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Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Relation to Water Quality in the Everglades

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Judson W. Harvey
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Relation to Water Quality in the Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: digital files
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=wtr_flux>
Description:
Abstract:
At present there are few reliable estimates of hydrologic fluxes between groundwater and surface water in the Everglades. This gap in hydrological investigations not only leaves the water budget of the Everglades uncertain, it also hampers progress in understanding the processes that determine mobility and transformation of contaminants, such as mercury, sulfate and nutrients. The objective of this project is to quantify hydrologic exchange fluxes between groundwater and surface water and its effects on transport of contaminants in the Everglades. The research furthermore relates surface water and ground water interactions to past, present, and proposed management of surface-water levels and flows in the Everglades. The principal research sites are the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project (ENR), Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), and the freshwater wetlands of Everglades National Park. Results are being used to quantify ground-water exchange with surface flow, and to quantify the enhancement of chemical transformations of contaminants during transport across the interface between surface water and ground water.

Two data sets are available for this project. The Northern Everglades Research Site and Sample Information data set contains a summary of the site locations, data types, and measurement periods in ENR, WCA2A, and WCA2B. The Seepage Meters Site and Sample Information data set contains vertical fluxes across wetland peat surface measured by seepage meters at research sites in ENR, WCA2A, WCA2B, and WCA3A. Additional data can be found in the appendices of the Open-File Reports 00-168 and 00-483.

Purpose:
For restoration of the Everglades to succeed there must be comprehensive knowledge about physical, chemical, and biological processes throughout the system. A key measure of success in the Everglades is the improvement or protection of water quality under changing hydrologic conditions. Although there is a basic understanding of how interactions between groundwater and surface water will affect water budgets under restoration, there is only a rudimentary understanding of how interactions between groundwater and surface water will affect water quality. Only field-oriented research and modeling can determine whether interactions between groundwater and surface water are currently storing pollutants in groundwater, how long those pollutants are likely to be stored in the aquifer, and under what changing management conditions associated with restoration will those pollutants be returned into the surface water system.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1995
Ending_Date: 1998
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.874686
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.035983
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.577616
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.094265
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: aquifer tests
Theme_Keyword: borehole
Theme_Keyword: chemical fluxes
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: contaminants
Theme_Keyword: discharge
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: groundwater
Theme_Keyword: groundwater-surface water exchanges
Theme_Keyword: hydrogeology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: mercury
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: seepage
Theme_Keyword: water budget
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: 008
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: USA
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Taylor Slough
Place_Keyword: Shark Slough
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Greater Lake Okeechobee
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3
Place_Keyword: WCA2A
Place_Keyword: WCA2B
Place_Keyword: WCA3A
Place_Keyword: Everglades Nutrient Removal area
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Stratum_Keyword: surface water
Stratum_Keyword: wetland peat
Stratum_Keyword: groundwater
Stratum_Keyword: surficial aquifer system
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Temporal_Keyword: seasonal
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Judson W. Harvey
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5876
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jwharvey@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/169-96/fig1.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: study sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel include Jim Krest, Jessica Thomas Newlin, and Eric Lerch. Past project personnel include Eric Nemeth, Katherine Randle, Jungyill Choi, Bob Mooney, Jonah Jackson, and Cynthia Gefvert.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Data are available in Excel spreadsheets (.xls files)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bates, A. L.

Orem, W. H.; Harvey, J.. W.; Spiker, E. C.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Geochemistry of Sulfur in the Florida Everglades: 1994 through 1999
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 01-007
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/01-007/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bates, Anne L

Orem, William H.; Harvey. Judson W.; Spiker, Elliot C.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title: Tracing sources of sulfur in the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Environmental Quality
Issue_Identification: v. 31 no. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Madison, WI
Publisher: American Society of Agronomy
Other_Citation_Details:
The journal is published jointly by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/reports/trace_sulfur/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, J. W.

Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia J.; Choi, Jungyill; Mooney, Robert H.; Giddings, Jefferson B.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Interaction between ground water and surface water in the northern Everglades and relation to water budget and mercury cycling: study methods and appendixes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-168
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Prepared in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-168/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, Judson W.

Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 02-4050
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/02-4050/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Choi, J.

Harvey, J. W.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Quantifying time-varying ground-water discharge and recharge in wetlands of the Northern Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: v. 20, n. 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: McLean, VA
Publisher: Society of Wetland Scientists
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/quantgwdisnrech/>
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/quantgwdisnrech/quantgwdisnreach.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Krest, James M.

Harvey, Judson W.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Using natural distributions of short-lived radium isotopes to quantify groundwater discharge and recharge
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Limnology and Oceanography
Issue_Identification: v. 48, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/radium_gw/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, Judson, W

Jackson, Jonah M.; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Interaction between ground water and surface water in Taylor Slough and vicinity, Everglades National Park, south Florida: study methods and appendixes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-483
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: Prepared in cooperation with Everglades National Park
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-483/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, J.W.

Newlin, J. T.; Krest, J. M.; Choi, J.; Nemeth, E. A.; Krupa, S. L.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Surface-water and ground-water interactions in the central Everglades, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Scientific Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2004-5069
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/sir/2004-5069/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, J. W.

Krupa, S. L.; Krest, J. M.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Ground water recharge and discharge in the Central Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Ground Water, Oceans Issue 2004
Issue_Identification: v. 42, n. 7
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Westerville, OH
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Other_Citation_Details: reprinted with permission from Judson W. Harvey et al.
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/gw_discharge/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
All wells and horizontal measuring points were surveyed by global positioning (GPS). The location of measuring points are reported with reference to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27). Using the Army Corps of Engineers program Corpscon, horizontal coordinates were transformed to Northings and Eastings in the Universal Transverse Metcator (UTM) coordinate system. Horizontal positions were gathered using either a Trimble PRO XR GPS unit, a Rockwell PLGR unit, or a Garmin unit. In all cases the accuracy is expected to be better than +/- 100 feet, which is suffiecient for this project.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Vertical ground points near or on wells were surveyed using GPS techniques by USGS Geography personnel in October 1998. Elevations in the NAD 88 datum were derived from the observed NAD 83 ellipsoid heights and the NGS GEOID96 model. The estimated accuracy of derived elevations is +/- 0.07 meters.

The elevations for vertical control points near wells were transferred to well top control points.

Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A combined water balance and environmental tracer methodology is used to determine vertical exchange of water and solute at research sites in the Everglades system. The initial research in FY96/97 began at fourteen sites in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Area (ENR) and at seven sites in the north-central portion of Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2a). Fieldwork was expanded in FY97/98 to include a single site in WCA-2b, a single site in WCA-3a, and five sites in Taylor Slough.

In total, flux measurements have been made at more than 30 study sites where mercury and nutrient fluxes are under study, including ENRI WCA-2a. and Taylor Slough wetlands. Groundwater hydraulic head and chemical measurements have been made at 60 sites; in collaboration with Mike Reddy (USGS, WRD, Boulder) peat porewater chemistry has been measured at six depths at 7 sites for almost 3 years. The major benchmarks of progress for the study are:

1) Establish research sites on transects across the wetland interior in ENR, WCA-2A, and Taylor Slough (and single sites in WCA-2B and WCA-3A). Measure porewater solute concentrations and vertical seepage and quantify vertical fluxes of groundwater and surface water across the sediment interface using these two independent sources of information. Measure groundwater hydraulic heads and compute vertical hydraulic gradients (that indicate the direction of vertical fluxes and changes in that direction over time). Also measure hydraulic conductivity of the peat and layers within the aquifer and measure groundwater chemical and isotopic concentrations for use as tracers to quantify area-averaged fluxes to surface water

2) Combine the site-specific vertical flux estimates described above with other water budget data (surface-water flow, precipitation, evapotranspiration) and other chemical data from surface-water locations. Use expanded data sets to constrain area-averaged water and chemical mass balance models in ENR, WCA-2a, and Taylor Slough

3) Relate vertical exchange fluxes of water, mercury and nutrientsbetween ground and surface water to past and current water-level management strategies. Consider factors such as hydrogeologic characteristics, regional water balance, and effect of management of water levels in canals and in WCA-l

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Determined that recharge from the Everglades Nutrient Removal area (ENR) to ground water accounted for 30 per cent of the water pumped in to ENR for treatment during the years 1994-1998. Recharge varied by about a factor fo two over time and was positivley correlated with ENR water level and rate of pumping surface water into the ENR. In contrast, discharge from WCA-1 into ENR was a much smaller flux, according to our mass-balance and seepage-meter estimates. The estimates of discharge were a factor of four smaller than estimate developed by the South Florida Water Management District.

Determined recharging water in ENR is transporting dissolved mercury downward through peat and into storage in the Surficial Aquifer. The conclusion is that dissolved mercury is being retained in the Surficial Aquifer as a result of biogeochemical reactions with aquifer surfaces.

Efforts using major ions and radium isotopes have identified a significant flux of groundwater into Taylor Slough from the west side of the slough, but quantification of that flux has been slowed due to the lack of a documented analysis fo athe surface-water velocity data in Taylor Slough. There is also uncertainty about the effect of particle-reactivity of the radium isotopes that will be addressed in upcoming work. Finally there was the difficulty of identifying actual flow paths of Taylor Slough water south of Taylor Slough Bridge. Significant progress was made on that front in FY2000 by teaming up with Clint Hittle and Mark Zucker to coordinate wetland and coastal sample collections. Sampling from July, 1999 through November, 1999 identified the pathway of movement of large pulses of freshwater that resulted from Tropical Storm Harvey and Hurricane Irene from source areas that began in upper Taylor Slough, in lower L31-W canal, and in the C-111 canal.

Completion of QA and QC of all of our measurements to date in Taylor Slough, including surface water staff measurements and ground water-level measurements, water depths, peat depths, estimates of peat hydraulic conductivity, and major-ion chemistry in surface and ground water is progressing. Our data set is the only type of its kind representing broad spatial patterns during time periods when intensive velocity gaging was being conducted in the Slough (September and November 1997, July 1998, and September 1999). A data report is presently being prepared after which all data will be made available on the SOFIA web site.

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Work in upper and lower Shark Slough began in FY2000 by cooperating with Ray Shaffranek (WRD) and Tom Smith (BRD) to obtain access for measuring distributions of peat depth, hydraulic conductivity of peat, vertical hydraulic gradients in peat, and to determine surface-water flow pathways using geochemical tracers. For the coming wet season we will cooperate with the Freshwater Discharge to the West Coast project to help determine flow pathways to the coast. Also in FY2001 we will use what we have learned about uranium isotopes in Taylor Slough to quantify groundwater discharge in Shark Slough. Eventually more wells may be needed in Shark Slough to determine regional hydraulic gradients and ground-water flow velocities in order to support accurate ground water modeling.

Like the work in Everglades National Park, our work in the north Everglades involves developing and testing new methods to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions. Unlike the ENP work, our north Everglades work began earlier (in FY1996) and is now reaching maturity. Having completed the task of quantifying surface and ground water exchange fluxes, work is now emphasizing chemical reactions that occur at the interface between surface water and ground water. Interest is in those biogeochemical reactions that affect the fate of contaminants such as mercury, sulfate, and nutrients in the Everglades. At this stage fieldwork is largely complete (except for continuation fieldwork that has been funded by SFWMD). In large part activities at this point involve additional data analysis and modeling that are needed to reliably determine water fluxes and chemical reaction rates in flow paths connecting surface and ground water. The project is also developing model analyses that are compatable with the data sets to quantify the role of groundwater and peat in storing contaminants and releasing them slowly over time to surface water.

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Extensive use of traditional hydrogeologic methods to parameterize groundwater-surface water interaction models is impractical in many areas of the Everglades due to constraints on well construction. The project proposes to develop and test methods that are based on measurements in peat and in surface water to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions. The first approach involves estimating peat hydraulic conductivity, peat depth, and vertical hydraulic gradients in peat for input to the TIME model (i.e. The model that will couple surface and subsurface flow in Everglades National Park). Measuring the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and vertical hydraulic gradients may prove quite useful, but it is possible that those measurements will be subject to small inaccuracies, that when upscaled, lead to large uncertainties in flux estimates in the Park wetlands as a whole. The proposal is to develop an independent means to corroborate our results based on innovative use of geochemical tracing methods.

The advantage of using environmental geochemical tracers is flux estimates are obtained at larger spatial scales that are more similar to the scales of interest for practical problems of restoring flows and protecting water quality. The problem with using many of the existing methods in the Everglades is that the source waters to Everglades National Park have already interacted with groundwater, and therefore already have a 'groundwater' chemical signature. The ground water signature in Everglades source waters therefore interferes with the use of commonly used tracers to delineate groundwater interactions that occur within the Park. Our approach is to use Uranium series isotopes to quantify surface water and ground water interactions that occur within the confines of Everglades National Park.

Process_Date: 2002
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Our objective for FY03 is twofold, 1) to conduct a fundamental solute tracer experiment in the FIU/SERC flumes that will produce some of the first parameters describing solute transport in the Everglades (needed for water quality models), and 2) to expand the spatial scale of our measurements, using an extension of the radium tracer approach, to allow parameterization of solute transport at spatial scales of tens of kilometers.

The detailed experimental study of solute transport in Shark Slough involves releasing by steady injection (for a period ranging between 4 and 24 hours) a small amount of salt solution (sodium bromide) in "flumes" in Everglades National Park. We will track both the downstream movement and longitudinal spreading of the tracer in surface water, as well as the exchange between surface water and peat porewater. Our collaborator, Jim Saiers from Yale University, will be conducting a co-injection of fine (neutrally-buoyant) latex particles to learn about processes affecting transport of fine particulate organic matter. As outlined above, we have particular interest in quantifying the rate and extent to which surface water and subsurface porewater are exchanged. This information is embedded within the surface-water tracer measurements but will be verified independently through measurements of concentrations of the bromide tracer in porewater of the peat. Our modeling will account for advection and longitudinal dispersion of solute in surface water, as well as the effects of exchange with peat porewater. Jim Saiers will have primary responsibility for measurement and modeling of fine particulate transport.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Our objectives for FY04 are twofold, 1) continue conducting fundamental solute tracer experiments in the Everglades at the 10-m scale to quantify the fundamental physical transport processes, including surface-subsurface exchange, and its effects on solute transport in the Everglades, and 2) attempt to scale up results to the 10-km scale using an extension of our recently published radium isotope tracer approach, with the purpose of developing the parameter sets that are directly applicable in water-quality models.

We are still active in publishing results from on-going (but nearly completed) investigations in Water Conservation Area 2A, and will add to the production line new products from FY03 activities in Shark Slough. In FY04/05 we plan to continue reporting our results. he first product in mid FY04 will document results from the bromide tracer test at an FIU flume facility in Shark Slough. The second product in mid to late FY04 will feature a watershed-scale modeling application in Taylor Slough that uses environmental radium measurements as well as detailed results from the bromide tracer test.

Hydrologic Transport Processes Affecting Movement and Retention of Dissolved Constituents and Contaminants in the Everglades: The principal work to be conducted in FY04 include both 1) detailed experimental studies and modeling of solute transport at relatively small scales (10-m), combined with 2) synoptic investigations of natural distributions of radium isotopes and modeling of solute transport at larger scales (10- km) in Taylor and Shark Sloughs. The general plan for detailed experimentation involves releasing a bromide salt solution (NaBr) by steady injection (for a period ranging between 4 and 24 hours) into surface water in Everglades National Park. We track both the downstream movement and vertical and longitudinal spreading of the tracer in surface water, as well as the exchange between surface water and peat porewater. Of particular interest is quantifying the rate and extent to which surface water and subsurface porewater are exchanged. This information is embedded within the surfacewater tracer measurements but will be verified independently through measurements of concentrations of the bromide tracer in porewater of the peat. The modeling will account for advection and vertical and longitudinal dispersion of solute in surface water, as well as the effects of exchange with peat porewater.

To obtain measurements and modeling necessary to scale up our information about solute transport to the watershed scale, the strategy is to modify the site-specific radium isotopic tracer technique that previously developed to quantify ground water and surface water interactions at a watershed scale. To accomplish the goal of scaling up, we will need to extend our site specific method using the radium tracer in a way that will allow us to quantify interactions between surface and subsurface water along a surface-water 'flowpath' in the main flow-ways in Shark Slough and Taylor Slough. Some kilometer-scale sampling of the radium tracer and other physical and biogeochemical parameters have already been completed in Taylor Slough. Similar work will be conducted in Shark Slough beginning either in the 1st or 2nd quarter of FY04. Modeling solute transport and dispersion at the 10-km scale will require not only the radium measurements, but also information from the detailed tracer studies and meterologic and hydrologic information from existing hydrology data sets and sources in the Park.

Process_Date: 2004
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Judson W. Harvey
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5876
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jwharvey@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 17
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -81
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 0.001
Ordinate_Resolution: 0.001
Planar_Distance_Units: survey feet
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.9786982
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
Altitude_Resolution: 0.01
Altitude_Distance_Units: feet
Altitude_Encoding_Method:
Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Data collected for vertical fluxes at each site include: general location, location and metd ID, peter prefill volume in ml, seepage-meter bag deployment - start/mid/end date, elapsed time in hours, water volume exchanged in miters, vertical flux in cm/day, valid measurement indicatr, and flux above minimum detection indicator.

Data included in the summary of northern Everglades research site locations are site location, site ID, type of site (well, surface water levels, or seepage meter), depth from TOC in feet, # of seepage meters, type of data collected (H- head value, QW -water quality, SM - seepage meter, KP - peat hydraulic conductivity, QWP - peat water quality), nominal record period start and end, longitude and latitude, and state plane easting and northing in feet on NAD27.

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Everglades hydrology and water quality data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
Two files are available - Northern Everglades Research Site and Sample Information and Seepage Meter Site and Sample Information
Transfer_Size: 0.4
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/harvey/harveyDATA.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090303

Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/gw-sw_wq_everglades.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Tue Mar 03 09:42:58 2009