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Hydrologic measurements and water quality in ENR, WCA2 and WCA3 (OFR 00-168 appendixes)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Judson W. Harvey
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Hydrologic measurements and water quality in ENR, WCA2 and WCA3 (OFR 00-168 appendixes)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tables
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-168/>
Description:
Abstract:
At present there are few reliable estimates of hydrologic fluxes between groundwater and surface water in the Everglades. This gap in hydrological investigations not only leaves the water budget of the Everglades uncertain, it also hampers progress in understanding the processes that determine mobility and transformation of contaminants, such as mercury, sulfate and nutrients. The objective of this project is to quantify hydrologic exchange fluxes between groundwater and surface water and its effects on transport of contaminants in the Everglades. The research furthermore relates surface water and ground water interactions to past, present, and proposed management of surface-water levels and flows in the Everglades. The principal research sites are the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project (ENR), Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), and the freshwater wetlands of Everglades National Park. Results are being used to quantify ground-water exchange with surface flow, and to quantify the enhancement of chemical transformations of contaminants during transport across the interface between surface water and ground water.

The datasets available in the appendixes of the OFR provide information on site locations and measurements in the Everglades Nutrient Removal (ENR) area and Water Conservation Area (WCA) 2A.

Purpose:
For restoration of the Everglades to succeed there must be comprehensive knowledge about physical, chemical, and biological processes throughout the system. A key measure of success in the Everglades is the improvement or protection of water quality under changing hydrologic conditions. Although there is a basic understanding of how interactions between groundwater and surface water will affect water budgets under restoration, there is only a rudimentary understanding of how interactions between groundwater and surface water will affect water quality. Only field-oriented research and modeling can determine whether interactions between groundwater and surface water are currently storing pollutants in groundwater, how long those pollutants are likely to be stored in the aquifer, and under what changing management conditions associated with restoration will those pollutants be returned into the surface water system.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 19950601
Ending_Date: 19981221
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.45
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.37
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.7
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.59
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: aquifer tests
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: discharge
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: groundwater
Theme_Keyword: groundwater-surface water exchanges
Theme_Keyword: hydrogeology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: seepage
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme_Keyword: conductivity
Theme_Keyword: peat
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: 008
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: USA
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Greater Lake Okeechobee
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Place_Keyword: WCA2A
Place_Keyword: Everglades Nutrient Removal area
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3
Place_Keyword: WCA3A
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Stratum_Keyword: surface water
Stratum_Keyword: wetland peat
Stratum_Keyword: groundwater
Stratum_Keyword: surficial aquifer system
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Temporal_Keyword: seasonal
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Judson W. Harvey
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5876
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jwharvey@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/169-96/fig1.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: study sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel include Jim Krest, Jessica Thomas Newlin, and Eric Lerch. Past project personnel include Eric Nemeth, Katherine Randle, Jungyill Choi, Bob Mooney, Jonah Jackson, and Cynthia Gefvert.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Data are available in tables in PDF files
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bates, A. L.

Orem, W. H.; Harvey, J.. W.; Spiker, E. C.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Geochemistry of Sulfur in the Florida Everglades: 1994 through 1999
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 01-007
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/01-007/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bates, Anne L

Orem, William H.; Harvey. Judson W.; Spiker, Elliot C.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title: Tracing sources of sulfur in the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Environmental Quality
Issue_Identification: v. 31 no. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Madison, WI
Publisher: American Society of Agronomy
Other_Citation_Details:
The journal is published jointly by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/reports/trace_sulfur/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, Judson W.

Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 02-4050
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/02-4050/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Choi, J.

Harvey, J. W.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Quantifying time-varying ground-water discharge and recharge in wetlands of the Northern Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: v. 20, n. 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: McLean, VA
Publisher: Society of Wetland Scientists
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/quantgwdisnrech/>
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/quantgwdisnrech/quantgwdisnreach.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Krest, James M.

Harvey, Judson W.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Using natural distributions of short-lived radium isotopes to quantify groundwater discharge and recharge
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Limnology and Oceanography
Issue_Identification: v. 48, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/radium_gw/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, Judson, W

Jackson, Jonah M.; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Interaction between ground water and surface water in Taylor Slough and vicinity, Everglades National Park, south Florida: study methods and appendixes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-483
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: Prepared in cooperation with Everglades National Park
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-483/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, J.W.

Newlin, J. T.; Krest, J. M.; Choi, J.; Nemeth, E. A.; Krupa, S. L.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Surface-water and ground-water interactions in the central Everglades, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Scientific Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2004-5069
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/sir/2004-5069/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, J. W.

Krupa, S. L.; Krest, J. M.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Ground water recharge and discharge in the Central Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Ground Water, Oceans Issue 2004
Issue_Identification: v. 42, n. 7
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Westerville, OH
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Other_Citation_Details: reprinted with permission from Judson W. Harvey et al.
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/gw_discharge/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report:
All project data that were quality assured at the time of preparation of this report are included in the appedixes.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
All wells and horizontal measuring points were surveyed by global positioning (GPS). The location of measuring points are reported with reference to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27). Using the Army Corps of Engineers program Corpscon, horizontal coordinates were transformed to Northings and Eastings in the Universal Transverse Metcator (UTM) coordinate system. Horizontal positions were gathered using either a Trimble PRO XR GPS unit, a Rockwell PLGR unit, or a Garmin unit. In all cases the accuracy is expected to be better than +/- 100 feet, which is suffiecient for this project.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The vertical elevations determined by leveling were determined on the basis of second-order Class I benchmarks in ENR and at site S10C in WCA-2A. Vertical elevations at interior sites in WCA-2A were revised in 1999 by Florida Department of Environmental Protection using GPS methods. The elevations for vertical control points near wells were transferred to well top control points.

Elevations in the NGVD29 datum were derived from the observed NAD 83 ellipsoid heights and the NGS GEOID96 model. The estimated accuracy of derived elevations is +/- 0.07 meters.

Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Location surveys

All wells and horizontal measuring points were surveyed by global positioning (GPS). Vertical measuring points on land surface, staf gauges, and well tops were determined by leveling.

Thirty-five monitoring wells were emplaced in the Surficial qauifer at depths reanging from 15 feet to 180 feet below the wetland sediment surface. Of those wells, eleven were drilled on levees surrounding ENR or WCA-2A to more efficiently utilize full size drilling rigs to obtain core material from the entire depth of the aquifer and to emplace the deep wells that were needed for hydrologic monitoring. Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled at interior sites in the wetlands requiring the use of a portable tripod-drilling rig in WCA-2A and a specialized floating barge in ENR.

To prevent cross contamination from soil/debris between drilling sites, all equipment was steam cleaned at a staging area located at least 2000 feet from the well drilling locations. The contractor ws required to bring in city water via the drill rig or support truck for all operations. The city water was tested for trace levels of mercury prior to any driloling activity/ No surface water was used for any cleaning or drilling.

Boreholes were drilled and monitoring wells emplaced on levees by contractors. All borehole wells were derilled using the mud-rotary drilling method.The eight deep wells (greater than 95 feet below land surface) were drilled first to allow geophysical logging to be completed. The geophysical logging allowed onsite evaluation of lighological data and aided int eh placement of screen intervals if the monitoring wells. The boreholes at these sites were geologicall sampled using either standard penetratin testing and standard coring or wirleline coring. Only the seven deepest boreholes were selected for geophysical logging.

The 2-inch diameter wells at ENR and and S10-C levee-based sites consissted of a two-foor section on 0.010-inch PVC screen and ten and five-foot sections pf 2-inch PVS riser pipe. Care was taken to prevent contamination during the drilling process. Wells and piezometers at the six interior ENR sites wre installed by a contractor using a floating drilling barge. All samples were collected by the wireline coring method.

Wells at the six interior WCA-2A sites were installed by USGS staff utilizing their portable tripod drilling rig with rotary coring capabilities. Surface water was used as the drilling fluid for this operation and was pumped down the annular space via hydraulic pumps. No drillling muds were used at the WCA-2A sites. As soona as possible after well emplacem,ent, wells were develoed by pumping at high flow rates for one hour or until all turbidity had cleared, whichever took longer.

Unconsolidated sediment samples were obtains from Split-spoon samples or Wireline samples at five sites in the ENR and at one site located at the S-10C site in WCA-2A. A small amount of unconsolidated sand material was extracted from the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) liner and continuous cores at two-foot intervals for sieve analysis to identify different depositional environments within the aquifer.

Allssamples of limestone obtained from teh coring and drillling operations were reviewed and checked for competence. Only samples collected fromthe six deep boreholes that were geophysically logged were considered for further analysis. Samples were analyzed to determine the porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the slected limestones, percent (by weight), of potassium, concentration of uranium and thorium, and total gamma count.

Dried and sieved sand fractions were returned to teh SFWMD in Ziploc freezer bags, marked with the boring number, sample nuumber, sived fraction and site location. Each soil boring was boxed. Each fraction f dr-sieved sand was sorted through to identify complete shells or shell fragments. Each soil boring ws assigned a Munsell color chart number. Once the shells were separated out for each two-foor interval, a hydrogeologist identified them.

SFWMD staff used a software program to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of each sieve sample. The program used ten eaquations and the grain-size statistics to calculate hydraulic conductivity. The ten resulting values were the aithmetically averaged to improve the reliability of the estimate of hydraulic conductivity.

Hydraulic conductivity was also determined by field drawdown tests. The drawdown tests were scheduled only after the wells had been fully developed and after at least one round of water quality sampling. The same test method was used at each site.

Process_Date: 1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Judson W. Harvey
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5876
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jwharvey@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades Nutrient Removal area, WCA-2A, and WCA-3A

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.9786982
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
Altitude_Resolution: 0.01
Altitude_Distance_Units: feet
Altitude_Encoding_Method:
Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Data contained in the appendixes includes research site locations, research site information, lithology and hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer, water levels and hydraulic gradients, surface water and ground water chemistry, vertical fluxes of water through wetland peat, budget for water, chlorine and dissolved mercury, and site instrumentation maps
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: OFR 00-168
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Adobe PDF
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
Data on hydrologic measurements and water quality are found in the appendixes
Transfer_Size: 8.6
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-168/>
Access_Instructions: Report can be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090225
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/hydro_wq_ofr_00-168.html>

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