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Geochemical Monitoring of Restoration Progress

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Geochemical Monitoring of Restoration Progress
Abstract:
Continued geochemical monitoring efforts will provide a measure of the progress and effects of restoration on environmental health and water quality, and complement biological monitoring of indicator species. This information is essential for identifying when successful restoration has been accomplished. Additionally, this geochemical monitoring program will serve as a model for developing similar programs for monitoring other coastal and lacustrine environments targeted in future projects. Products include a productivity database for Florida Bay and bimonthly salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon speciation, and air:sea CO2 gas flux maps of Florida Bay.
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Kimberly K. Yates Robert Halley (retired), 2004, Geochemical Monitoring of Restoration Progress.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.21
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.27
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.72

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 01-Oct-1999
    Ending_Date: 30-Sep-2004
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: maps

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Kimberly K. Yates

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Others who worked on this project include: Phillip Thompson, Nathan Smiley, Iuri Herzfeld, and Chris Dufore.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Kimberly K. Yates
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext. 3059 (voice)
    727 803-2031 (FAX)
    kyates@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

The flow of fresh water from the Everglades to Florida Bay and the interaction of Bay water with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean are critical processes that have defined the Florida Bay Ecosystem. Reconstruction of historical changes in the Florida Bay Ecosystem using paleoecological and geochemical data from cores and historical databases indicates that significant changes in water quality and circulation (McIvor et al., 1994; Rudnick et al., 1999; Boyer et al., 1999; Halley and Roulier, 1999; Swart et al., 1999), and biological species composition and ecology (Brewster-Wingard and Ishman, 1999; Fourqurean and Robblee, 1999; Hall et al., 1999; Zieman et al., 1999) have been coincident with alteration of drainage patterns in the Everglades and construction of bridges linking the Keys.

Paleoecological data from cores also indicates that changes in the abundance of seagrass and algae in the Bay have been coincident with salinity changes and that significant loss of seagrass on mud banks and basins has occurred over the last several years. Stable isotope data from sediment cores indicate decreased circulation in the Bay coincident with railroad building and early drainage in South Florida.

Water management practices in South Florida are already being altered in an effort to restore the Everglades and Florida Bay. Resulting changes in water chemistry will first affect biogeochemical processes, and may, subsequently, result in changes in species distributions (such as seagrass, algae, etc.) in the Bay. An extensive water quality monitoring program for Florida Bay has been in operation for several years. Primary participants include ENP - fixed water quality monitoring stations, NOAA -salinity, chlorophyll, and transmittance bimonthly surveys, SFWMD - northeast Bay and north coast monitoring, and Florida International University (FIU) - nutrient monitoring. These programs have provided detailed information on concentrations of water quality parameters in the Bay. However, in situ monitoring of key biogeochemical processes resulting directly from biological activity has not been undertaken. Monitoring changes in biogeochemical processes is critical to early identification of ecological response to restoration and predicting changes in species distribution within the Bay. Additionally, these processes may directly impact water quality.

Calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration directly affect dissolved oxygen, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon and a number of other chemical characteristics of the water column. This information will enable managers to evaluate the progress and success of South Florida restoration efforts.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 30-Sep-2003 (process 1 of 4)
    Fiscal year 2003 activities focused on continued monitoring of production rates at monitoring sites established during FY2000 (Russell Bank, Manatee Key Basin, and Buchanon Basin). Productivity rates were determined by measuring rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration associated with representative substrate types including seagrass beds, hard bottom communities and mud bottom communities. Biological characterization of geochemical monitoring sites by Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) and USGS will provide critical information used for hind-casting production rates based on historical information from cores. Rates of productivity at each site were measured for 24-hour periods, during field expeditions to establish daily, seasonal, and annual rates of production in the Bay. These data will be compared to baseline productivity data established in FY2000 to identify changes in ecosystem health.

    Calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration were measured using the SHARQ incubation system developed by Yates and Halley. Geochemical parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and temperature were measured continuously through the SHARQ's flow-through analytical system throughout the duration of incubation periods (from 20-28 hours). Water samples were removed from sample ports every 4 hours for alkalinity measurements via the Gran titration method using methods of Millero. Dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity data were used to calculate rates of net calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration for each 4-hour interval between alkalinity measurements during incubation periods. Productivity parameters were calculated using the alkalinity anomaly technique and carbonate system equations of Millero whereby delta concentration of each parameter/deltaT x SHARQ volume/SHARQ surface area = g C m -1. Sample interval rates will be used to calculate net daily production rates that were then used to derive average hourly rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured in the air at the waterís surface and on the seafloor at monitoring sites during all monitoring exercises.

    Date: 2001 (process 2 of 4)
    Seasonal productivity monitoring activities have focused on establishing seasonal baseline productivity data on rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration on mud banks and in basins located in regions of the bay that exhibit similar water quality properties. Monitoring sites have been established on representative substrate types in the central and western regions of the bay. Central Bay study sites include seagrass beds located on Russell Bank and seagrass and mud-bottom located in Manatee Key Basin. Western study sites include seagrass and hard-bottom communities located near Buchanon Bank. Water column productivity has been measured in Manatee Key Basin where planktonic algal blooms frequently occur. Productivity rates at seagrass sites at each of these locations were measured in March and September of 1999.

    Productivity rates at all sites, including mud- and hard-bottom communities, and water column were measured in March 2000.

    Additional seagrass sites near Barnes Key (an area of recent seagrass die-off in the western bay monitored by FMRI) were surveyed in March 2000.

    Productivity on mudbanks will be determined by measuring spatial geochemical changes along transects across mudbanks using techniques modified from Smith (1973) and Frankignoulle and Disteche (1984). Productivity in basins will be determined by measuring temporal geochemical changes in water masses isolated over the bottom using techniques developed by Halley and Yates employing a large environmental incubation chamber (Submersible Habitat for Analyzing Reef Quality, or S.H.A.R.Q.). Comparison of productivity monitoring data to productivity baselines established in FY2000 and geochemical survey data will provide a measure of the response of biogeochemical processes to changing water quality in the Bay.

    Date: 2003 (process 3 of 4)
    Productivity monitoring has continued during March and September of each study year at Central Bay study sites including Russell Bank, Manatee Key Basin, and near Captainís Key, and at Western Bay study sites including Buchanon Bank and Barnes Key. In situ experimentation on the effects of elevated salinity on seagrass metabolism was performed in March of 2001 on seagrass beds near Captainís Key. Productivity monitoring and salinity experimentation resumed in June 2002 and will continue throughout the duration of the project. Bimonthly salinity surveys have continued throughout the project. Instrumentation was acquired in 2001 for dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon speciation, and CO2 gas flux measurements. Carbon dioxide gas flux measurements have been performed simultaneously with bimonthly salinity surveys at 26 locations throughout Florida Bay since April of 2001. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, and total inorganic carbon measurements were added to the bimonthly geochemical surveys in April 2002 and will continue throughout the duration of the project. Bimonthly salinity maps are posted on the SOFIA web site immediately after processing. Carbon dioxide gas flux maps, and newly acquired maps for dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, and total inorganic carbon from the April 2002 survey are currently being prepared, and will be posted on the SOFIA web site.

    FY2003 activities will focus on continued monitoring of production rates at monitoring sites established during FY2000 (Russell Bank, Manatee Key Basin, and Buchanon Bank). Productivity rates will be determined by measuring rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration associated with representative substrate types including seagrass beds, hard bottom communities and mud bottom communities. Biological characterization of geochemical monitoring sites by FMRI and USGS will provide critical information used for hind-casting production rates based on historical information from cores. Rates of productivity at each site will be measured for 24-hour periods, during dry and wet seasons (2 time/year), via two weeks field excursions to establish daily, seasonal, and annual rates of production in the Bay. These data will be compared to baseline productivity data established in FY2000 to identify changes in ecosystem health.

    Calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration will be measured using the SHARQ incubation system developed by Yates and Halley. Geochemical parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and temperature will be measured continuously through the SHARQ's flow-through analytical system throughout the duration of incubation periods (from 20-28 hours). Water samples will be removed from sample ports every 4 hours for alkalinity measurements via the Gran titration method using methods of Millero (1979). Dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity data will be used to calculate rates of net calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration for each 4-hour interval between alkalinity measurements during incubation periods. Productivity parameters will be calculated using the alkalinity anomaly technique (Smith and Key, 1975) and carbonate system equations of Millero (1979). Sample interval rates will then used to calculate net daily production rates that were then used to derive average hourly rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) will be measured in the air at the waterís surface and on the seafloor at monitoring sites during all monitoring exercises.

    Comparison of bimonthly survey data and NOAA surveys to historical water quality information from the ENP database will be used to identify locations of significant water quality change in the bay and potential new monitoring sites. Dissolved oxygen, pH, DIC speciation, and air:sea CO2 gas flux data from USGS surveys will play a critical role in identifying areas where significant changes in biogeochemical processes may be taking place. Survey data will be coupled with productivity monitoring data to establish condition/response criteria for biogeochemical processes. High frequency, bay-wide geochemical surveys will complement SFWMD water quality monitoring along the Bayís northern coastline, ENP water quality monitoring stations throughout the Bay, and NOAA bimonthly surveys to provide very detailed characterizations of water quality.

    Survey tracts will target the perimeter of each of the smaller basins in the Bay, transect larger basins, and include sampling sites near canal and slough discharge areas. Salinity and conductivity (Orion instrumentation), temperature (Orion), pH (Orion Ross Electrodes and meter), and dissolved oxygen (YSI) will be measured using a flow-through analytical system towed behind a small research vessel at a speed of less than 15 knots. Data from each of these parameters will be logged approximately once every 4 to 8 seconds of travel resulting in collection of approximately 20,000 data points for each parameter throughout the entire bay over a three to four day time period. Water samples for total carbon analyses will be collected from each of 24 sites distributed throughout the Bay. Analyses will be performed using a carbon coulometer. Total carbon and pH data will be used to calculate carbon speciation using the CO2SYS carbon speciation program. Air:sea CO2 gas fluxes will also be directly measured at each of the 24 sample sites using a floating bell and a LiCor 6252 infrared CO2 gas analyzer. Data collected from each geochemical survey will be contoured producing a GIS map layer for each chemical parameter. These maps will be posted on the SOFIA website. These data will establish the effects of alteration of freshwater flow to Florida Bay on critical geochemical parameters and assist in establishing links between changes in water quality, biogeochemical processes, and ecosystem health.

    Average rates of carbonate sediment production derived from FY99 through FY03 monitoring exercises will be used to estimate average sediment accumulation rates for various representative substrate types identified by Prager and Halley (1997). This information will be compared to historical sediment accumulation rates derived from dated sediment cores and sediment thickness data. Carbonate sediment production rates from monitoring exercises will be compared to salinity data collected via geochemical surveys to identify potential salinity impacts on sediment production rates.

    A similar comparative exercise for organic productivity (rates of carbon fixation) from seagrass and other substrate types is planned for next fiscal year.

    Date: 2004 (process 4 of 4)
    Historical comparisons

    During FY03, average rates of carbonate sediment production derived from FY00 through FY03 monitoring exercises were used to estimate average sediment accumulation rates for various representative substrate types identified by Prager and Halley. In FY04, this information will be compared to historical sediment accumulation rates derived from dated sediment cores and sediment thickness data. Carbonate sediment production rates from monitoring exercises will be compared to salinity data collected via geochemical surveys to identify potential salinity impacts on sediment production rates. A similar comparative exercise for organic productivity (rates of carbon fixation) from seagrass and other substrate types will be performed. Data sets from this study will be coordinated with data sets of Wingard, Zieman, Fourqurean, Frankovich, Durako, and Orem. Productivity data will be made available through a database on the SOFIA web site. GIS map products have been generated for all water quality parameters from bimonthly geochemical surveys. Correlation statistics will be used to identify links between specific water quality parameters, and other physical parameters (such as bottom type, etc.) to aid in the identification of processes controlling water chemistry. Data used to generate map products will be incorporated into a database, and will be made available on the SOFIA website. All map products will also be made available as USGS open-file reports.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Kimberly K. Yates
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 4th St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext. 3059 (voice)
    727 803-2031 (FAX)
    kyates@usgs.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Millero, F. J., 1979, The thermodynamics of the carbonate system in seawater: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 43, n. 10, Geochemical Society (Elsevier Science Ltd.), Oxon, United Kingdom.

    Barnes, D. J., 1983, Profiling coral reef productivity and calcification using pH and oxygen electrodes: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology v. 66, issue 2, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The abstract is available online. Access to the full article requires either journal subscription or purchase. Search for volume 66 under Free tables of contents and abstracts
    Frankignoulle, M. Disteche, A., 1984, CO2 chemistry in the water column above a Posidonia seagrass bed and related air-sea exchanges: Oceanologica Acta 7(2):209-219, Institute Franceis de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer, Paris, France.

    Gattuso, J. P. Pichon, M.; Delesalle, B.; , 1993, Community metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes in a coral reef ecosystem (Moorea, French Polynesia): Marine Ecology Progress Series v. 96, Inter-Research, Oldendorf, Germany.

    Online Links:

    Smith, S. V., 1973, Carbon dioxide dynamics: a record of organic carbon production, respiration, and calcification in the Eniwetok reef flat community: Limnology and Oceanography v. 18, issue 1, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Prager, E. Halley, R. B., 1997, Florida Bay Bottom Types: USGS Open-File Report OFR 97-526, USGS, Center for Coastal and Regional Marine Studies, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Boyer, J. N. Fourqurean, J. W.; Jones, R, 1999, Seasonal and long-term trends in the water quality of Florida Bay (1989-1997): Estuaries v. 22, n. 2B, Springer New York, New Tork, New York.

    Online Links:

    Brewster-Wingard, G.L. Ishman, S. E., 1999, Historical trends in salinity and substrate in Florida Bay: a paleoecological reconstructin using modern analogue data: Esturaries v. 22, n. 2B, Springer New York, New York, New York.

    Online Links:

    Stumpf, R. P. Frayer, M. L.; Durako, M. J, 1999, Variations in water clarity and bottom albedo in Florida Bay from 1985 to 1997: Estuaries v.22, n. 2B, Springer New York, New York, New York.

    Online Links:

    Halley, R. B. Roulier, L. M., 1999, Reconstructing the history of eastern and central Florida Bay using mollusk-shell isotope records: Estuaries 22(2), Estuaries Research Federation, Port Republic, MD.

    Online Links:

    Fourqurean, J. W. Robblee, M. B., 1999, Florida Bay: a history of recent ecological changes: Estuaries v. 22, n.2B, Springer New York, New York.

    Online Links:

    McIvor, C. C. Jey, J. A.; Bjork, R. D., 1994, Changes in freshwater inflow from the Everglades to Florida Bay including effects on biota and biotic processes: a review: St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, FL.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    in: Everglades the Ecosystem and Restoration, S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden, eds.
    Millero, F. J. Zhang, J.; Lee, K.; Campbel, 1993, Titration alkalinity of seawater: Marine Geochemistry 44: 153-166, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

    Rama and Moore, W. S., 1996, Using the radium quartet for evaluating ground water input and water exchange in salt marshes: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 60, issue 23, Geochemical Society (Elsevier Science Ltd.), Oxon, United Kingdom.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The abstract is available online. Access to teh full article require journal subscription or purchase. Search for volume 60, issue 23 under Previous Issues.
    Robblee, M. B. Barber, T. R.; Carlson, P. , 1991, Mass mortality of the tropical seagrasses Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay: Marine Ecology Progress Series 71: 297-299, Inter-Research, Olendorf, Germany.

    Online Links:

    Rudnick, D. T. Chen, Z.; Childers, D. L.; , 1999, Phosphorus and nitrogen inputs to Florida Bay: the importance of the Everglades watershed: Estuaries v. 22, n. 2B, Springer New York, New York, New York.

    Online Links:

    Smith, S. V. Key, G. S., 1975, Carbon dioxide and metabolism in marine environments: Limnology and Oceanography v. 20, issue 3, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Washington, D.C..

    Online Links:

    Swart, P. K. Healy, G.; Greer, L.; Lutz., 1999, The use of proxy chemical records in coral skeletons to ascertain past environmental conditions in Florida Bay: Esturaries v. 22, n. 2B, Springer New York, New York, New York.

    Online Links:

    Zieman, J. C. Fourqurean, J. W.; Frankovi, 1999, Seagrass die-off in Florida Bay: long-term trends in abundance and growth of Turtle Grass (Thalassia testudinum): Estuaries v. 22 n. 2B, Springer New York, New York, New York.

    Online Links:

    Yates, Kimberly Halley, Robert, 2000, Geochemical Productivity Monitoring in Florida Bay: USGS Open-File Report 00-361, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersbrug, FL.

    Online Links:

    Yates, K., 2000, SHARQ Infested Waters: USGS Open-File Report 00-166, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Robbins, J. A. Holmes, C. W.; Halley, R. B, 2000, Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay: Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans v. 105, n. C12, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    The abstract is available online at the URL below. Journal subscription is required to access the full article or it may be purchased through the website.
    Yates, K. K. Halley, R. B., 2003, Measuring coral reef community metabolism using new benthic chamber technology: Coral Reefs v. 22, n. 3, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    not available

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    not applicable


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 3)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Florida Bay air:sea CO2 exchange maps

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no warranties explicit or implied

  4. How can I download or order the data?


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 2 of 3)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Florida Bay surface maps

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no warranties explicit or implied

  4. How can I download or order the data?


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 3 of 3)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Salinity maps for Florida Bay

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no warranties explicit or implied

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 13-May-2009
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/geochem_mon_restore_fy04.faq.html>

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