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Hydrologic Variation and Ecological Processes in the Mangrove Forests of South Florida: Response to Restoration

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Thomas J. Smith III

James E. Saiers

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Hydrologic Variation and Ecological Processes in the Mangrove Forests of South Florida: Response to Restoration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: fact sheets, journal articles
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=hydro_mangrove>
Description:
Abstract:
The focus of this research is (1) quantifying groundwater and and surface-water flow dynamics within the coastal mangrove zone and within the adjacent freshwater marsh, (2) defining the response of fluid flow characteristics to changes in weather and water management practices, and (3) deriving relationships between hydrologic conditions and vegetation indices of the mangrove-marsh ecotone.

Our co-located sampling networks allow us to track the interaction of hydrology, sediment, and vegetation over time, and will provide the opportunity to monitor the progress of the Everglades restoration and to gauge its success.

Purpose:
Hurricane Andrew, a Category 5 storm, crossed the southern Florida peninsula on the morning of August 24, 1992 . Following the storm, the National Park Service conducted an environmental damage assessment to gauge the storm's impacts on the natural resources of south Florida Park Service holdings (Pimm et al., 1994). Although hurricanes have impacted Park Service lands such as the Everglades in the past (Houston and Powell, 2003), no systematic, permanent sampling scheme has been established to monitor long-term recovery (or lack thereof) following disturbance.

Our research addresses processes relevant to the following restoration and related questions:

1. How will increasing freshwater flow affect wetland primary production? 2. Will increasing freshwater inflow alter nutrient availability? 3. Does recovery following disturbance in mangroves depend on freshwater inflow? 4. Will the position of vegetation ecotones change in response to upstream water management? 5. What will be the influence of global climate change, such as sea-level rise, on the Everglades restoration? 6. Will processes of wetlands soil formation be altered by sea-level rise and changed freshwater inflow?

Supplemental_Information:
This individual project is now completed and is now part of the "Dynamics of Land Margin Ecosystems: Historical Change, Hydrology, Vegetation, Sediment, and Climate" project.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1992
Ending_Date: 2002
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.5
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.8
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.75
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: mangroves
Theme_Keyword: mangrove ecotone
Theme_Keyword: groundwater-surface water flow
Theme_Keyword: monitoring
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme_Keyword: vegetation
Theme_Keyword: sediments
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Shark River
Place_Keyword: Chatham River
Place_Keyword: Broad River
Place_Keyword: Lostmans River
Place_Keyword: C-111 Canal
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Greater Everglades region
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: ENP
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3015/images/fig2x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: location of sampling sites in Everglades National Park
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit: Project personnel included Gordon Anderson and Christa Walker
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: German, E. R.
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Regional Evaluation of Evapotranspiration in the Everglades (1999)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Third International Symposium on Ecohydraulics
Issue_Identification: Proceedings
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Salt Lake City, UT
Publisher: International Association for Hydraulic Research
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/24/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/evalET/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fry, Brian

Smith, Thomas J., III

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Stable Isotope Studies of Red Mangroves and Filter Feeders from the Shark River Estuary, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletin of Marine Science
Issue_Identification: v. 70, n. 3, p. 871-890
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/24/2010
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/2002/00000070/00000003/art00006>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bolster, Carl, H.

Genereux, David P.; Saiers, James E.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Determination of Specific Yield for the Biscayne Aquifer with a Canal-Drawdown Test
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ground Water
Issue_Identification: v. 39, n. 5, p. 768-777
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Westerville, OH
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/24/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Wiley InterScience website

Online_Linkage: <http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119017135/abstract>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bolster, Carl. H

Saiers, James E.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Development and evaluation of a mathematical model for surface-water flow within the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Hydrology
Issue_Identification: v. 259, n. 1-4, p. 221-235
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science BV
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/24/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V6C-44KVW96-5&_user=10&_coverDate=03%2F01%2F2002&_rdoc=14&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info%28%23toc%235811%232002%23997409998%23283536%23FLA%23display%23Volume%29&_cdi=5811&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=18&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a82d28a5e8d21f8c8cabe7acae6db35f>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Anderson, G. H.

Smith, T. J., III

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Data from the mangrove hydrology sampling network for the Lower Shark River, Everglades National Park: Water years 1995-2002
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2002-457
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cahoon, D. R.

Lynch, J. C,; Hensel, P.; Boumans, R.; Perez, B. C.; Segura, B.; Day, J. W. Jr

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
High-Precision Measurements of Wetland Sediment Elevation: I. Recent Improvements to the Sedimentation-Erosion Table
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Sedimentary Research
Issue_Identification: v. 72, n. 5, p. 730-733
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Other_Citation_Details:
Viewing of the article requires either SEPM membership, GeoScienceWorld subscription, or purchase of short-term access
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Houston, S. H.

Powell, M. D.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title: Surface wind fields for Florida Bay hurricanes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Coastal Research
Issue_Identification: v. 19, n. 3, p. 503-513
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: West Palm Beach, FL
Publisher: Coastal Education and Research foundation (CERF)
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/19/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the JSTOR website.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4299193>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Pimm, S.

Davis, G.; Loope, L.; Roman, C.; Smith, T. J. III; Tilmant, J.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title: Hurricane Andrew
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bioscience
Issue_Identification: v. 44, p. 224-229
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Institute of Biological Sciences
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, T. J. III

Cahoon, D. R.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Wetland sediment surface elevation in the Florida Everglades: response to surface water stage variation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: presentation
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Proceedings
Issue_Identification:
5th International Symposium on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corpus Christi, TX
Publisher: East Meets West Productions
Other_Citation_Details: The Proceedings are available on a CD-ROM
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, T. J. III

Hudson, J. H.; Robblee, M. B.; Powell, G. V. N.; Isdale, P. J.

Publication_Date: 1989
Title:
Freshwater flow from the Everglades to Florida Bay: A historical reconstruction based on fluorescent banding in the coral Solenastrea bournoni
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletin of Marine Science
Issue_Identification: v. 44, n. 1, p. 274-282
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Research
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/19/2010
Online_Linkage:
<http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/1989/00000044/00000001/art00021>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, T. J. III

Robblee, M. B.; Wanless, H. R.; Doyle, T. W.

Publication_Date: 1989
Title: Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bioscience
Issue_Identification: v. 44, p.256-262
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Institute of Biological Sciences
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Hammer, D. E.

Kadlec, R. H.

Publication_Date: 1986
Title: A model for wetland surface water dynamics
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 22, n. 13, p. 1951-1958
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, Dc
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/24/2010 The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the American Geophysical Uunion website
Online_Linkage: <http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1986/WR022i013p01951.shtml>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
McKillop, R.

Kouwen, N.; Soulis, E. D.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title: Modeling the rainfall-runoff response of a headwater wetland
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 35, n., p. 1165-1177
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 5/24/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the American Geophysical Union website

Online_Linkage: <http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1999/1998WR900084.shtml>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: unknown
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
We used hydrological and meteorological data collected from the central portion of Shark River Slough to evaluate a two-dimensional overland flow model. The Shark River Slough, located near the southern tip of the Florida peninsula about 50 km west of Miami, serves as the primary means of freshwater delivery from Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA 3A) and Water Conservation Area 3B (WCA 3B) to the Florida Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The model domain, measuring 27 km×10 km, is located in the center of the Shark River Slough.

We selected the model boundary conditions to ensure agreement between simulated flow patterns and general flow directions observed in the field. We assumed no-flow conditions across the southeastern boundary (SEB) and across the segment of the northwest boundary (NWB) located downgradient of the NP203 site. We assigned values of hydraulic head along the entire northeastern boundary (NEB) on the basis of head measurements collected from the NP202 and NE5 sites. Boundary heads were set to decrease linearly between NP202 and NE5, while the boundary heads between NE5 and the corner of the model domain were set equal to the head measured at NE5. Values of the boundary heads between NP202 and NP203 were determined from linear interpolation of head measurements made at these sites. Specified head conditions also were adopted for the southwest boundary (SWB), such that all boundary heads were set equal to the hydraulic head measured at the P35 site. During the time periods of model application, heads along the upgradient boundary varied between 1.9 and 2.5 m (relative to National Geodetic Vertical Datum 29 (NGVD-29)), while heads along the downgradient boundary varied between 0.4 and 0.8 m. Initial conditions were estimated through interpolation of hydraulic head values measured at the monitoring sites along the edges of the domain (i.e. NP202, NP203, NE5, and P35) and at the monitoring sites within the interior of the domain (i.e. P33, P36, and S1).

We obtained time-series data on hydraulic head at sites NP202, NP203, NE5, P33, P35, P36, and S1 from databases maintained by Everglades National Park and the US Geological Survey. For each site, we used daily measurements of hydraulic head (relative to NGVD-29) that were computed by averaging 15-min interval data.

In order to run the flow model and simulate the spatiotemporal variability in hydraulic heads, it is necessary to specify the evapotranspiration rates (E), the rainfall rates (P), the ground-surface slopes (dz/dx and dz/dy), the wetland porosity, the surface water conductivity coefficient (Kf), and the exponential constants (beta and lambda). We obtained E and P from field measurements, wetland porosity on the basis of literature values, and Kf and the exponential constants from calibration.

We assumed that evapotranspiration was uniform across the model domain and that the rates of evapotranspiration could be determined on the basis of measurements made at the P33 site. Ed German of the US Geological Survey supplied evapotranspiration rates for the P33 site. Based on estimates of energy fluxes, German (1999) calculated evapotranspiration rates at 30-min intervals according to the Bowen-ratio method. We averaged the 30-min interval evapotranspiration measurements to obtain average-daily evapotranspiration rates. For the time periods studied, evapotranspiration rates ranged from 0.30 to 8.0 cm d-1.

We employed a simple zonation procedure, in coordination with rainfall data collected from gages at the P33, P35, and P36 sites, to represent the spatial distribution in rainfall at the study area. We divided the model domain into three separate zones: rainfall rates could vary between zones, but were considered uniform within a zone. The zonal boundaries were positioned at the midline between the locations of adjacent rainfall gages. We assumed that the daily average rainfall rate within a zone was equal to the rainfall rate recorded in the gage situated within that particular zone. Results of preliminary analyses demonstrated the necessity of incorporating this rainfall zonation, as the flow model performed poorly when uniform rainfall rates, based on precipitation measurements at P33, were assumed for the model domain. All rainfall data used in the work reported here were obtained from the hydrological databases maintained by the Everglades National Park.

We modeled flow in the slough by incorporating constant values for wetland porosity. We do not have measurements of wetland porosity at our study site, and a review of the literature demonstrates that little effort has been devoted to determining values of this parameter for overland flow. In previous work, investigators have assumed values of wetland porosity ranging from 0.8 to 0.95 (Hammer and McKillop), which reflects that plant material typically occupies a small fraction of the water column. For this work, we adopt a value of 0.9. Although measurements necessary to tightly constrain wetland porosity a priori are unavailable, precise knowledge of the value of this parameter does not appear to be critically important because modeled results are relatively insensitive to changes in this parameter within the range 0.8-1.0 (Hammer and Kadlec, 1986).

We invoked the simplifying assumption that surface-water flow within the slough can be quantified in terms of uniform ground-surface slopes. Reliable data on land-surface elevation within Shark River Slough are scarce; however, the few measurements that are available indicate that the gradient in land-surface elevation is approximately parallel with the southeast and northwest boundaries of our model domain. Based on differences in measured surface elevations at the P33 and P35 sites, we estimated the ground-surface slope in the direction parallel to the long dimension of our model domain (dz/dy) as 5×10-5. We assigned a value of zero to dz/dx, the component of the surface slope in the x direction.

Values of Kf, beta, and wetland porosity were determined from model calibration; that is, optimal values of these parameters were identified by using a Levenberg-Marquadt algorithm to minimize an objective function.

We conducted three separate simulations: one calibration simulation, designed to estimate the flow parameters (Kf, beta, and wetland porosity), followed by two forward simulations, designed to assess the predictive capability of the calibrated model. The 243 d calibration period included data from both the wet season (May-October) and from the dry season (November-April); it began on 18 June 1996 and ended on 15 February 1997. The head data used in the first predictive simulation were collected over a 194 d period, beginning 17 January 1998 and ending 29 July 1998, while the data record for the second predictive simulation spanned a 139 d period, from 14 August 1998 to 30 December 1998. The modeling periods were chosen on the basis of the availability of continuous records for precipitation, evapotranspiration, and water levels at the sites representing the boundaries.

Process_Date: 2001
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20100525
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
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