Home Archived October 29, 2018
(i)
USGS Home
SOFIA Home

Geochemistry of Metals (tables 1-12 OFR 00-327)

Metadata also available as - [Questions & Answers] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Charles W. Holmes (retired)
Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Geochemistry of Metals (tables 1-12 OFR 00-327)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: maps and data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-327
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-327/lists.html#tables>
Description:
Abstract:
The tables contain data from studies conducted in the spring of 1996 in the Taylor Slough region of Everglades National Park.
Purpose:
This study addressed the general issue of south Florida wetland (Everglades) restoration. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in teh Everglades (ACME) project in 1995 to evaluate Hg cycling processes. A major goal was to determine fluxes, rates, and factors that affect Hg transport, cycling, and bioaccumulation. Concern for the loss of wetland ecosystem (Everglades) integrity is the result of both elevated Hg levels (primarily methylmercury) in biota (especially high trophic level fish, alligators and the Florida panther) and changes in the major floristic composition of the region attributed to variations in nutrient levels in the water.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19960517
Ending_Date: 19960524
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.69
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.59
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.42
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.19
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: hydrogeology
Theme_Keyword: geochemistry
Theme_Keyword: piston core
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: sediments
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Taylor Slough
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Debra A Willard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648 5320
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dwillard@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-327/images/fig2.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
sampling sites for organic-rich sediment cores, surface water, and sawgrass vegetation in the Taylor Slough study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Native_Data_Set_Environment: html tables
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Duever, M. J.

Carlson, J. E.; Meeder, J. F.; Duever, L. C.' Gunderson, L.H.; Riopelle, L. A.; Alexander, T. R.; Myers, R. L.; Spangler, D.P.

Publication_Date: 1986
Title: The Big Cypress National Preserve
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Researach Report
Issue_Identification: No. 8
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: National Audubon Society
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Arbogast, B. F., editor
Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 86-525
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr96525>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Jackson, L. L.

Engleman, E. E.; Peard, J. L.

Publication_Date: 1985
Title:
Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Environmental Science & Technology
Issue_Identification: v. 19, issue 5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Kennedy, K. R.

Crock, J. G.

Publication_Date: 1987
Title:
Determination of mercury in geological materials by continuous-flow, cold-vapor, atomic absorption spectrophotometry
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Analytical Letters
Issue_Identification: v. 20
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Philadelphia, PA
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Meier, A.

Grimes, D. J.; Ficklin,. W. H.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - a powerful tool for mineral resource and environmental suudies
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Circular
Issue_Identification: 1103A
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
in USGS Research on Mineral Resources - 1994, Part A - Program and Abstracts;

carter, L. M. H.; Toth, M. I.; and Day, W. C., editors

Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/cir/cir1103A>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Gough, L. P.

Crock, J. G.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Distinguishing between natural geologic and anthropogenic trace element sources, Denali National Park and Preserve
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Professional Paper
Issue_Identification: 1574
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
in Geologic Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1995;

Dumoulin, J. A. And Gray, J. E., editors

Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1574>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Orem, W. H.

Lerch, H. E.; Rawlik, P.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Geochemistry of surface and pore water at USGS coring sites in wetlands of South Florida, 1994 and 1995
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-454
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/31/2011
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/97-454>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Lichte, F. E.

Golightly, D. W.; Lamother, P. J.

Publication_Date: 1987
Title: Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Bulletin
Issue_Identification: 1770
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: in Methods of Geochemical Analysis; Baedecker, P. A., ed.
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/b/b1770>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Fieldwork was conducted from May 17-24, 1996. May is the end of the dry period and usually allows for ready access to sediment sampling sites because of generally low water levels; however, during May 1996 relatively deep standing water was encountered. Proper collection permits were obtained from managers of all public lands visited.

Field Collections Water--Surface water samples, to be analyzed for major and trace elements (except Hg), were collected. Water samples were collected in field-rinsed 1 L polyethylene bottles, and transferred, via filtration in the field (by passing through pre-rinsed cellulose acetate 0.45 µ membranes), to acid-washed and field-rinsed 250 ml polyethylene bottles. Element stability was assured by the addition of 10 drops of concentrated, ultra-pure nitric acid. Samples collected for Hg analyses were taken from the same 1 L bottle. The samples were filtered as above and 30 ml was added to glass, oven-baked bottles with teflon-coated lids. Mercury stability was assured by the addition of 1.5 ml of sodium dichromate/nitric acid.

Vegetation--The vegetation component of the biogeochemical cycling of trace elements is being investigated using sawgrass (Cladium jamaicensis Crantz), the dominant species in the Everglades marsh. In addition, bromeliads (Tillandsia spp., also known as air plants) were collected when available because of their ability to concentrate airborne metals and therefore act as air quality biomonitors.

Sawgrass leaves (about 200 g, dry weight) were clipped using stainless steel shears at about 10 cm above the high water level. Flowering structures, if present, were removed. Samples consisted of a composite of four individual plants collected within three meters of the site where core material was taken. The material was double sealed in plastic bags and chilled using "wet ice". Sawgrass roots consisted of the material below the sediment level for each sawgrass clump. This usually consisted of the basal portion below the meristem that contains the major rhizomes (but without the fibrous "feeder" roots). The material was field rinsed, doubled sealed in plastic bags, and chilled using "wet ice".

Organic-rich sediments--Sediment cores were obtained by pushing a piston-sealed, 10.2 cm diameter, acrylic butyrate core liner into the sediment using the method of Orem and others (1997). Usually greater than 60 cm of sediment were collected in the core liner at the sites. The cores were maintained in an upright position until they were extruded and sectioned, usually within 8 hours of collection. All sediment samples were placed in plastic bags, chilled, and shipped to the laboratory where they were frozen.

In the laboratory, sawgrass was removed from the sample bags, placed in Teflon beakers, submerged and rinsed in deionized water, and drained. This process was repeated at least three times. Plant material was then placed in plastic colanders, rinsed briefly with deionized water, and allowed to drip drain. Colanders were then placed directly into ovens and the material was dried for 24 hr. at about 40oC. This temperature is near the maximum summer ambient field temperature and should not result in any important loss of Hg through volatilization. Samples were then ground in a Wiley mill to pass a 2-mm (10-mesh) sieve. Splits of the ground plant material were ashed at 450-500 degrees C over an 18 hr. period and ash yield was determined.

In order to insure adequate material and sample type for the various analyses conducted, replicate cores were commonly extracted from each study site. The cores used for the geochronology studies (210Pb analyses) and pore water chemistry, were sectioned (extracted) at 2 cm intervals whereas the cores used in the trace metal geochemical studies were sectioned at 5 cm intervals. Because most core material below about 40 cm was several hundred years old, the interval for sectioning commonly increased to 5 or 10 cm for all cores. This was performed in order to economize on the total number of samples being analyzed. For element analyses, subsets of the sediment core sections were dried, ground, and ashed in a manner similar to the plant samples.

One hundred milligrams of plant and sediment sample ash was digested with mixed acids. After complete digestion of the ash, 40 major and trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) (Lichte and others, 1987). Mercury was determined directly on a subset of the dried, ground, unashed plant and sediment material by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)(Kennedy and Crock, 1987). Total sulfur was determined in plant samples only on 250 mg of the ground material by combustion at 1370 degrees C in an oxygen atmosphere with infrared detection of evolved SO2 (Jackson and other, 1985). Water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Meier and others, 1994; Arbogast, 1996).

The LLD is defined as the lowest concentration level of the analyte that can be determined to be statistically different from the analytical blank - this approximately corresponds to a confidence level of 90 percent or 3 sigma above the measured average blank (Arbogast, 1996). The element analyses (except for Hg) for the sediment material were all performed in a non-government contract laboratory. Analyses for plant material and water were performed by the Denver Laboratories of the USGS.

Blind standard reference materials were submitted to the laboratories as part of each suite of samples. This included material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and from internal USGS prepared materials. In addition, some of the material was sampled twice in the field (identified by a "Y"), and split in the laboratory for duplicate analysis (identified by an "X"). Results are presented for the duplicate samples and duplicate analyses in the data tables that follow. Quality assurance (QA) and control (QC) practices, for most of the analytical methods used, are provided in more detail in Arbogast (1996).

The QC evaluation for the samples submitted was as follows:

Blind NIST (NBS) and/or USGS internal reference materials (labeled as SRM or SAR-M, respectively) were submitted for every forty (or fewer) samples.

Reported laboratory values are considered accurate if their reported value is +/-20% of the "target" value of the blind reference material.

The reported laboratory percent RSD is also examined; however, this value can vary greatly between "jobs" because of matrix effects, the number of analyses near the LLD, and the quantity of sample material available. Results are compared to SRM certified and/or non-certified concentration values. In addition to the laboratory QA/QC procedures, the field study quality control included submission of procedural blanks for the water samples and periodic splits of sediment and plant samples. All samples, blanks, and splits were analyzed in a randomized sequence relative to their duplicate, their geographic location, and their order of field collection.

The concentrations of elements in the procedural blanks for water samples are generally below detection limits. The laboratory analysis of duplicated splits of sediment and plant samples indicate very good reproducibility (precision). In general, there is also good agreement between our laboratory analysis values and the certified values reported for NIST, NBS, and USGS SRM's. The NIST SRM's list non-certified values for many elements; some of these values are reported in the data tables.

For the element analyses in sediment material, all analyses fell within the ±20% criterion except for As (+36%), Cd (+21%), and Cr (-24%). The poor QC for As and Cd is attributed to a majority of values at or near the 10 and 2 ppm LLD, respectively. The poor QC for Cr appears to be a laboratory bias that may be attributed to the analytical matrix.

Process_Date: 1996-1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Debra A Willard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648 5320
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dwillard@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Taylor Slough
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 8

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Degrees and decimal minutes
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Contents of the tables are:

Table 1 - Sample identification, location, sampling date, and general description of study sites in south Florida, May 1996

Table 2 - Analytical methods and the approximate lower limits of determination for the concentration of elements in plants, organic-rich sediments, and water

Table 3 - Quality control for the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry analysis of organic-rich sediment material

Table 4 - Quality control for the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry analysis of plant material

Table 5 - Quality control for the cold vapor atomic absorption spectrmetry analysis of mercury in organic-rich sediment material

Table 6 - Chemical analysis results for the concentration of elements in organic-rich sediment material

Table 7 - Chemical analysis results for the concentration of elements in sawgrass leaf material

Table 8- Chemical analysis results for the concentration of elements in sawgrass root material

Table 9 - Chemical analysis results for the concentration of elements (micro g/L) in filtered water samples

Table 10 - Calculated sediment ages and depositional rates for 210 Pb-dated cores

Table 11 - Element accumulation rates (EAR) calculated for selected major elements in organic-rich sediment core material

Table 12 - Element accumulation rates (EAR) calculated for selected minor (trace) elements in organic-rich sediment core material

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: geochemistry of metals (OFR 00-327 tables 1-12)
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: html tables
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-327/lists.html#tables>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20110808
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/geochem_metals.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Mon Aug 08 09:39:45 2011