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Geochemical Monitoring of Restoration Progress

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Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Kimberly K. Yates

Robert Halley (retired)

Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Geochemical Monitoring of Restoration Progress
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: maps
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=geo_monitor>
Description:
Abstract:
Continued geochemical monitoring efforts will provide a measure of the progress and effects of restoration on environmental health and water quality, and complement biological monitoring of indicator species. This information is essential for identifying when successful restoration has been accomplished. Additionally, this geochemical monitoring program will serve as a model for developing similar programs for monitoring other coastal and lacustrine environments targeted in future projects. Products include a productivity database for Florida Bay and bimonthly salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon speciation, and air:sea CO2 gas flux maps of Florida Bay.
Purpose:
The flow of fresh water from the Everglades to Florida Bay and the interaction of Bay water with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean are critical processes that have defined the Florida Bay Ecosystem. Reconstruction of historical changes in the Florida Bay Ecosystem using paleoecological and geochemical data from cores and historical databases indicates that significant changes in water quality and circulation (McIvor et al., 1994; Rudnick et al., 1999; Boyer et al., 1999; Halley and Roulier, 1999; Swart et al., 1999), and biological species composition and ecology (Brewster-Wingard and Ishman, 1999; Fourqurean and Robblee, 1999; Hall et al., 1999; Zieman et al., 1999) have been coincident with alteration of drainage patterns in the Everglades and construction of bridges linking the Keys.

Paleoecological data from cores also indicates that changes in the abundance of seagrass and algae in the Bay have been coincident with salinity changes and that significant loss of seagrass on mud banks and basins has occurred over the last several years. Stable isotope data from sediment cores indicate decreased circulation in the Bay coincident with railroad building and early drainage in South Florida.

Water management practices in South Florida are already being altered in an effort to restore the Everglades and Florida Bay. Resulting changes in water chemistry will first affect biogeochemical processes, and may, subsequently, result in changes in species distributions (such as seagrass, algae, etc.) in the Bay. An extensive water quality monitoring program for Florida Bay has been in operation for several years. Primary participants include ENP - fixed water quality monitoring stations, NOAA -salinity, chlorophyll, and transmittance bimonthly surveys, SFWMD - northeast Bay and north coast monitoring, and Florida International University (FIU) - nutrient monitoring. These programs have provided detailed information on concentrations of water quality parameters in the Bay. However, in situ monitoring of key biogeochemical processes resulting directly from biological activity has not been undertaken. Monitoring changes in biogeochemical processes is critical to early identification of ecological response to restoration and predicting changes in species distribution within the Bay. Additionally, these processes may directly impact water quality.

Calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration directly affect dissolved oxygen, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon and a number of other chemical characteristics of the water column. This information will enable managers to evaluate the progress and success of South Florida restoration efforts.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19991001
Ending_Date: 20040930
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.21
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.27
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.72
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: geochemistry
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: monitoring
Theme_Keyword: carbonates
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Captain Key
Place_Keyword: Buchanan Bank
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Manatee Key Basin
Place_Keyword: Buchanon Basin
Place_Keyword: Russell Bank
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kimberly K. Yates
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 4th St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext. 3059
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2031
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kyates@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
Others who worked on this project include: Phillip Thompson, Nathan Smiley, Iuri Herzfeld, and Chris Dufore.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Millero, F. J.
Publication_Date: 1979
Title: The thermodynamics of the carbonate system in seawater
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Issue_Identification: v. 43, n. 10
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Oxon, United Kingdom
Publisher: Geochemical Society (Elsevier Science Ltd.)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Barnes, D. J.
Publication_Date: 1983
Title:
Profiling coral reef productivity and calcification using pH and oxygen electrodes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Issue_Identification: v. 66, issue 2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science BV
Other_Citation_Details:
The abstract is available online. Access to the full article requires either journal subscription or purchase. Search for volume 66 under Free tables of contents and abstracts
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/523011/description>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Frankignoulle, M.

Disteche, A.

Publication_Date: 1984
Title:
CO2 chemistry in the water column above a Posidonia seagrass bed and related air-sea exchanges
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Oceanologica Acta
Issue_Identification: 7(2):209-219
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Paris, France
Publisher: Institute Franceis de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Gattuso, J. P.

Pichon, M.; Delesalle, B.; Frankignoulle, M.

Publication_Date: 1993
Title:
Community metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes in a coral reef ecosystem (Moorea, French Polynesia)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Marine Ecology Progress Series
Issue_Identification: v. 96
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Oldendorf, Germany
Publisher: Inter-Research
Online_Linkage: <http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/96/m096p259.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Smith, S. V.
Publication_Date: 1973
Title:
Carbon dioxide dynamics: a record of organic carbon production, respiration, and calcification in the Eniwetok reef flat community
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Limnology and Oceanography
Issue_Identification: v. 18, issue 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
Online_Linkage: <http://aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_18/issue_1/0106.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Prager, E.

Halley, R. B.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title: Florida Bay Bottom Types
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: OFR 97-526
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, FL
Publisher: USGS, Center for Coastal and Regional Marine Studies
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/97-526>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Boyer, J. N.

Fourqurean, J. W.; Jones, R. D.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Seasonal and long-term trends in the water quality of Florida Bay (1989-1997)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New Tork, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage: <http://springerlink.com/content/pj801615350366g8/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Brewster-Wingard, G.L.

Ishman, S. E.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Historical trends in salinity and substrate in Florida Bay: a paleoecological reconstructin using modern analogue data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Esturaries
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/np091580x3238597/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stumpf, R. P.

Frayer, M. L.; Durako, M. J.; Brock, J. C.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Variations in water clarity and bottom albedo in Florida Bay from 1985 to 1997
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: v.22, n. 2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/108013678486nk25/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Halley, R. B.

Roulier, L. M.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Reconstructing the history of eastern and central Florida Bay using mollusk-shell isotope records
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: 22(2)
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Port Republic, MD
Publisher: Estuaries Research Federation
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/61517g1n432909m4/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fourqurean, J. W.

Robblee, M. B.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title: Florida Bay: a history of recent ecological changes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n.2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/vh24236250573557/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
McIvor, C. C.

Jey, J. A.; Bjork, R. D.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Changes in freshwater inflow from the Everglades to Florida Bay including effects on biota and biotic processes: a review
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Delray Beach, FL
Publisher: St. Lucie Press
Other_Citation_Details:
in: Everglades the Ecosystem and Restoration, S. M. Davis and J. C. Ogden, eds.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Millero, F. J.

Zhang, J.; Lee, K.; Campbell, D. M.

Publication_Date: 1993
Title: Titration alkalinity of seawater
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Marine Geochemistry
Issue_Identification: 44: 153-166
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Press
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Rama and Moore, W. S.
Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Using the radium quartet for evaluating ground water input and water exchange in salt marshes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Issue_Identification: v. 60, issue 23
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Oxon, United Kingdom
Publisher: Geochemical Society (Elsevier Science Ltd.)
Other_Citation_Details:
The abstract is available online. Access to teh full article require journal subscription or purchase. Search for volume 60, issue 23 under Previous Issues.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00167037>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Robblee, M. B.

Barber, T. R.; Carlson, P. R.; Drako, M. J.; Furqurean, J. W.; Muehlstein, L. K.; Porter, D.; Yarboro, L. A.; Zieman, R. T.; Zieman, J. C.

Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
Mass mortality of the tropical seagrasses Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Marine Ecology Progress Series
Issue_Identification: 71: 297-299
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Olendorf, Germany
Publisher: Inter-Research
Online_Linkage: <http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/71/m071p297.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rudnick, D. T.

Chen, Z.; Childers, D. L.; Boyer, J. N.; Fontaine, T. D.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Phosphorus and nitrogen inputs to Florida Bay: the importance of the Everglades watershed
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/y5557qh826268583/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, S. V.

Key, G. S.

Publication_Date: 1975
Title: Carbon dioxide and metabolism in marine environments
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Limnology and Oceanography
Issue_Identification: v. 20, issue 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, D.C.
Publisher: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
Online_Linkage: <http://www.aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_20/issue_3/0493.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Swart, P. K.

Healy, G.; Greer, L.; Lutz. M.; Saied, A.; Anderegg, D.; Dodge, R. E.; Rudnick, D. T.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
The use of proxy chemical records in coral skeletons to ascertain past environmental conditions in Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Esturaries
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/x136511h8131638p/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Zieman, J. C.

Fourqurean, J. W.; Frankovich, T. A.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Seagrass die-off in Florida Bay: long-term trends in abundance and growth of Turtle Grass (Thalassia testudinum)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries
Issue_Identification: v. 22 n. 2B
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, New York
Publisher: Springer New York
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.springerlink.com/content/95617763292h1727/fulltext.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Yates, Kimberly

Halley, Robert

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Geochemical Productivity Monitoring in Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-361
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersbrug, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-361/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Yates, K.
Publication_Date: 2000
Title: SHARQ Infested Waters
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-166
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-166/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Robbins, J. A.

Holmes, C. W.; Halley, R. B.; Bothner, M.; Shinn, E. A.; Graney, J.; Keeler, G.; ten Brink, M.; Orlandini, K. A.; Rudnick, D.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Geophysical Research, Oceans
Issue_Identification: v. 105, n. C12
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details:
The abstract is available online at the URL below. Journal subscription is required to access the full article or it may be purchased through the website.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.agu.org/journals/ABS/2000/1999JC000271.shtml>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Yates, K. K.

Halley, R. B.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Measuring coral reef community metabolism using new benthic chamber technology
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Coral Reefs
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Heidelberg, Germany
Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Fiscal year 2003 activities focused on continued monitoring of production rates at monitoring sites established during FY2000 (Russell Bank, Manatee Key Basin, and Buchanon Basin). Productivity rates were determined by measuring rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration associated with representative substrate types including seagrass beds, hard bottom communities and mud bottom communities. Biological characterization of geochemical monitoring sites by Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) and USGS will provide critical information used for hind-casting production rates based on historical information from cores. Rates of productivity at each site were measured for 24-hour periods, during field expeditions to establish daily, seasonal, and annual rates of production in the Bay. These data will be compared to baseline productivity data established in FY2000 to identify changes in ecosystem health.

Calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration were measured using the SHARQ incubation system developed by Yates and Halley. Geochemical parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and temperature were measured continuously through the SHARQ's flow-through analytical system throughout the duration of incubation periods (from 20-28 hours). Water samples were removed from sample ports every 4 hours for alkalinity measurements via the Gran titration method using methods of Millero. Dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity data were used to calculate rates of net calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration for each 4-hour interval between alkalinity measurements during incubation periods. Productivity parameters were calculated using the alkalinity anomaly technique and carbonate system equations of Millero whereby delta concentration of each parameter/deltaT x SHARQ volume/SHARQ surface area = g C m -1. Sample interval rates will be used to calculate net daily production rates that were then used to derive average hourly rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured in the air at the waterís surface and on the seafloor at monitoring sites during all monitoring exercises.

Process_Date: 20030930
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Seasonal productivity monitoring activities have focused on establishing seasonal baseline productivity data on rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration on mud banks and in basins located in regions of the bay that exhibit similar water quality properties. Monitoring sites have been established on representative substrate types in the central and western regions of the bay. Central Bay study sites include seagrass beds located on Russell Bank and seagrass and mud-bottom located in Manatee Key Basin. Western study sites include seagrass and hard-bottom communities located near Buchanon Bank. Water column productivity has been measured in Manatee Key Basin where planktonic algal blooms frequently occur. Productivity rates at seagrass sites at each of these locations were measured in March and September of 1999.

Productivity rates at all sites, including mud- and hard-bottom communities, and water column were measured in March 2000.

Additional seagrass sites near Barnes Key (an area of recent seagrass die-off in the western bay monitored by FMRI) were surveyed in March 2000.

Productivity on mudbanks will be determined by measuring spatial geochemical changes along transects across mudbanks using techniques modified from Smith (1973) and Frankignoulle and Disteche (1984). Productivity in basins will be determined by measuring temporal geochemical changes in water masses isolated over the bottom using techniques developed by Halley and Yates employing a large environmental incubation chamber (Submersible Habitat for Analyzing Reef Quality, or S.H.A.R.Q.). Comparison of productivity monitoring data to productivity baselines established in FY2000 and geochemical survey data will provide a measure of the response of biogeochemical processes to changing water quality in the Bay.

Process_Date: 2001
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Productivity monitoring has continued during March and September of each study year at Central Bay study sites including Russell Bank, Manatee Key Basin, and near Captainís Key, and at Western Bay study sites including Buchanon Bank and Barnes Key. In situ experimentation on the effects of elevated salinity on seagrass metabolism was performed in March of 2001 on seagrass beds near Captainís Key. Productivity monitoring and salinity experimentation resumed in June 2002 and will continue throughout the duration of the project. Bimonthly salinity surveys have continued throughout the project. Instrumentation was acquired in 2001 for dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon speciation, and CO2 gas flux measurements. Carbon dioxide gas flux measurements have been performed simultaneously with bimonthly salinity surveys at 26 locations throughout Florida Bay since April of 2001. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, and total inorganic carbon measurements were added to the bimonthly geochemical surveys in April 2002 and will continue throughout the duration of the project. Bimonthly salinity maps are posted on the SOFIA web site immediately after processing. Carbon dioxide gas flux maps, and newly acquired maps for dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, and total inorganic carbon from the April 2002 survey are currently being prepared, and will be posted on the SOFIA web site.

FY2003 activities will focus on continued monitoring of production rates at monitoring sites established during FY2000 (Russell Bank, Manatee Key Basin, and Buchanon Bank). Productivity rates will be determined by measuring rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration associated with representative substrate types including seagrass beds, hard bottom communities and mud bottom communities. Biological characterization of geochemical monitoring sites by FMRI and USGS will provide critical information used for hind-casting production rates based on historical information from cores. Rates of productivity at each site will be measured for 24-hour periods, during dry and wet seasons (2 time/year), via two weeks field excursions to establish daily, seasonal, and annual rates of production in the Bay. These data will be compared to baseline productivity data established in FY2000 to identify changes in ecosystem health.

Calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration will be measured using the SHARQ incubation system developed by Yates and Halley. Geochemical parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and temperature will be measured continuously through the SHARQ's flow-through analytical system throughout the duration of incubation periods (from 20-28 hours). Water samples will be removed from sample ports every 4 hours for alkalinity measurements via the Gran titration method using methods of Millero (1979). Dissolved oxygen, pH and alkalinity data will be used to calculate rates of net calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration for each 4-hour interval between alkalinity measurements during incubation periods. Productivity parameters will be calculated using the alkalinity anomaly technique (Smith and Key, 1975) and carbonate system equations of Millero (1979). Sample interval rates will then used to calculate net daily production rates that were then used to derive average hourly rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) will be measured in the air at the waterís surface and on the seafloor at monitoring sites during all monitoring exercises.

Comparison of bimonthly survey data and NOAA surveys to historical water quality information from the ENP database will be used to identify locations of significant water quality change in the bay and potential new monitoring sites. Dissolved oxygen, pH, DIC speciation, and air:sea CO2 gas flux data from USGS surveys will play a critical role in identifying areas where significant changes in biogeochemical processes may be taking place. Survey data will be coupled with productivity monitoring data to establish condition/response criteria for biogeochemical processes. High frequency, bay-wide geochemical surveys will complement SFWMD water quality monitoring along the Bayís northern coastline, ENP water quality monitoring stations throughout the Bay, and NOAA bimonthly surveys to provide very detailed characterizations of water quality.

Survey tracts will target the perimeter of each of the smaller basins in the Bay, transect larger basins, and include sampling sites near canal and slough discharge areas. Salinity and conductivity (Orion instrumentation), temperature (Orion), pH (Orion Ross Electrodes and meter), and dissolved oxygen (YSI) will be measured using a flow-through analytical system towed behind a small research vessel at a speed of less than 15 knots. Data from each of these parameters will be logged approximately once every 4 to 8 seconds of travel resulting in collection of approximately 20,000 data points for each parameter throughout the entire bay over a three to four day time period. Water samples for total carbon analyses will be collected from each of 24 sites distributed throughout the Bay. Analyses will be performed using a carbon coulometer. Total carbon and pH data will be used to calculate carbon speciation using the CO2SYS carbon speciation program. Air:sea CO2 gas fluxes will also be directly measured at each of the 24 sample sites using a floating bell and a LiCor 6252 infrared CO2 gas analyzer. Data collected from each geochemical survey will be contoured producing a GIS map layer for each chemical parameter. These maps will be posted on the SOFIA website. These data will establish the effects of alteration of freshwater flow to Florida Bay on critical geochemical parameters and assist in establishing links between changes in water quality, biogeochemical processes, and ecosystem health.

Average rates of carbonate sediment production derived from FY99 through FY03 monitoring exercises will be used to estimate average sediment accumulation rates for various representative substrate types identified by Prager and Halley (1997). This information will be compared to historical sediment accumulation rates derived from dated sediment cores and sediment thickness data. Carbonate sediment production rates from monitoring exercises will be compared to salinity data collected via geochemical surveys to identify potential salinity impacts on sediment production rates.

A similar comparative exercise for organic productivity (rates of carbon fixation) from seagrass and other substrate types is planned for next fiscal year.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Historical comparisons

During FY03, average rates of carbonate sediment production derived from FY00 through FY03 monitoring exercises were used to estimate average sediment accumulation rates for various representative substrate types identified by Prager and Halley. In FY04, this information will be compared to historical sediment accumulation rates derived from dated sediment cores and sediment thickness data. Carbonate sediment production rates from monitoring exercises will be compared to salinity data collected via geochemical surveys to identify potential salinity impacts on sediment production rates. A similar comparative exercise for organic productivity (rates of carbon fixation) from seagrass and other substrate types will be performed. Data sets from this study will be coordinated with data sets of Wingard, Zieman, Fourqurean, Frankovich, Durako, and Orem. Productivity data will be made available through a database on the SOFIA web site. GIS map products have been generated for all water quality parameters from bimonthly geochemical surveys. Correlation statistics will be used to identify links between specific water quality parameters, and other physical parameters (such as bottom type, etc.) to aid in the identification of processes controlling water chemistry. Data used to generate map products will be incorporated into a database, and will be made available on the SOFIA website. All map products will also be made available as USGS open-file reports.

Process_Date: 2004
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Kimberly K. Yates
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 4th St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext. 3059
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2031
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kyates@usgs.gov

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Florida Bay air:sea CO2 exchange maps
Distribution_Liability: The data have no warranties explicit or implied
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: JPEG
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains a map for a specific date
Transfer_Size: 0.2
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/geo_monitor/maps/carbon-fluxes>
Access_Instructions: Log onto the SOFIA website at <https://sofia.usgs.gov>
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Adobe PDF
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains a map for a specific date
Transfer_Size: 0.09
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/geo_monitor/maps/carbon-fluxes>
Access_Instructions: Log onto the SOFIA website at <https://sofia.usgs.gov>
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Florida Bay surface maps
Distribution_Liability: The data have no warranties explicit or implied
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: JPEG
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains a map for specific data for a specific date
Transfer_Size: 0.3
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/geo_monitor/maps/mps-surfaces/>
Access_Instructions: The maps may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Adobe PDF
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains a map for specific data for a specific date
Transfer_Size: 0.08
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/geo_monitor/maps/mps-surfaces/>
Access_Instructions: The maps may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Salinity maps for Florida Bay
Distribution_Liability: The data have no warranties explicit or implied
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Adobe PDF
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains a map for a specific date
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/halley/halleysalt.html>
Access_Instructions: Log onto the SOFIA website at <https://sofia.usgs.gov>
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains the raw data for a specific date
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/halley/halleysalt.html>
Access_Instructions: Log onto the SOFIA website at <https://sofia.usgs.gov>
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090513
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/geochem_mon_restore_fy04.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Wed May 13 10:23:41 2009