because of the high DOC concentrations. Scot Hagerthey (SFWMD) is very interested in collaboration since he feels that our isotope data will provide valuable data on the extent of N recycling along the nutrient gradient in WCA2 (and at other SFWMD sites) that will help them understand processes that affect P concentrations in water. Furthermore, after a lot of hard work in FY03 by Scott Wankel on developing and automating a new nitrate d15N-d18O method, and by Dan Doctor (an NRC postdoc working on C cycling at the Sleepers River Watershed) who got our new automated DIC/DOC- d13C device working, we now have the methods we need to see how temporal and spatial variability in the water column solutes are established, and how they affect the d13C and d15N in plants (and microinvertebrates) at the base of the foodweb. We will also analyze a small number of samples for phosphate-d18O, organic matter d34S, and water d18O/ dD. Hagerthey has a number of sites in WCA2 and elsewhere across the Everglades that he samples monthly, and he will collect us water samples, macrophytes, floc, periphyton, and (we hope) microinvertebrates from some 10-15 sites, several times during the year. We are in the process of developing a similar but smaller collaboration with Paul McCormick for sampling at WCA1. Our nitrate and DIC isotope preparation units are extremely well automated, so these samples will not require much manpower to analyze.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Carol Kendall
    U.S. Geological Survey
    345 Middlefield Road, MS 434
    Menlo Park, CA 94025
    USA

    650 329-4576 (voice)
    650 329-5590 (FAX)
    ckendall@usgs.gov

  4. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Haitzer, M. Aiken, G. R.; Ryan, J. N., 2002, Binding of Mercury (II) to Dissolved Organic Matter: The Role of the Mercury-to-DOM Concentration Ration: Environmental Science and Technology v. 36, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The entire paper is available from the Environmental Science and Technology Journal web site; however, a journal subscription is required.
    Kendall, Carol Bemis, Bryan; Wankel, Scott, Si, 2001, Lessons from the Everglades: Atypical isotope patterns in a complex ecosystem: U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA.

    Online Links:

    Kendall, C. Silva, S. R.; Stober, Q. J.; Me, 1998, Mapping spatial variability in marsh redox conditions in the Florida Everglades using biomass stable isotopic compositions: EOS Transactions v. 79, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Rumbold, D. G. Fink, L. E.; Laine, K. A.; , 2002, Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades: The Science of the Total Environment vol. 297, issues 1-3, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Only the abstract is available online; a journal subscription is required to access the full article. To view the abstract, click on the link under Journal Articles at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/int_geochem_foodweb/>
    McCutchan, Jr., James H., Lewis, Jr., William , 2003, Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur: Oikos vol. 102, issue 2, Nordic Ecological Society, Lund, Sweden.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Only the abstract is available free of charge. A journal subscription is required for access to the full article. To view the abstract, click on the link under Journal Articles at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/int_geochem_foodweb/>


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    not available

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    not available


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
These data are subject to change and are not citeable until reviewed and approved for official publication.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Everglades Isotope Data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no implied or explicit guarantees

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 23-Jan-2008
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/ever_isotope_data.faq.html>

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