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Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef Tract

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Gene Shinn (retired)

Chris Reich; Don Hickey; Ann Tihansky

Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Determination of Groundwater-Flow Direction and Rate Beneath Florida Bay, the Florida Keys and Reef Tract
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheets
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/grndwtr_flow/>
Description:
Abstract:
The strategy of this study was to use artificial tracers to determine rate and direction of flow. Tracers were injected into well clusters, existing sewage treatment facilities, and sewage disposal wells. In addition to tracer studies groundwaters were collected for contamination analysis so as to provide a baseline against which the effects of population increase and success of future wastewater treatment facilities can be evaluated.
Purpose:
Treated sewage is injected into the limestone under the Florida Keys via on-site disposal systems (OSDs). There are 25,000 septic tank systems, approximately 5,000 cesspools, and approximately 1000 class 5 injection wells. Depths of injection wells ranges from 10 to 30 meters. Excessive algal growth, coral diseases and both marine grass and sponge mortality is perceived by the local population, NOAA, and EPA to be caused by sewage nutrients leaking from groundwater on both sides of the Florida Keys. Determining the rate and direction of saline groundwater movement beneath the Key, and the Florida Bay was considered critical to understanding the fate and effects of subsurface waste water disposal n the Florida Keys.

The objective of this research was to determine the rate, direction of flow, and contamination levels of saline groundwater in the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. Contamination studies are necessary to determine if nutrient and other contaminant levels are rising and to provide a baseline of data for future decision making.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199507
Ending_Date: 200012
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.6
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.1
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: seepage
Theme_Keyword: sewage
Theme_Keyword: groundwater
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Key Largo
Place_Keyword: Sunset Cove
Place_Keyword: Nest Key
Place_Keyword: Buttonwood Sound
Place_Keyword: Mowry Canal
Place_Keyword: Sand Key
Place_Keyword: Pickles Reef
Place_Keyword: Long Key
Place_Keyword: Pass Key
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Port Largo Canal
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Chris Reich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3032
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: creich@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/hydro_flkeys/clflasatx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: satellite image of southern Florida showing study site
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Excel
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Shinn, E. A.

Reese, R. S.; Reich, C. D.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 94-276
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Florida
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/94-276>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Reich, C. D.
Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Diver-operated manometer: a simple device for measuring hydraulic head in underwater wells
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Sedimentary Rresearch
Issue_Identification: v. 66 n. 5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: S E P M Society for Sedimentary Research
Other_Citation_Details:
Journal of Sedimentary Research table of contents and abstracts are open access. Full text articles are available to non-member subscribers or pay-per-view at two websites accessed from the JSR website (<http://www.sepm.org/jsr/jsr_home.html>)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Halley, R. B.

Vacher, H. L.; Shinn, E. A.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title: Geology and Hydrogeology of the Florida Keys
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Developments in Sedimentology
Issue_Identification: Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Doorwerth, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
This chapter was originally published in Geology and Hydrology of Carbonate Islands, Developments in Sedimentology 54, edited by H. L. Vacher and T. Quinn
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/keys_geohydro/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Paul, J. H.

Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shinn, E. A.; Miller, S.; Farrah, S. R.

Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in Key Largo, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Issue_Identification: v. 61, n. 6
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website
Online_Linkage: <http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/61/6/2230>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Paul, J. H.

Rose, J. B.; Jiang, S.; Kellogg, C.; Shinn, E. A.

Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Issue_Identification: v. 61, n. 6
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website
Online_Linkage: <http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/61/6/2235>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Sacks, L. A.

Tihansky, A. B.

Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Geochemical and Isotopic Composition of Ground Water, with Emphasis on Sources of Sulfate, in the Upper Floridan Aquifer and Intermediate Aquifer System in Southwest Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 96-4146
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/wri96_4146_sacks.html>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The same tests were run on all samples from the satellite wells on both the bay side and the ocean side.
Completeness_Report:
The central wells were not sampled due to the contained/retained high concentrations of dye. Samples from all satellite wells, both bay side and ocean side, were analyzed.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Benchmarks were installed onshore on both sides of Key Largo and position and elevation determined using GPS_Military P-code enabled. Two wells at each cluster were later leveled in using the benchmarks as a reference point.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Seventy eight submarine monitoring wells have been installed in the Florida Keys reef tract, Florida Bay and Shark River Slough and an additional 14 were installed in Biscayne bay in conjunction with a USGS modeling study. Six additional multi- depth wells were installed onshore at the Keys Marine Laboratory bringing the total number of wells to 84. All wells were continuously cored and cores reside at the St. Petersburg Coastal Center. Twenty of the 84 wells were installed to form two (200 ft diameter) circular clusters, each with an injection well in the center. The clusters, located on opposite sides of Key Largo, were designed to determine groundwater flow direction and rate. Each was screened at two depths, (-20 and -45 ft). The following tests were conducted using the well clusters: 1) three separate dye tracer tests using fluorescein and Rhodamine, 2) one test using a colaphage (done in conjunction with University of South Florida) and 3) a single test with Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer. The first two sets of tests determined flow direction and provided sufficient information to "zero-in" on the actual flow rate. An additional well (100 ft from cluster) was added to each cluster once the direction of movement was determined. The third test (using a combination of dyes and SF6) provided accurate flow-rate estimates. Thess data facilitated the design of future rate and direction experiments.

A second injection of the dyes in the bayside well cluster was done on Feb. 19, 1997 and included SF6.

Process_Date: 1997
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Work for FY 1998

1. Perform a tracer experiment in existing well clusters. 2. Sample all wells biannually for nutrient and other contaminants. 3. Drill additional wells if needed (four wells were recently installed to create a transect across Key Largo). 4. Conduct additional tests to evaluate existing seepage meter designs quantitatively (initial quantitative test prove artificial pumping in the presence of waves). 5. Develop and install new "flexible" seepage meters as mandated by project review (provided further testing proves their reliability). 6. Determine seepage volume using new seepage meter design. 7. Integrate new seepage and water-level data (from transducers) and attempt a simple cross-keys groundwater-flow and tidal-pumping model. 8. Begin synthesis of results 9. Begin evaluation of new radium isotope method for determining groundwater seepage and mixing.

Process_Date: 1998
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Work for FY 1999

Field work to be undertaken in FY 1999 included:

1. a dye-tracer study using the newly completed transect of wells across Key Largo.

2. Collaboration with EPA-funded projects and University of South Florida on-site sewage disposal-well tracer studies.

3. Twice-yearly sampling and chemical analyses of ground waters collected from existing wells.

4. Drilling additional wells if needed.

5. Analysis for four isotopes of radium, for determining groundwater seepage and mixing.

Process_Date: 1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Chris Reich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3032
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: creich@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Florida Bay, Florida Keys and Reef Tract
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 50

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.000001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.000001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: WGS84
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS84
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257223563

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The Groundwater Seepage dataset contains location information about seepage meter sites (longitude and latitude, site name, and seepage meter number) and field results (seepage meter number, site, and values of seepage flux (volume per area per time)).

The Nutrient Results of Ground and Surface Water at the Bayside Well Cluster study site contains the nutrient results from the collection of both ground and surface water samples. Nutrient concentrations are available for both the deep well (40 ft) and the shallow well (20 ft) in milligrams per liter and micromolar.

The Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site contains the results of the injection of two fluorescent dyes injected in the center wells in the well cluster on the bayside of Key Largo.

The Groundwater Flow Rates at the Oceanside Well Cluster study site contains the results of the injection of two fluorescent dyes injected in the center wells in the well cluster on the oceanside of Key Largo

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
contains the results from the injection of two tracer dyes in the center wells of the bayside well cluster
Transfer_Size: 0.04
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Groundwater Flow Rates at the Oceanside Well Cluster study site
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
contains the results of the injection of two tracer dyes in the center wells of the oceanside well cluster
Transfer_Size: 0.033
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Groundwater Seepage
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
contains information and data collected during the seepage meter experiments along the Florida Keys on both the Florida Bay and Atlantic Ocean sides
Transfer_Size: 0.088
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description:
Nutrient Results of Ground and Surface Waters at the Bayside Well Cluster study site
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
contains the nutrient results from the collection of both ground and surface water samples
Transfer_Size: 0.022
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA wesite
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20080111
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/fb-fk_grndwtr_flow.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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