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Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site
Abstract:
The dataset contains the values for the dyes from the tracer study on the bayside of Key Largo
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Gene Shinn (retired) Chris Reich; Don Hickey; Ann Tihansky, 2005, Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.469
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.469
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.071
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.071

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/hydro_flkeys/clflasatx.jpg> (JPEG)
    satellite image of southern Florida showing study site
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/hydro_flkeys/c2circlesnx.gif> (GIF)
    graphic showing flow and direction of flourescein injected in the central well of the Bayside Well Cluster
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/hydro_flkeys/c2circle2x.gif> (GIF)
    graphic showing flow and direction of rhodamine injected in the central well of the Bayside Well Cluster

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 20-Aug-1996
    Ending_Date: 17-Apr-1997
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheets

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Bayside Well Cluster
      This is a Point data set. It contains the following vector data types (SDTS terminology):
      • Point (10)

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.001. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.001. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.

      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    The Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site contains the results of the injection of two fluorescent dyes in the center wells in the well cluster on the bayside of Key Largo.

    Values for the dyes are ppb.

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Gene Shinn (retired)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Chris Reich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3032 (voice)
    727 803-2032 (FAX)
    creich@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

Treated sewage is injected into the limestone under the Florida Keys via on-site disposal systems (OSDs). There are 25,000 septic tank systems, approximately 5,000 cesspools, and approximately 1000 class 5 injection wells. Depths of injection wells ranges from 10 to 30 meters. Excessive algal growth, coral diseases and both marine grass and sponge mortality is perceived by the local population, NOAA, and EPA to be caused by sewage nutrients leaking from groundwater on both sides of the Florida Keys. Determining the rate and direction of saline groundwater movement beneath the Key, and the Florida Bay was considered critical to understanding the fate and effects of subsurface waste water disposal n the Florida Keys.

The objective of this research was to determine the rate, direction of flow, and contamination levels of saline groundwater in the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. Contamination studies are necessary to determine if nutrient and other contaminant levels are rising and to provide a baseline of data for future decision making.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1997 (process 1 of 3)
    Twenty wells were installed to form two (200 ft diameter) circular clusters, each with an injection well in the center. The clusters, located on opposite sides of Key Largo, were designed to determine groundwater flow direction and rate. Each was screened at two depths, (-20 and -45 ft). The following tests were conducted using the well clusters: 1) three separate dye tracer tests using fluorescein and Rhodamine, 2) one test using a colaphage (done in conjunction with University of South Florida) and 3) a single test with Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer. The first two sets of tests determined flow direction and provided sufficient information to "zero-in" on the actual flow rate. An additional well (100 ft from cluster) was added to each cluster once the direction of movement was determined. The third test (using a combination of dyes and SF6) provided accurate flow-rate estimates. These data facilitated the design of future rate and direction experiments. All wells were continuously cored and cores reside at the St. Petersburg Coastal Center.

    The well clusters were completed so that all of the piezometers were 100 ft (30.3 m) away from the central well. The central well became the location for the injection of dye to trace the natural gradient of groundwater flow. Fluorescein was injected in the shallow, central piezometer and Rhodamine WT was injected in the deep, central piezometer. The central well for the bayside cluster is approximately 75 m offshore.

    Date: 1998 (process 2 of 3)
    Perform a tracer experiment in existing well clusters.

    Date: 1999 (process 3 of 3)
    Field work included a dye-tracer study using the newly completed transect of wells across Key Largo.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Chris Reich
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3032 (voice)
    727 803-2032 (FAX)
    creich@usgs.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Shinn, E. A. Reese, R. S.; Reich, C. D., 1994, Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys: USGS Open-File Report 94-276, U. S. Geological Survey, Florida.

    Online Links:

    Reich, C. D., 1996, Diver-operated manometer: a simple device for measuring hydraulic head in underwater wells: Journal of Sedimentary Rresearch v. 66 n. 5, S E P M Society for Sedimentary Research, Tulsa, OK.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    Journal of Sedimentary Research table of contents and abstracts are open access. Full text articles are available to non-member subscribers or pay-per-view at two websites accessed from the JSR website (<http://www.sepm.org/jsr/jsr_home.html>)
    Halley, R. B. Vacher, H. L.; Shinn, E. A., 1997, Geology and Hydrogeology of the Florida Keys: Developments in Sedimentology Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands, Elsevier Science B. V., Doorwerth, The Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    This chapter was originally published in Geology and Hydrology of Carbonate Islands, Developments in Sedimentology 54, edited by H. L. Vacher and T. Quinn
    Paul, J. H. Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shi, 1995, Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in Key Largo, Florida: Applied and Environmental Microbiology v. 61, n. 6, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website
    Paul, J. H. Rose, J. B.; Jiang, S.; Kel, 1995, Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida: Applied and Environmental Microbiology v. 61, n. 6, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: The full article may be downloaded from the AEM website


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Benchmarks were installed onshore on both sides of Key Largo and position and elevation determined using GPS_Military P-code enabled. Two wells at each cluster were later leveled in using the benchmarks as a reference point.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The central wells were not sampled due to the contained/retained high concentrations of dye. Samples from all satellite wells were analyzed.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    The same tests were run on all samples from the satellite wells


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Groundwater Flow Rates at the Bayside Well Cluster study site

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: contains the results from the injection of two tracer dyes in the center wells of the bayside well cluster in format MS Excel (version unknown) Size: 0.04
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/shinn/>

    • Cost to order the data: none


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 11-Jan-2008
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/gfr_bay.faq.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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