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Linking a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model of the Biscayne aquifer to ground-water flow simulations within the Greater Everglades from Everglades National Park to Biscayne National Park - Phase 1

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Linking a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model of the Biscayne aquifer to ground-water flow simulations within the Greater Everglades from Everglades National Park to Biscayne National Park - Phase 1
Abstract:
This project in being undertaken to develop a high-resolution 3-dimensional karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer between Everglades National Park (ENP) and Biscayne National Park (BNP) using test coreholes, borehole geophysical logging, cyclostratigraphy, hydrostratigraphy, and hydrologic modeling.

The development of an expanded conceptual karst hydrogeologic framework in this project will be used to assist development of procedures for numeric simulations to improve the monitoring and assessment of the response of the ground-water system to hydrologic changes caused by CERP-related changes in sstage within the Everglades wetlands, including seepage-management pilot project implementation. Specifically, the development of procedures for ground-water modeling of the karst Biscayne aquifer in the area of Northern Shark Slough will help determine the appropriate hydrologic response to rainfall and translate that information into appropriate performance targets for input into the design and operating rules to manage water levels and flow volumes for the two Seepage Management Areas. Mapping of the karstic stratiform ground-water flow passageways in the Biscayne aquifer is recent and limited to a small area of Miami-Dade County adjacent to the Everglades wetlands. Extension of this karst framework between the Everglades wetlands and coastal Biscayne Bay will aid in the simulation of coupled ground-water and surface-water flows to Biscayne Bay. The development of procedures for modeling in the karst Biscayne aquifer will useful to the establishment of minimum flows and levels to the Biscayne Bay and seasonal flow patterns. Also, these improved procedures for simulations will assist in ecologic modeling efforts of Biscayne Bay coastal estuaries.

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Cunningham, Kevin, Unpublished Material, Linking a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model of the Biscayne aquifer to ground-water flow simulations within the Greater Everglades from Everglades National Park to Biscayne National Park - Phase 1.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.5
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/people/cunningham.html#3D> (avi video)
    3-D animated fly-through of very well-connected touching-vug burrow porosity from the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer in Miami-Dade County

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 2005
    Ending_Date: 2009
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: project

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Biscayne aquifer

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Kevin Cunningham

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Project personnel include Melinda Wolfert, Christian Langevin, Michael Wacker, G. Lynn Wingard, Edward Robinson, Joann Dixon, W. Lee Florea, Barclay Shoemaker, Michael C. Sukop, Jeff Lee, H. Allen Curran, and Cameron Walker

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Kevin Cunningham
    U.S. Geological Survey
    3110 SW 9th Ave.
    Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33315
    USA

    954 377-5913 (voice)
    954 377-5901 (FAX)
    kcunning@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

Research is needed to determine how planned Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) seepage control actions within the triple-porosity karstic Biscayne aquifer in the general area of Northeast Shark Slough will affect ground-water flows and recharge between the Everglades wetlands and Biscayne Bay. A fundamental problem in the simulation of karst ground-water flow and solute transport is how best to represent aquifer heterogeneity as defined by the spatial distribution of porosity, permeability, and storage. The triple porosity of the Biscayne aquifer is principally: (1) matrix of interparticle and separate-vug porosity, providing much of the storage and, under dynamic conditions, diffuse-carbonate flow; (2) touching-vug porosity creating stratiform ground-water flow passageways; and (3) less common conduit porosity composed mainly of bedding plane vugs, thin solution pipes, and cavernous vugs. The objectives of this project are to: (1) build on the Lake Belt area hydrogeologic framework (recently completed by the principal investigator), mainly using cyclostratigraphy and digital optical borehole images to map porosity types and develop the triple-porosity karst framework between the Everglades wetlands and Biscayne Bay; and (2) develop procedures for numerical simulation of ground-water flow within the Biscayne aquifer multi-porosity system.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2006 (process 1 of 8)
    Work planned for FY 2006 includes:

    1. Drilling about 10 test coreholes

    Drilling and completion of approximately 10 test coreholes by wireline coring methods. This work provides critical data for development of a new karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer that will be used in developing procedures for hydrologic modeling of the karstic Biscayne aquifer that includes areas adjacent to Biscayne Bay; produces wells that will provide information to be used in developing procedures for modeling that will benefit monitoring and assessment of the pilot projects information needs; and produces wells that will be used to develop a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework, and procedures for hydrologic modeling that can be used in research and possible model refinement to establish operating protocols of the seepage barriers.

    2. Geophysical logging

    Geophysical logs are acquired at completion of each test corehole above. Processing of sonic data to be accomplished using LogCruncher software. Flowmeter and fluid-temperature and resistivity data used to assist in selection of preferred ground-water flow paths in the karst Biscayne aquifer. This work will produce data necessary to produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data.

    Electronic files of geophysical logs will be archived at the USGS-FISC-CWRS office, and paper copies and PDF file versions of log montages of all geophysical logs will be produced using WellCAD software.

    3. Cyclostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy

    Data from core descriptions, thin-section petrography, paleontology of mollusks and foraminifers, construction of hydrogeologic cross sections, and measurement of porosity and permeability of core samples will be used to develop a high-resolution conceptual karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer in the study area. Task will produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data.

    Core samples will be described using a 10-power hand lens and binocular microscope to determine vertical patterns of microfacies, sedimentary structures, and lithostratigraphic boundaries, to characterize porosity, and to estimate "relative" permeability. Limestones to be classified by combining the schemes of Dunham (1962), Embry and Klovan (1971), and Lucia (1995). Core-sample descriptions to be classified as rock-fabric facies and presented graphically. Horizontal and vertical permeability of numerous whole-core samples and porosity and grain density to be measured at Core Laboratories, Inc., Midland, Texas. Borehole images acquired from each test corehole will be used to quantify vuggy porosity using a method described in Cunningham and others (2004, Journal of Applied Geophysics). Molluscan analyses to be conducted by G. Lynn Wingard at the USGS Paleontology Laboratory in Reston. Core samples will be examined under a binocular microscope to observed diagnostic characteristics and compared to published species. Clay squeezes or latex casts will be made of the molluscan molds where appropriate to aid in identification. Identification of benthic foraminifera to be conducted by Edward Robinsonof University of West Indies. Thin section samples will be examined petrographically to observed diagnostic features for identification of foraminiferal type and associated depositional environments.

    This task will aid in the construction of two-dimensional hydrogeologic cross sections. Development of a three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeologic framework of area encompassed by approximately 10 new coreholes. Model will be output using Environmental Visualization Systems NT-PRO software.

    4. Hydrologic modeling

    Initiate procedures for the application of the MODFLOW-2000 Hydrogeologic Unit Flow (HUF) pack and/or CAVE (Carbonate Aquifer Void Evolution) to hydrologic modeling of the karstic Biscayne aquifer in the study area. Development of modeling procedures for a karstic aquifer will allow more reliable simulations of ground-water flow and solution transport in the variable-density ground-water model of Miami-Dade County.

    Test use of relations between porosity and permeability using e.g., the Kozeny-Carmen equation, initiate application of the MODFLOW-2000 Hydrogeologic Unit Flow package, and begin application of parameter estimation techniques to apportion the bulk permeability values to individual flow zones.

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

    Date: 2007 (process 2 of 8)
    1. Eight test coreholes were installed in Miami-Dade County.

    2. Geophysical logging: Acquired geophysical logs at completion of each of the 8 test corehole. Processing of sonic data accomplished using the LogCruncher software. Use of flowmeter and fluid-temperature and resistivity data assists in selection of preferred ground-water flow paths in the karst Biscayne aquifer. Task will produce data necessary to produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies, ichnofacies, and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data.

    Electronic files of geophysical logs will be archived at the USGS-FISC-CWRS office, and paper copies and PDF file versions of log montages of all geophysical logs will be produced using WellCAD software.

    3. Cyclostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy: Core samples to be described using a 10-power hand lens and binocular microscope to determine vertical patterns of microfacies, ichnofacies, sedimentary structures, and lithostratigraphic boundaries, to characterize porosity, and to estimate "relative" permeability. Limestones to be classified by combining the schemes of Dunham (1962), Embry and Klovan (1971), and Lucia (1995). Core-sample descriptions to be classified as rock-fabric facies and presented graphically. Horizontal and vertical permeability of numerous whole-core samples and porosity and grain density to be measured at Core Laboratories, Inc., Midland, Texas. Borehole images acquired from each test corehole will be used to quantify vuggy porosity using a method described in Cunningham and others (2004, Journal of Applied Geophysics). Molluscan analyses to be conducted by G. Lynn Wingard at the USGS Paleontology Laboratory in Reston. Core samples will be examined under a binocular microscope to observe diagnostic characteristics and compared to published species. Clay squeezes or latex casts will be made of the molluscan molds where appropriate to aid in identification. Identification of benthic foraminifera to be conducted by Edward Robinson at the University of West Indies. Thin section samples will be examined petrographically to observed diagnostic features for identification of foraminiferal type and associated depositional environments. H. Allen Curran, Smith College, will assist in study of the relation between ichnology and highly permeable ground-water flow zones. Research will include Computed Tomography (CT-scan) digitization of highly permeable ichnofacies from the Biscayne aquifer and core analyses.

    Interpretation of cyclostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy and development of a new karst hydrgeologic framework for the 8 new coreholes between ENP and BNP is in progress.

    3-D computer-aided tomographic (CT) renderings were produced of solid and porous portions of 6 very-highly permeable limestone samples that represent ichnofacies-dominated-porosity of the Biscayne aquifer from University of Texas-Austin CT- Imaging Laboratory. Images are used in lattice Boltzmann modeling and in production of solid-epoxy 3-dimensional models of macroporous limestone representative of the Biscayne aquifer to be used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments.

    4. Hydrologic modeling Final programming and benchmark testing of the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) was completed. The CFP creates new ability for MODFLOW-2005 to simulate a dual-porosity aquifer, such as the karst Biscayne aquifer.

    Experiments continued at Florida Internatioanl University-Depaartment of Geological Sciences to implement use of lattice Boltzmann modeling to calculate macroporosity and hydraulic conductivity of a representative very-highly permeable ichnofacies-dominated-porous zone of the Biscayne aquifer. This group calculated macroporosity and intrinsic permeability on computer renderings of 7 macroporous limestone samples representative of ground-water flow zones within the Biscayne aquifer using lattice Boltzmann computer modeling methods. They also demonstrated that they can create 3-dimensional computized volume renderings from digital optical borehole wall images and compute macroporosity and intrinsic permeability from these data.

    One group member expedited the production of a 3-dimensionnal solid-epoxy model of a macroporous limestone outcrop sample of the Biscayne aquifer for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments at the New Mexico Resonance Laboratory during FY08.

    5. Seismic interpretation: Multi-channel high-resolution marine reflection seismic surveys were run over approximately 65 nautical line-miles (nmi) of program consisting of about 9 lines in Biscayne National Park, and 2 lines east of Elliot Key partly outside the Park boundary. This data will be processed and interpreted during FY08. Interpretation with be done using seismic interpretation software on a desktop PC.

    A group member began acquiring aquatic geochemical data every 2 weeks and instrumented a cave within a karstified hammock in Everglades National Park.

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

    Date: 2008 (process 3 of 8)
    Core hole drilling

    At least one test corehole will be installed on Elliott Key or Boca Chita Key in Biscayne National Park and available for research requirements of this study and future research needs, such as, selected samples for use in Computed Tomography (CT-scan) renderings that can be used for quantification of permeability using Lattice-Boltzmann modeling, a critical component of developing ground-water modeling procedures.

    Date: Not complete (process 4 of 8)
    Geophysical logging

    Processing of sonic data to be accomplished using LogCruncher software. Use of flowmeter and fluid-temperature and resistivity data assists in selection of preferred ground-water flow paths in the karst Biscayne aquifer. Task will produce data necessary to produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies, ichnofacies, and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data.

    Digital borehole image log computerized volume renderings can be used for quantification of permeability using Lattice-Boltzmann modeling, a critical component of developing ground-water modeling procedures. Electronic files of geophysical logs will be archived as electronic files at the USGS-FISC-CWRS office, and paper copies and PDF file versions of log montages of all geophysical logs will be produced using WellCAD software.

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

    Date: Not complete (process 5 of 8)
    Cyclostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy

    Integrate data from core descriptions, thin-section petrography, paleontology of mollusks and foraminifers, ichnology (trace fossils), construction of hydrogeologic cross sections, and measurement of porosity and permeability of core samples to develop a high-resolution conceptual karst hydrogeologic framework of the Biscayne aquifer in the study area. Task will produce a conceptual karst hydrogeologic model by integrating core analyses, (including molluscan and benthic foraminiferal data and interpretation of lithofacies, ichnofacies, and depositional facies), borehole geophysical logs, cyclostratigraphy, and hydrologic data.

    Core samples to be described using a 10-power hand lens and binocular microscope to determine vertical patterns of microfacies, ichnofacies, sedimentary structures, and lithostratigraphic boundaries, to characterize porosity, and to estimate 'relative' permeability. Limestones to be classified by combining the schemes of Dunham (1962), Embry and Klovan (1971), and Lucia (1995). Core-sample descriptions to be classified as rock-fabric facies and presented graphically. Horizontal and vertical permeability of numerous whole-core samples and porosity and grain density to be measured at Core Laboratories, Inc., Midland, Texas. Borehole images acquired from each test corehole in Task 1 will be used to quantify vuggy porosity using a method described in Cunningham and others (2004, Journal of Applied Geophysics). Molluscan analyses to be conducted by G. Lynn Wingard at the USGS Paleontology Laboratory in Reston. Core samples will be examined under a binocular microscope to observed diagnostic characteristics and compared to published species. Clay squeezes or latex casts will be made of the molluscan molds where appropriate to aid in identification. Identification of benthic foraminifera to be conducted by Edward Robinson at the University of West Indies. Thin section samples will be examined petrographically to observed diagnostic features for identification of foraminiferal type and associated depositional environments. H. Allen Curran, Smith College, will assist in study of the relation between ichnology and highly permeable ground-water flow zones. Research will include Computed Tomography (CT-scan) digitization of highly permeable ichnofacies from the Biscayne aquifer and core analyses. Dr. Mike Sukop, Florida International University, and his postdoctoral student will conduct calculations of porosity and permeability computer renderings of volumes representative of Biscayne aquifer macroporosity and rock matrix created from use of geostatistical and fractal approaches incorporating data from digital borehole images of the full thickness of the Biscayne aquifer and from CT-scanned renderings of rock samples from the Biscayne aquifer.

    Constuction of two-dimensional hydrogeologic cross sections. Development of a three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeologic framework of area encompassed by approximately 21 new coreholes. Model will be output using Environmental Visualization Systems NT-PRO software. STL files of digitized CT scans of porous limestone for use in VRML software.

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

    Date: 2010 (process 6 of 8)
    Seismic aquisition and interpretation

    In FY09, multi-channel high-resolution marine reflection seismic surveys weres run over approximately 45 nautical line-miles (nmi) of program consisting of about 4 lines in canals between the Everglades wetlands and Biscayne Bay. This data will be processed and interpreted during FY09. Interpretation with be done using Seismic Micro-TechnologyTM seismic interpretation software on a desktop PC.

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

    Date: Not complete (process 7 of 8)
    Hydrologic modeling

    Quantification of hydraulic conductivity of highly-permeable ground-water flow zone of the Biscayne aquifer using Lattce-Boltzmann modeling. Test use of porosity and permeability relations derived from lattice Boltzmann modeling with the MODFLOW-2000 Hydrogeologic Unit Flow package, and begin application of parameter estimation techniques to apportion the bulk permeability values to individual Biscayne aquifer flow zones.

    Professor Michael C. Sukop, Florida International University, will supervise postdoctoral research on the application of lattice Boltzmann modeling to conduct calculations of porosity and permeability computer renderings of volumes representative of Biscayne aquifer macroporosity and rock matrix created from use of geostatistical and fractal approaches incorporating data from digital borehole images of the full thickness of the Biscayne aquifer.The methods are to compute the permeability of important ground-water flow zones in the Biscayne aquifer and simulate flow in different sized computer renderings of aquifer volumes at varying Reynolds numbers. Methods for incorporating the results into large-scale models will be considered.

    Continued use of MODFLOW-2005 and the Conduit Flow Process package developed by Barclay Shoemaker (USGS), which is currently undergoing testing at CWRS may be continued to be tested for modeling ground-water flow in the Biscayne aquifer, since equivalent porous media models are likely less reliable in linking high permeability ground-water flow paths and low permeability matrix.

    The results will include submittal of one journal article on application of lattice-Boltzmann modeling to calculation of permeability in the Biscayne aquifer. One journal article on the Conduit Flow Process package is in journal review, one USGS report on documentation of the Conduit Flow Process package has been approved for publication, one journal article on integration of lattice Boltzmann modeling and hydrgeologic results is in preparation, and one Masterís Thesis at Florida International University on application of lattice Boltzmann modeling to Biscayne aquifer material has been completed.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Kevin Cunningham
    U.S. Geological Survey
    3110 SW 9th Ave.
    Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33315
    USA

    954 377-5913 (voice)
    954 377-5901 (FAX)
    kcunning@usgs.gov

    Date: Not complete (process 8 of 8)
    USGS Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research

    Two projects are being undertaken as post-doctoral research. The first investigates the geochemistry, microbiology, and isotopic fractionation of surface water, cave water, and shallow groundwater in a karstified limestone hammock of Everglades National Park. The project is designed to increase understanding of karst processes (especially cave formation) within the Biscayne aquifer between the Everglades National Park and Biscayne National Park and possible role in fresh ground-water flows. A second project explores the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) imaging to quantify the hydraulic properties of groundwater flow through preferred flow units in the Biscayne aquifer.

    The cave study in Everglades National Park measures and examines 1) the variation of the calcite saturation index through seasonal changes of water levels and recharge, 2) organic and inorganic carbon flux from the surface through the porous rock and into a cave, and 3) the role of bacteria in the dissolution of the limestone rock of the Everglades. The MRI study is designed to use existing digital reproductions of intensely-burrowed limestone samples by using Computerized Tomography (CT-scans). A subset of these digital data form the basis for benchtop 3-dimensional replicas produced using prototype printers. The intent is to use MRI to reveal the velocity vectors of flowing water in the model and allow the evaluation of the advective and dispersive properties of preferred flow zones of the Biscayne aquifer. These data should provide a benchmark for concurrent numerical models using Lattice-Boltzman techniques.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Kevin Cunningham
    U.S. Geological Survey
    3110 SW 9th Ave.
    Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33315
    USA

    954 377-5913 (voice)
    954 377-5901 (FAX)
    kcunning@usgs.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Cunningham, Kevin J. Wacker, Michael A.; Robinso, 2004, Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow at Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida, July 2003 to May 2004: Scientific Investigations Map I-2846, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/4/2011
    Dunham, R. J., 1962, Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional textures: AAPG Memoir 1, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), Tulsa, OK.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    in Classification of Carbonate Rocks

    Ham, W. E., ed.

    Embry, A. F. Klovan, J. E., 1971, A late Devonian reef tract on Northeastern Banks Island, N. W. T.: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology v. 19, n. 4, p. 739-781, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary, Canada.

    Lucia, F. J., 1995, Rock-fabric/petrophysical classification of carbonate pore space for reservoir characterization: AAPG Bulletin v. 79, n. 9, p,. 1275-1300, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), Tulsa, OK.

    Cunningham, Kevin J. Carlson, Janine I., Hurley,, 2004, New method for quantification of vuggy porosity from digital optical boreholes images as applied to the karstic Pleistocene limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida: Journal of Applied Geophysics v. 55, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/4/2011

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

    Cunningham, Kevin J., 2004, Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA: Journal of Applied Geophysics v. 55, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/4/2011

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

    Cunningham, K. J. Carlson, J. L.; Wingard, G., 2004, Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity using cyclostratigraphy and geophysical methods in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4208, U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/4/2011
    Wolfert-Lohmann, M. A. Langevin, C. D.; Jones, S. , 2008, U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy for Biscayne National Park and Surrounding Areas in Southeastern Florida: USGS Open-File Report 2007-1288, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/4/2011
    Cunningham, K. J. Renken, R. A.; Wacker, M. A, 2006, Application of carbonate cyclostratigraphy and borehole geophysics to delineate porosity and preferential flow in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, SE Florida: GSA Special Paper 404, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    in Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry - A tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White
    Cunningham, K. J. Wacker, M. A.; Robinson, E., 2006, A cyclostratigraphic and borehole geophysical approach to development of a three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeologic model of the karstic Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida: USGS Scientific Investigaton Report 2005-5235, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/4/2011

    prepared in cooperation with South Florida Water Management District

    Renken, R. A. Cunningham, K. J.; Zygnersk, 200511, Assessing the vulnerability of a municipal well field to contamination in a karst aquifer: Environmental and Engineering Geoscience v. 11, n. 4, Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists, Denver, CO.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/4/2011

    The full article is available via subscription to GeoScienceWorld or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

    Shoemaker, W. B. Kuniansky, E. L.; Birk, S.;, 2007, Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005: USGS Techniques and Methods Book 6, chapter A24, U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 5/4/2011
    Sukop, M. C. Anwar, S..; Lee, J. S.; Cun, 2008, Modeling ground-water flow and solute transport in karst with Lattice Boltzmann Methods: U.S. Geological Survey, Norcross, GA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/4/2011

    in U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, KY, May 27-29, 2008; E. L. Kuniansky, ed.

    Shoemaker, W. B. Cunningham, K. J.; Kuniansk, 2008, Effects of turbulence on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities in preferential groundwater flow layers: Water Resources Research v. 44, W03501, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/4/2011

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

    Cunningham, K. J. Sukop, M. C.; Huang, H.; Al, 2009, Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: Stratiform super-K zones: Geological Society of America Bulletin v. 121, n. 1-2, p. 164-180, Geeological Society of America, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/9/2011

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.

    Cunnigham, K. J. Florea, L. J., 2009, The Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida: National Speleological Society, Inc., Huntsville, AL.

    Other_Citation_Details:
    in Caves and Karst of the USA; eds Palmer, A. N. and M. V.; p. 196-199
    Cunningham, K. J. Walker, C., 2009, Seismic-sag structures in Tertiary carbonate rocks beneath southeastern Florida, USA: evidence for hypogenic speleogenesis?: Special Paper 1, Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Simferopol, Ukraine.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/9/2011

    Paper presented at a conference May 13-17, 2009 in Chernivtsi, Ukraine

    in Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins; eds. Klimchouck, A. B. and Ford, D. C.; p. 151-158

    Florea, L. J. Cunningham. K. J.; Altobell, 2009, NMR imaging of fluid exchange between macropores and matrix in eogenetic karst: Ground Water v. 47, n. 3, p. 382-390, National Ground Water Association, Westerville, OH.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 5/9/2011

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    not available

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    not available


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 09-May-2011
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/karst_model.faq.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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