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Groundwater Characterization in Marine Areas of Biscayne National Park

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Robert Halley (retired)

Peter Swarzenski

Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Groundwater Characterization in Marine Areas of Biscayne National Park
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=gw_biscaynenp>
Description:
Abstract:
This project was designed to identify whether or not groundwater was migrating through coastal aquifers and discharging into Biscayne Bay and nearby reef tracts. The approach had two objectives.

The first objective was to use geochemical tracers such as isotopes of radon and radium and cations/anions (e.g., calcium, magnesium) to identify water masses. Other water quality parameters are necessary in understanding potential sources of contamination to the ecosystem. Air and surface water sources are relatively easy to investigate but groundwater beneath a marine system is much more difficult to access. This project quantified water quality parameters such as nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus species), trace elements (e.g., zinc, copper, arsenic), wastewater compounds (e.g., 17beta-estradiols, coprostanol, caffeine, surfactants), pesticides (e.g., Lindane, Endosulfan, DDT), as well as field parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature). These parameters were used to characterize the groundwater beneath Biscayne Bay.

The second objective to further our understanding of the subsurface flow regime beneath Biscayne Bay and within Biscayne National Park. Groundwater flow is driven by changes in water level (potentiometric surface gradient) in the adjacent Biscayne Aquifer. Potentiometric surfaces for groundwater have been investigated extensively for onshore regions of south Florida and to some extent for the coastline, but no information exists farther offshore. To complicate natural flow gradients, tidal pumping is known to create flow patterns in marine groundwaters. Although tidal pumping has been investigated using seepage meters, it is most accurately quantified by using observation wells. Determining the pressure gradients produced between groundwater and surface water by the action of tidal pumping can potentially provide data on vertical and horizontal groundwater movement.

Purpose:
Biscayne National Park is a marine park that sits immediately adjacent to a metropolitan area consisting of over one million people. Development of the shoreline and nearby upland areas is extensive and natural upland water flow has been radically altered through a broad system of drainage canals and dredged waterways. Numerous deeply dredged ponds, lakes, and water storage sites, which collect and hold urban surface run-off, also occur on the adjacent upland areas. Infiltration and spread of non-point source pollutants into the groundwater system from surface run-off and these dredged sites is likely to be significant with the highly porous limestone substrate of the region known as the Biscayne Aquifer. This aquifer flows directly into Biscayne Bay. In addition, a large Metropolitan Dade County trash dumping facility was established during the 1970's in an area immediately adjacent to Biscayne Bay and the Park. This facility has resulted in a very large mound (mountain) of municipal waste being created, which has a very large potential for groundwater impact and subsurface flow of contaminants into the Park. Some groundwater infiltration of nutrients and contaminants from the urban development and the municipal waste facility have been documented. However, the extent to which these contaminants are flowing and resurfacing into Biscayne Bay and offshore reef area waters has not been determined. According McNeill (2000), 10 of the 17 injection wells at the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District plant were constructed improperly creating a relatively open pathway for upward migration of injected effluent. As a result, ammonia was detected in shallow monitoring wells within 11 years of first injection. This varies significantly from the originally calculated 343 years for upward migration of effluents. Recent declines in offshore coral reef health may be linked to groundwater pollution or due to surface water quality declines, or possibly other ecosystem stress factors. The park needs to better understand the current extent of groundwater pollution and its possible affects on park resources in order to make correct management decisions concerning the loss of park marine resources.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 200208
Ending_Date: 200403
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.85
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.6
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.14
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: contaminants
Theme_Keyword: groundwater
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place_Keyword: Biscayne National Park
Place_Keyword: Black Point
Place_Keyword: Billys Point
Place_Keyword: Elliott Key
Place_Keyword: Petrel Point
Place_Keyword: Pacific Reef
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: Alinas Reef
Place_Keyword: Goulds Canal
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter Swarzenski
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 400 Natural Bridges Drive
City: Santa Cruz
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 95060
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 831 427-4729
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 831 527-4748
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pswarzen@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel included: Chris Reich, Richard Curry, and Don Hickey. Richard Curry (NPS) assisted with permitting, field logistics, and conceptual design. Kate Ciembronowicz, Brian Blake- Collins, Russ Peterson, B.J. Reynolds, and Nate Smiley assisted with fieldwork. We also thank Charles Holmes, Mario Fernandez, and Barbara Lidz for their reviews
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fish, Johnnie E.

Stewart, Mark

Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
Hydrogeology of the Surficial Aquifer System, Dade County, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 90-4108
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
prepared in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District

accessed as of 8/23/2010

Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/90-4108/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wilde, F. D.

Radtke, D. B.; Gibs, J.; Iwatsubo, R.T.

Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
U.S. Geological Survey National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations
Issue_Identification: Book 9 Handbooks for Water-Resources Investigations
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 9/1/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: McNeill, D. F.
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
A review of upward migration of effluent related to subsurface injection at Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District Plant
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Other_Citation_Details:
The report was prepared for the Sierra Club Miami (Florida) Group
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Zaugg, S. D.

Smith, S. G.; Schroeder, M. P.; Barber, L. B.; Burkhardt, M. R.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geologicak Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Wastewater Compounds by Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene Solid-Phase Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Edition: Version 1.1, revised 2007
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2001-4186
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Denver, CO
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri014186/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Porter, J., ed.

Porter, K.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
The Everglades, Florida Bay, and the Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecological Sourcebook
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boca Raton, FL
Publisher: CRC Press
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Halley, Robert
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Groundwater characterization and assessment of contaminants in marine areas of Biscayne National Park
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Technical Report
Issue_Identification: NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2006/356
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ft. Collins, CO
Publisher:
National Park Service Water Resource Division Natural Resources Program Center
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/reports/bisc_gw_char/index.html>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Groundwater and surface-water samples were collected using USGS water-quality sampling protocols that follow clean procedures for all constituents, whether constituents were nutrients, trace elements, wastewater compounds, or pesticides (Wilde and others, 1998)
Completeness_Report:
Salinity (specific conductance), temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation- reduction potential (ORP or Redox), and pH were measured in the field using a multi- parameter probe (YSI model 556MP). Hydrochemistry for 64 trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at Actlabs-Skyline in Tucson, Arizona.

Three elements (arsenic, nickel and bromine), typically determined in fresh water by this method, had serious interferences from the high concentrations of calcium and magnesium in seawater and had to be excluded from the results.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Sample site locations were determined using Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) P code. The accuracy is 10 meters
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Four tasks were undertaken to create the datasets for this study. (1) Sub-sea monitoring wells were installed along a transect from near shore to offshore. (2) Samples from wells and surface waters were collected approximately quarterly as weather allowed. Surface-water samples were collected immediately above the well-cluster sites. (3) Samples were analyzed using standard operating procedures wherever possible. (4) Water-level (well-pressure) data were collected at selected sites using submersible pressure sensors.

Well Locations

Six well-cluster sites have been established in a 25-km-long transect leading from onshore to offshore The near shore site 1 (Black Point Inshore) is a single well located south of Black Point. The well head is approximately 2 ft below sea level, and the well penetrates to a depth of 17 ft below seafloor (fbsf), terminating in a quartz-sand zone of the Miami Limestone (Fish and Stewart, 1991). Site 2 (Mid-Bay) is located in the middle of Biscayne Bay approximately 9 ft below sea level and consists of three monitoring wells to depths of 15, 33, and 42 fbsf. Sites 3 and 4 are located on opposite sides of Elliott Key. Site 3 (Billys Point), the bayside site, consists of two wells at 6 and 22 fbsf. Site 4 (Petrel Point), the seaward site, consists of two wells at 20 and 45 fbsf. Site 5 (Alinas Reef) is located on a patch reef where diverse reef research and monitoring is continuing and is a site where BNP staff have recorded low conductivity (salinity) on a moored instrument (Porter and Porter, 2002, p. 12-13). Three wells installed at Alinas Reef provide sampling access to 12, 32, and 60 fbsf. Site 6, located south of the Pacific Reef light structure, consists of two monitoring wells to depths of 10 and 41 fbsf. For comparison, a pre-existing shallow (80 ft, below land surface) onshore well in the Biscayne Aquifer was sampled, as well as an additional well (BkP, 20 fbsf) located just offshore of the Black Point site.

1. Well Installation

Well installation was accomplished by SCUBA divers with surface support. A USGS work boat, hydraulic-powered drill, and standard 5-ft NQ-2 wire-line core barrels and drill rods were used for core drilling. SCUBA divers drilled most of the offshore wells. Rock cores obtained during drilling are 2 in. (50 mm) in diameter. Each hole drilled was completed as a water-quality monitoring well.

2. Water sampling

Preparation - The bottles for each constituent went through a four-step cleaning process. The bottles (except baked-glass bottles) were first washed in Liquinox, then rinsed in tap water, followed by soaking in a 10% HCl solution for 30 min, and finally rinsed in de- ionized (DI) water. The same procedure was followed for all tubing, fittings, and equipment (the acid rinse was not used on metallic equipment). Bottles were capped, and labels placed on the bottles. Prior to field collection, bottles were pre-rinsed twice with de-ionized (DI) water to save time in the field. Bottles were sorted for each well site and placed in double zipper bags. The same doublebagging method was used for tubing and other equipment and supplies that would come in contact with water samples. Three or four days prior to field sampling, Gelman capsule filters (0.45-µm) were pre-conditioned with DI water.

Collection - Once on site, a diver was sent to connect a fitting to the wellhead. The fitting provided a tight seal so that surface water could not enter when pumping commenced. The fitting was attached to Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing that reached from the wellhead to the boat. The PTFE tubing was connected to peristaltic tubing (C-flex), which passed through a peristaltic pump and was then split, with one tube leading to a multi-probe (temperature, pH, oxygen-reduction potential (ORP), salinity, and dissolved oxygen) and the other to the sampling chamber. Several well volumes of water were pumped from the well. After readings on the probe stabilized, values were recorded in a notebook. The tubing to the probe was clamped and flow to the chamber commenced. Throughout water collection, 'clean hands/dirty hands' procedures were followed.

A collection chamber was assembled, which was constructed of a PVC frame with a clear Polyethylene bag clipped to the frame. The chamber created an enclosure where samples were collected in bottles and helped assure that atmospheric deposition or other possible sources of contamination did not enter the sample. The person designated 'dirty hands' opened the outer zipper bag and the person designated 'clean hands' pulled the inner zipper bag out and placed it in the chamber. Only the 'clean-hands' person touched the bottles and tubing inside the chamber. Bottles were rinsed once and then filled to the appropriate level. This procedure was conducted for all bottles for each well. Finally, the bottles were removed from the chamber for preservation (acidification).

Preservation - Some studies require a second chamber called a preservation chamber for acidification of samples. After each well site was sampled and before anchor is pulled to move to next well site, the tubing was rinsed with a 0.1% Liquinox solution and followed by a DI rinse until Liquinox soap residual was unnoticeable.

3. Sample Analyses

Salinity (specific conductance), temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation- reduction potential (ORP or Redox), and pH were measured in the field using a multi- parameter probe (YSI model 556MP). Hydrochemistry for 64 trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at Actlabs-Skyline in Tucson, Arizona.

Three elements (arsenic, nickel and bromine), typically determined in fresh water by this method, had serious interferences from the high concentrations of calcium and magnesium in seawater and had to be excluded from the results. Groundwater and surface-water nutrients (ammonium, nitrates, nitrites, total soluble nitrogen, total soluble phosphorus, and soluble reactive phosphorus) were analyzed on a nutrient auto-analyzer at the University of Florida. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was analyzed at the USGS Water Quality Laboratory in Ocala, FL, on a Shimadzu TOC-5050A analyzer with an ASI-5000A auto sampler. Determination of 66 wastewater compounds in ground- and surface-water samples were conducted at the U.S Geological Survey National Water Quality Lab in Denver, CO. USGS analytical procedures for wastewater compounds were by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent gas-chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses (Zaugg and others, 2002). Radium and radon samples were analyzed at the USGS Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies (CCWS) office in St. Petersburg. The St. Petersburg lab used an alpha-scintillation counter for measuring the four isotopes of radium (223, 224, 226, and 228). Strontium-isotope ratios (87Sr to 86Sr) were determined for selected samples by the University of Florida in Gainesville (August 2002) and Geochron Laboratories in Cambridge, MA (March 2004) using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS).

All samples were shipped immediately (via FedEx) upon return to the CCWS office in St. Petersburg. Holding times for nutrients were < 28 days per USGS protocols when kept frozen; 223Ra and 224Ra were run in house as soon as possible due to their short half-life (11.4 days and 3.7 days, respectively); trace elements were shipped to Actlabs and run within 4 to 6 weeks; and wastewater compounds were run in the order in which they were received at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (Denver, CO). Turn-around time ranged from 6 to 8 weeks.

4. Potentiometric measurements

Our fourth task was to investigate the hydrology of the region by installing pressure transducers in many, if not all, of the wells. The transducers were started, placed in the wells, and left to collect data on pressure variations within the wells. A transducer was also mounted to the outside of the well to collect data on surface water-level changes (tides). Well- and surface-pressure data were compared to determine if potentiometric gradients occurred between subsurface and surface that would indicate either positive vertical flow (discharge) or negative vertical flow (recharge).

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Process_Date: 2005
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter Swarzenski
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 400 Natural Bridges Drive
City: Santa Cruz
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 95060
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 831 427-4729
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 831 527-4748
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pswarzen@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Biscayne National Park

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: WGS84
Ellipsoid_Name: WGS84
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257223563

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Samples were analyzed for lithium, boron, beryllium, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, gallium, germanium, selenium, rubidium, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, platinum, palladium, silver, cadmium, and indium.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20100901
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/gw_biscaynenp.html>

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