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Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef Tract

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef Tract
Abstract:
The strategy of this study was to use artificial tracers to determine rate and direction of flow. Tracers were injected into well clusters, existing sewage treatment facilities, and sewage disposal wells. In addition to tracer studies groundwaters were collected for contamination analysis so as to provide a baseline against which the effects of population increase and success of future wastewater treatment facilities can be evaluated.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Gene Shinn (retired) Chris Reich; Don Hickey; Ann Tihansky, 2005, Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef Tract.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.6
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.1
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/hydro_flkeys/clflasatx.jpg> (JPEG)
    satellite image of southern Florida showing study site

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: Jul-1995
    Ending_Date: Dec-2000
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheets

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Florida Bay, Florida Keys and Reef Tract
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (50)

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.

      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The Groundwater Seepage dataset contains location information about seepage meter sites (longitude and latitude, site name, and seepage meter number) and field results (seepage meter number, site, and values of seepage flux (volume per area per time)).

    The Nutrient Results of Ground and Surface Water at the Bayside Well Cluster study site contains the nutrient results from the collection of both ground and surface water samples. Nutrient concentrations are available for both the deep well (40 ft) and the shallow well (20 ft) in milligrams per liter and micromolar.

    The Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site contains the results of the injection of two fluorescent dyes injected in the center wells in the well cluster on the bayside of Key Largo.

    The Groundwater Flow Rates at the Oceanside Well Cluster study site contains the results of the injection of two fluorescent dyes injected in the center wells in the well cluster on the oceanside of Key Largo

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Gene Shinn (retired)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Chris Reich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3032 (voice)
    727 803-2032 (FAX)
    creich@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

Treated sewage is injected into the limestone under the Florida Keys via on-site disposal systems (OSDs). There are 25,000 septic tank systems, approximately 5,000 cesspools, and approximately 1000 class 5 injection wells. Depths of injection wells ranges from 10 to 30 meters. Excessive algal growth, coral diseases and both marine grass and sponge mortality is perceived by the local population, NOAA, and EPA to be caused by sewage nutrients leaking from groundwater on both sides of the Florida Keys. Determining the rate and direction of saline groundwater movement beneath the Key, and the Florida Bay was considered critical to understanding the fate and effects of subsurface waste water disposal n the Florida Keys.

The objective of this research was to determine the rate, direction of flow, and contamination levels of saline groundwater in the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. Contamination studies are necessary to determine if nutrient and other contaminant levels are rising and to provide a baseline of data for future decision making.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1997 (process 1 of 3)
    Seventy eight submarine monitoring wells have been installed in the Florida Keys reef tract, Florida Bay and Shark River Slough and an additional 14 were installed in Biscayne bay in conjunction with a USGS modeling study. Six additional multi- depth wells were installed onshore at the Keys Marine Laboratory bringing the total number of wells to 84. All wells were continuously cored and cores reside at the St. Petersburg Coastal Center. Twenty of the 84 wells were installed to form two (200 ft diameter) circular clusters, each with an injection well in the center. The clusters, located on opposite sides of Key Largo, were designed to determine groundwater flow direction and rate. Each was screened at two depths, (-20 and -45 ft). The following tests were conducted using the well clusters: 1) three separate dye tracer tests using fluorescein and Rhodamine, 2) one test using a colaphage (done in conjunction with University of South Florida) and 3) a single test with Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer. The first two sets of tests determined flow direction and provided sufficient information to "zero-in" on the actual flow rate. An additional well (100 ft from cluster) was added to each cluster once the direction of movement was determined. The third test (using a combination of dyes and SF6) provided accurate flow-rate estimates. Thess data facilitated the design of future rate and direction experiments.

    A second injection of the dyes in the bayside well cluster was done on Feb. 19, 1997 and included SF6.

    Date: 1998 (process 2 of 3)
    Work for FY 1998

    1. Perform a tracer experiment in existing well clusters. 2. Sample all wells biannually for nutrient and other contaminants. 3. Drill additional wells if needed (four wells were recently installed to create a transect across Key Largo). 4. Conduct additional tests to evaluate existing seepage meter designs quantitatively (initial quantitative test prove artificial pumping in the presence of waves). 5. Develop and install new "flexible" seepage meters as mandated by project review (provided further testing proves their reliability). 6. Determine seepage volume using new seepage meter design. 7. Integrate new seepage and water-level data (from transducers) and attempt a simple cross-keys groundwater-flow and tidal-pumping model. 8. Begin synthesis of results 9. Begin evaluation of new radium isotope method for determining groundwater seepage and mixing.

    Date: 1999 (process 3 of 3)
    Work for FY 1999

    Field work to be undertaken in FY 1999 included:

    1. a dye-tracer study using the newly completed transect of wells across Key Largo.

    2. Collaboration with EPA-funded projects and University of South Florida on-site sewage disposal-well tracer studies.

    3. Twice-yearly sampling and chemical analyses of ground waters collected from existing wells.

    4. Drilling additional wells if needed.

    5. Analysis for four isotopes of radium, for determining groundwater seepage and mixing.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Chris Reich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3032 (voice)
    727 803-2032 (FAX)
    creich@usgs.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Shinn, E. A. Reese, R. S.; Reich, C. D., 1994, Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys: USGS Open-File Report 94-276, U. S. Geological Survey, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Reich, C. D., 1996, Diver-operated manometer: a simple device for measuring hydraulic head in underwater wells: Journal of Sedimentary Rresearch v. 66 n. 5, S E P M Society for Sedimentary Research, Tulsa, OK.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Journal of Sedimentary Research table of contents and abstracts are open access. Full text articles are available to non-member subscribers or pay-per-view at two websites accessed from the JSR website (<http://www.sepm.org/jsr/jsr_home.html>)
    Halley, R. B. Vacher, H. L.; Shinn, E. A., 1997, Geology and Hydrogeology of the Florida Keys: Developments in Sedimentology Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands, Elsevier Science B. V., Doorwerth, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This chapter was originally published in Geology and Hydrology of Carbonate Islands, Developments in Sedimentology 54, edited by H. L. Vacher and T. Quinn
    Paul, J. H. Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shi, 1995, Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in Key Largo, Florida: Applied and Environmental Microbiology v. 61, n. 6, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website
    Paul, J. H. Rose, J. B.; Jiang, S.; Kel, 1995, Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida: Applied and Environmental Microbiology v. 61, n. 6, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website
    Sacks, L. A. Tihansky, A. B., 1996, Geochemical and Isotopic Composition of Ground Water, with Emphasis on Sources of Sulfate, in the Upper Floridan Aquifer and Intermediate Aquifer System in Southwest Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4146, U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Benchmarks were installed onshore on both sides of Key Largo and position and elevation determined using GPS_Military P-code enabled. Two wells at each cluster were later leveled in using the benchmarks as a reference point.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The central wells were not sampled due to the contained/retained high concentrations of dye. Samples from all satellite wells, both bay side and ocean side, were analyzed.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    The same tests were run on all samples from the satellite wells on both the bay side and the ocean side.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 4)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: contains the results from the injection of two tracer dyes in the center wells of the bayside well cluster in format MS Excel (version unknown) Size: 0.04
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>

    • Cost to order the data: none


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 2 of 4)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Groundwater Flow Rates at the Oceanside Well Cluster study site

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: contains the results of the injection of two tracer dyes in the center wells of the oceanside well cluster in format MS Excel (version unknown) Size: 0.033
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>

    • Cost to order the data: none


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 3 of 4)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Groundwater Seepage

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: contains information and data collected during the seepage meter experiments along the Florida Keys on both the Florida Bay and Atlantic Ocean sides in format MS Excel (version unknown) Size: 0.088
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>

    • Cost to order the data: none


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 4 of 4)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Nutrient Results of Ground and Surface Waters at the Bayside Well Cluster study site

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: contains the nutrient results from the collection of both ground and surface water samples in format MS Excel (version unknown) Size: 0.022
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>

    • Cost to order the data: none


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 11-Jan-2008
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/fb-fk_grndwtr_flow.faq.html>

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