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IMMAGE -Internet-based Modelling, Mapping, and Analysis for the Greater Everglades

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Paul Hearn

David Strong; David Donato; Eric Swain; Jeremy Decker; Jeremy Claggett; Leonard Pearlstine

Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title:
IMMAGE -Internet-based Modelling, Mapping, and Analysis for the Greater Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: GIS-based interfaces to models
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=immage>
Description:
Abstract:
IMMAGE will develop a coupled GIS-enabled web-based decision support (DS) framework to provide interactive model-based scenarios to evaluate the potential impact of sea level rise on water supply, inland flooding, storm surge, and habitat management in South Florida. The DS framework will be developed to allow scientists, local planners and resource managers to evaluate the impact of sea level rise on:

1. salt water intrusion into coastal water well fields, 2. the optimal use of canals to impede the inland movement of saline groundwater, 3. urban flooding, 4. the risk to populated areas and natural habitat from catastrophic storm surge, 5. wetland inundation periods and depths, 6. habitat suitability, 7. magnitude and distribution of future population growth, and 8. the impact of forecasted population growth on water demand and protected areas.

The IMMAGE project will address the need to run the model with changing input parameters by developing a framework of online GIS-based interfaces to four selected models, thereby enhancing their usability and making them available to a broader user community.

Purpose:
Recent analyses using current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections of sea level rise and LIDAR data for the eastern portions of Miami-Dade County suggest that coastal areas in South Florida will be subjected to the degradation of coastal habitats, contamination of municipal water supplies by the intrusion of salt water into coastal aquifers, alteration of ground water flow patterns, and increased risk of surge-related flooding and wind damage from coastal storms (Deyle et al., 2007; Renken, 2005). It is critical that water planners, as well as park managers and municipal authorities have the best tools to assess the societal risks and economic impacts that these adverse environmental changes could have on nearby communities, protected lands, and the region as a whole.

Development and water management policies being debated today in South Florida will commit public and private capital to infrastructure and facilities with design lives that reach well into the period of time when the impacts of sea level rise are expected to be felt. In evaluating and preparing for possible outcomes, alternative climate and land use scenarios are needed to evaluate the impacts of sea level rise and severe storms on existing and future land portfolios and social infrastructure. Analysis of the scenarios need to incorporate both physical and socioeconomic constraints to assess the natural / human tradeoffs of land use so that planning decisions about mitigation and adaptation make sense in planning for future climate changes. It is also critical that these scenarios be based upon the best-available monitoring data and numerical flow models, rather than relying solely on static simulations of sea level rise using elevation data.

Supplemental_Information:
The link to the current IMMAGE is <http://lcat.usgs.gov/immage>. Please note: This website is a prototype and has not been fully reviewed by USGS. It should be used for development purposes only. All the features have not been fully enabled at this time.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1996
Ending_Date: Unknown
Currentness_Reference: date of model run
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.65
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: modeling
Theme_Keyword: mapping
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 004
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 010
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: South Coast Florida
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Paul Hearn
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 521 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-6287
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 649-4603
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: phearn@usgs.gov
Native_Data_Set_Environment: GIS-based interfaces to four models
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Langevin, Christian D.

Swain, Eric D., Wolfert, Melinda A.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Simulation of integrated surface-water/ground-water flow and salinity for a coastal wetland and adjacent estuary
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2004-1097
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1097>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Renken, Robert A.

Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A. C.; Marella, Richard; Telis, Pamela; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Impact of Anthropogenic Development on Coastal Ground-Water Hydrology in Southeastern Florida, 1900-2000
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Circular
Issue_Identification: 1275
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Rreston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2005/circ1275/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Swain, Eric D.

Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of surface-water flow and transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 03-4287
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Swain, E. D.
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
A model for simulation of surface-water integrated flow and transport in two dimensions: SWIFT2D user's guide for application to coastal wetlands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: user's guide
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1033
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1033/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wang. J. D.

Swain, E. D.; Wolfert, M. A.; Langevin, C. D.; James, D. E.; Telis, P. A.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title:
Application of Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Scientific Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2007-5010
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
prepared in cooperation with South Florida Water Management District

accessed as of 11/23/2010

Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5010/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Pearlstine, Leonard

DeAngelis, Donald; Mazzotti, Frank; Barnes, Tomma; Duever, Michael; Starnes, Janet

Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Spatial Decision Support Systems for Landscape Ecological Evaluations in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study (CIRC 1479)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Department Circular
Issue_Identification: 1479
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Publisher:
University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Services
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/UW/UW23500.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Labiosa, W. B.

Bernknopf, R.; Hearn, P; Hogan, D.; Strong, D.; Pearlstine, L.; Mathie, A. M.; Wein, A. M.; Gillen, K.; Wachter. S.

Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
The South Florida ecosystem portfolio model - A map-based multicriteria ecological, economic, and community land-use planning tool
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Scientific Information Report
Issue_Identification: 2009-5181
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 9/8/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5181/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Deyle, R. E.

Bailey, K. C.; Matheny, A.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title:
Adaptive response planning to sea level rise in Florida and implications fo r comprehensive and public-facilities planning
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: Florida Planning and Development Lab, Florida State University
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Jelesnianski, C. P.

Chen, J.; Shaffer, W. A.

Publication_Date: 1992
Title: SLOSH: Sea. Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: NOAA Technical Report
Issue_Identification: NWS 48
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
McRae, B. H.

Dickson, B. G.; Keitt, T. H.; Shah, V. B.

Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
Using circuit theory to model connectivity in ecology and conservation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ecology
Issue_Identification: v. 89, n. 10, p. 2712-2724
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: Ecological Society of America
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/23/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below

Online_Linkage: <http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/07-1861.1>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Swain, E. D.

Decker, J. D.

Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
Developing, testing, and application of a coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/ground-water model (FTLOADDS) with heat and saliity ttransport in the Ten-Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration project area, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Scientific Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2009-5146
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, Va
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 11/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5146/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Swain, E. D.

Lohmann, M.; Decker, J.

Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
Hydrological simulations of water-management scenarios in support of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Symposium Proceedings
Issue_Identification: IAHS Publ. 327
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Italy
Publisher: International Association of hydrological Sciences
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 11/23/2010

The paper was presented at the Role of Hydrology in Water Resources Management Symposium held in Capri, Italy, October 2008. The Symposium Proceedings may be purchased. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

Online_Linkage: <http://iahs.info/redbooks/a327/iahs_327_0295.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wolfert-Lohmann, M. A.

Langevin, C. D.; Jones, S. A.; Reich, C. S.; Wingard, G. L.; Kuffner, I. B.; Cunningham, K. J.

Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
Science support strategy for Biscayne National Park and surrounding areas in southeastern Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2007-1288
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of :11/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1288/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
BISECT model and FTLOADDS simulator

The Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator has been developed over a number of years to be a tool for representing the hydrologic system by accounting for all relevant factors. It began with a surface-water application to the coastal area along Florida Bay using the SWIFT2D two-dimensional flow and transport simulator (Swain and others, 2004; Swain, 2005). Groundwater flow was incorporated into this simulation by coupling SWIFT2D with the SEAWAT simulator of groundwater flow and transport (Langevin and others, 2005). This coupled scheme is called FTLOADDS. The model area was expanded to encompass the whole Everglades National Park (ENP) area and referred to as the Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Everglades (TIME) model (Wang and others, 2007). This model has been used to represent hydrologic restoration scenarios for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP).

The FTLOADDS simulator was additionally applied to the Ten Thousand Islands area (Swain and Decker, 2009) and to the Biscayne Bay coast (Wolfert-Lohmann and others, 2008, Swain and others, 2009). The Biscayne Bay model was then combined with the TIME model to produce the BIscayne SouthEastern Coastal Transport (BISECT) model. The BISECT model incorporates some of the most important natural and urban areas in south Florida and is very useful in examining the effects of hydrologic factors. Applications include future forecasts with varying levels of sealevel rise in conjunction with CERP restoration changes and hindcast simulation to represent historical and transient conditions.

Experiments on various sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios have been performed with the BISECTmodel, which uses the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator for flow and transport in a coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/ground-water system. The existing conditions simulation runs for the seven-year period 1/1/1996 through 12/31/2002. BISECT is a combination of two model domains that were developed separately; the Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) domain west of L-31N canal (Wang et al, 2007) and the Biscayne domain from L-31N to offshore Biscayne Bay (Swain et al 2009). This combination allows the examination of the entire coastal region from Barron River in the northwest all the way to the C-9 canal outlet in the northeast.

Process_Date: 2010
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Eric D. Swain
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 3110 SW 9th Avenue
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5925
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: edswain@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Habitat and species dispersal models

Coastal models for juvenile spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and, turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) have been developed at the South Florida Natural Resources Center, Everglades National Park (SFNRC/ENP). The models are coupled to the BISECT hydrologic model to simulate changes.

The ability of species to migrate among core habitat areas is impacted by changes in south Florida habitat connectivity resulting from urban growth, sea level rise and restoration-stimulated habitat succession. USGS, in cooperation with the SFNRC/ENP (Labiosa and others 2009) is developing and testing metrics for ranking the potential for wildlife species dispersal under alternative changes to the natural landscape and urban growth. The Circuitscape model (McRae and others 2008) provides the mechanism for evaluation of species dispersal. Circuitscape algorithms adapt electronic circuit theory to predict patterns of movement, gene flow, and genetic differentiation among plant and animal populations in heterogeneous landscapes.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Leonard Pearlstine
Contact_Organization: Everglades and Dry Tortugas Parks
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address:
South Florida Natural Resources Center

950 Krome Avenue

City: Homestead
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33030
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 305 224-4228
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 305 224-4147
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Leonard_Pearlstine@nps.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The National Land Change Community Model

To provide better information to resource conservation, restoration, and planning decisions in the United States, the USGS-Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) is developing an urban growth forecasting capability as one component of a future National Land Change Community Model (NLCCM). Using experience with the SLEUTH model (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillshade), the NLCCM is being designed by Peter Claggett and David Donato as a coupled land demand and allocation model with similarity to both the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-S) and FOREcasting SCEnarios of land use change (FORE-SCE) models. The NLCCM will use nationally available datasets and be capable of simulating both deterministic and stochastic forecasts of land change. All model components will be built as open source software and publicly available for coupling with other environmental models to address a broad range of resource management questions.

The urban growth forecasting capability will involve downscaling national or regional scenarios of employment and population growth to the county-level. To translate county-level growth forecasts into estimates of land demand, multi-date land cover datasets will be analyzed to derive statistics on urban growth (number and extent of transitions, urban growth patch size distributions and spatial characteristics). Local zoning and public/ protected lands data will be used to characterize the eligibility of land for urban development. Nationally available hydrography, soils, slope, wetlands, and land cover data will be analyzed with the land change trend information to characterize the suitability of lands for urban development. Estimates of urban land demand will be allocated using an iterative stochastic routine that predict new urban growth on lands that are both eligible and suitable for development. Potential drivers of change will be identified through statistical comparisons of socio-economic and demographic data with land change statistics. The drivers of change during the recent past will be documented as assumptions underlying all future "trend" forecasts. Future deviations from past trends will be enabled through alterations to land demand, land change patch characteristics, and land eligibility and suitability.

Urban growth forecasts will be generated for the study area with an output resolution of 250-500 meters.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Peter Claggett
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 410 Severn Ave., Suite 109
City: Annapolis
State_or_Province: MD
Postal_Code: 21403
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 410 267-5771
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: pclaggett@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
SLOSH model

SLOSH (Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) is a numerical model run by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to estimate storm surge heights and winds resulting from historical, hypothetical, or predicted hurricanes. SLOSH uses the hydrodynamic flow equations and requires input of bathymetry, coastal topography, surface characteristics, and tidal levels (Jelesnianski and others, 1992). The coastline is represented as a physical boundary. Sub-grid scale water features (cuts, chokes, sills and channels), and vertical obstructions (levees, roads, spoil banks, etc.) are parameterized. The SLOSH model does not include rainfall amounts, river flow, or wind-driven waves. These are combined with the model results in the final analysis.

The SLOSH model will be run using current sea levels for NOAA’s Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay modeling basins.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Eric D. Swain
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 3110 SW 9th Avenue
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5925
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: edswain@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Web interfaces

The IMMAGE project will address the need to run the model with changing input parameters by developing a framework of online GIS-based interfaces to four selected models, thereby enhancing their usability and making them available to a broader user community. The approach is relatively simple: by running models multiple times in advance using the maximum likely range of input parameters, all the necessary model output can be then stored in a server database (Fig. 1). Web applications can then be developed to allow users to select the desired input parameters, retrieve the necessary model output from the database, and display the output in a map viewer with other relevant data - all online. Without the need to run the models online, this process is relatively fast, allowing the user to run multiple scenarios in a short period of time, then generate paper or softcopy tables and/or graphics of the results.

Through web services, the interface to each model will also be capable of both serving model output to other web-based models and applications, as well as consuming web services to acquire additional data not available in the framework database.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: David Strong
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 521 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 64806193
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dstrong@usgs.gov

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20101126
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/immage.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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