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Groundwater Seepage data (Florida Keys)

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Groundwater Seepage data (Florida Keys)
Abstract:
The dataset contains information and data collected during the seepage meter (groundwater seepage) experiments along the Florida Keys on both the Florida Bay and Atlantic Ocean sides.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Gene Shinn (retired) Chris Reich; Don Hickey; Ann Tihansky, 2005, Groundwater Seepage data (Florida Keys).

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.9
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.2
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.7
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.8

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/hydro_flkeys/clflasatx.jpg> (JPEG)
    satellite image of southern Florida showing study site

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 07-Jul-1995
    Ending_Date: 20-Aug-1996
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheets

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Florida Bay, Florida Keys and Reef Tract
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (50)

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.000001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.

      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The data contain the following: site name, data provider, station id, station name, station type, latitude and longitude in decimal degrees, horizontal datum code, horizontal collection method code, class (water quality or hydrologic stations or both), field measurement identifier (MM/DD/YYYY/HH:MM:SS/station_id), medium (in which the measureent was taken), result value, result unit, filee measurement equipment type, and field measurement equipment name
    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Gene Shinn (retired)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Chris Reich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3032 (voice)
    727 803-2032 (FAX)
    creich@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

Treated sewage is injected into the limestone under the Florida Keys via on-site disposal systems (OSDs). There are 25,000 septic tank systems, approximately 5,000 cesspools, and approximately 1000 class 5 injection wells. Depths of injection wells ranges from 10 to 30 meters. Excessive algal growth, coral diseases and both marine grass and sponge mortality is perceived by the local population, NOAA, and EPA to be caused by sewage nutrients leaking from groundwater on both sides of the Florida Keys. Determining the rate and direction of saline groundwater movement beneath the Key, and the Florida Bay was considered critical to understanding the fate and effects of subsurface waste water disposal n the Florida Keys.

The objective of this research was to determine the rate, direction of flow, and contamination levels of saline groundwater in the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. Contamination studies are necessary to determine if nutrient and other contaminant levels are rising and to provide a baseline of data for future decision making.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1996 (process 1 of 1)
    Seepage Meter Construction

    For the seepage meter experiment in south Florida (Florida Bay, Florida Keys) a new design of seepage meters was developed. A fiberglass mold (~70cm x 70cm) was constructed from an off-the-shelf household skylight. Approximately 60 seepage domes were constructed and installed at various locations throughout the study region. Because the study regions underlying Pleistocene limestone is very heterogeneous several domes were installed in certain locations to combat hydrogeologic variations which control flow in and out of the subsurface. The fiberglass seepage meter provided a rigid frame which was then mounted to the bare rock seafloor throughout Florida Bay and along the Keys. Portland cement was mixed and used to seal the edges of the fiberglass domes. A hole was previously cut in the dome top to be used for connecting a plastic bag: the preferred bag was a turkey basting bag because of its construction material.

    Seepage Meter Flux Measurements:

    After domes were in place and the cement had cured, basting bags were placed on domes. These bags were left on the dome for a 24hr period and subsequently removed and the volume in the bag measured with a calibrated graduated cylinder. Knowing the volume over the 24 hour period and the area of the seepage meter a flux (L/m2/d) could be calculated. These measurements were recorded and placed in spreadsheets to determine variations by location and other environmental factors (i.e., rain, tide, and wave).

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Chris Reich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3032 (voice)
    727 803-2032 (FAX)
    creich@usgs.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Shinn, E. A. Reese, R. S.; Reich, C. D., 1994, Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys: USGS Open-File Report 94-276, U. S. Geological Survey, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Reich, C. D., 1996, Diver-operated manometer: a simple device for measuring hydraulic head in underwater wells: Journal of Sedimentary Rresearch v. 66 n. 5, S E P M Society for Sedimentary Research, Tulsa, OK.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Journal of Sedimentary Research table of contents and abstracts are open access. Full text articles are available to non-member subscribers or pay-per-view at two websites accessed from the JSR website (<http://www.sepm.org/jsr/jsr_home.html>)
    Halley, R. B. Vacher, H. L.; Shinn, E. A., 1997, Geology and Hydrogeology of the Florida Keys: Developments in Sedimentology Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands, Elsevier Science B. V., Doorwerth, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This chapter was originally published in Geology and Hydrology of Carbonate Islands, Developments in Sedimentology 54, edited by H. L. Vacher and T. Quinn
    Paul, J. H. Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shi, 1995, Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in Key Largo, Florida: Applied and Environmental Microbiology v. 61, n. 6, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website
    Paul, J. H. Rose, J. B.; Jiang, S.; Kel, 1995, Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida: Applied and Environmental Microbiology v. 61, n. 6, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Benchmarks were installed onshore on both sides of Key Largo and position and elevation determined using GPS_Military P-code enabled. Two wells at each cluster were later leveled in using the benchmarks as a reference point.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Data from all 50 seepage domes were used to calculate the flux

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    The same tests were made at all seepage domes


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Groundwater Seepage

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: contains information and data collected during the seepage meter experiments along the Florida Keys on both the Florida Bay and Atlantic Ocean sides in format MS Excel (version unknown) Size: 0.088
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>

    • Cost to order the data: none


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 11-Jan-2008
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/fk_gw_seep.faq.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Fri Jan 11 09:34:23 2008