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Application of Stable Isotope Techniques to Identifying Foodweb Structure, Contaminant Sources, and Biogeochemical Reactions in the Everglades

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Carol Kendall

Bryan E. Bemis; Scott D. Wankel

Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Application of Stable Isotope Techniques to Identifying Foodweb Structure, Contaminant Sources, and Biogeochemical Reactions in the Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheet
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/int_geochem_foodweb/>
Description:
Abstract:
This is the largest isotope foodweb study ever attempted in a marsh ecosystem, and combines detailed, long-term, trophic and biogeochemical studies at selected well-monitored USGS/SFWMD/FGFFC sites with limited synoptic foodweb data from over 300 sites sampled during 1996 and 1999 by a collaboration with the EPA-REMAP program. The preliminary synthesis of the biota isotopes at USGS and 1996 REMAP sites provides a mechanism for extrapolating the detailed foodwebs developed at the intensive USGS sites to the entire marsh system sampled by REMAP. Furthermore, this unique study strongly suggests that biota isotopes provide a simple means for monitoring how future ecosystem changes affect the role of periphyton (vs. macrophyte-dominated detritus) in local foodchains, and for predictive models for foodweb structure and MeHg bioaccumulation under different proposed land-management changes.

Data are available for the following sites: Cell 4, ENR-OUT, L7, Cell 3, LOX, North Holeyland, E0, F1, U3/Glory Hole, L35B, 2BS, L67, 3A-15, 3A-TH, Lostmans Creek, North Prong Creek, TS-7, and TS-9 for the plants and animals found at each site.

Purpose:
A first step of the Everglades restoration efforts is "getting the water right". However, the underlying goal is actually to re-establish, as much as possible, the "pre-development" spatial and temporal distribution of ecosystems throughout the Everglades. Stable isotope compositions of dissolved nutrients, biota, and sediments provide critical information about current and historic ecosystem conditions in the Everglades, including temporal and spatial variations in contaminant sources, biogeochemical reactions in the water column and shallow subsurface, and trophic relations. Hence, the scientific focus of this project is to use stable isotope techniques to examine ecosystem responses (especially variations in foodweb base and trophic structure) to temporal and spatial variations in hydroperiod and contaminant loading for the entire freshwater Everglades.

The major "long-term" objectives of this project have been to: (1) determine the stable C, N, and S isotopic compositions of Everglades biota, (2) use bulk and compound-specific isotopic ratios to determine relative trophic positions for major organisms, (3) examine the spatial and temporal changes in foodweb structures across the ecosystem, especially with respect to the effect of anthropogenically derived nutrients and contaminants from agricultural land uses on foodwebs, (4) evaluate the effectiveness of isotopic techniques vs. gut content analysis for determining trophic relations in the Everglades, (5) evaluate the role of algae vs. detritus/microbial materials in foodwebs for the entire freshwater marsh part of the Everglades, and (6) work with modelers to correctly incorporate food web and MeHg bioaccumulation information into predictive models.

More recent and specific objectives include: (1) link our data on seasonal and temporal differences in foodweb bases and trophic levels with SFWMD, FGFFC, and USGS Hg datasets (first for large fish and, more recently, for lower trophic levels), (2) investigate the effects of seasonal/spatial changes in nutrients, water levels, and reactions on the isotopic compositions at the base of the foodweb (that affect our interpretation of relative trophic positions of organisms), and (3) continue our efforts to link our foodweb isotope data from samples collected at USGS-ACME and EPA-REMAP sites with the spatial environmental patterns observed by the REMAP program.

Supplemental_Information:
This work started as part of the Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades (ACME) project in 1996 and was made a separate project in 2000.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199503
Ending_Date: 199910
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Everglades
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.0202
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3069
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.6712
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.2475
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: stable isotope techniques
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: biogeochemistry
Theme_Keyword: foodweb
Theme_Keyword: ecosystem
Theme_Keyword: contaminants
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Glades County
Place_Keyword: Hendry county
Place_Keyword: Martin County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Okeechobee County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: ENR
Place_Keyword: Everglades Nutrient Removal area
Place_Keyword: STA
Place_Keyword: Storm Treatment Areas
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 1
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3
Place_Keyword: WCA1
Place_Keyword: WCA2
Place_Keyword: WCA3
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: ITIS
Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
Taxonomic_Keywords: plants
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Taxonomic_Keywords: fish
Taxonomic_Keywords: vertebrates
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smithsonian Institution - National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Database
Other_Citation_Details:
Retrieved from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, <http://www.itis.gov>.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.itis.gov>
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
USDA, NRCS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service)
Publication_Date: 2007
Title: The Plants Database
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: online database
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Baton Rouge, LA
Publisher: National Plant Data Center
Online_Linkage: <http://plants.usda.gov/>
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Guiry, M. D.

Guiry, G. M.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title: AlgaeBase
Edition: version 4.2
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: electronic publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Galway, Ireland
Publisher: National University of Ireland
Online_Linkage: <http://www.algaebase.org>
Taxonomic_Procedures: field identification of plants, invertebrates, and fish
Taxonomic_Completeness:
Taxonomic classification information could not be found for the following plants and animals listed in the datasets:

Amiidae calva, Bellastomatia, Chironomus crassicaudarus, Cladium jamaicense, Classoma, Dytiseidae, Eleocharis, Gyrinid, Lepomis gulosus, Libellulid, Oligocheate, Palaeomenetes paludosus, Phragmites, and Podomogetan

General_Taxonomic_Coverage:
Plants and animals are identified to genus or species level where the scientific name is given
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Empire
Taxon_Rank_Value: Biovitae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arthropoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Malacostraca
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Decapoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cambaridae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Procambarus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Procambarus alleni
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Amphipoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gammaridae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gammarus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hyalellidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hyalella
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hyalella azteca
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Insecta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hemiptera
Applicable_Common_Name: true bugs
Applicable_Common_Name: hemipterans
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Corixidae
Applicable_Common_Name: water boatman
Applicable_Common_Name: corises
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Trichoptera
Applicable_Common_Name: caddisflies
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ephemeroptera
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Caenidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Caenis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Actinopterygii
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyprinodontiformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyprinodontidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Jordanella
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Jordanella floridae
Applicable_Common_Name: American flagfish
Applicable_Common_Name: flagfish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulus chrysotus
Applicable_Common_Name: golden topminnow
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Fundulus seminolis
Applicable_Common_Name: Seminole killifish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucania
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lucania goodei
Applicable_Common_Name: blue-fintop minnow
Applicable_Common_Name: bluefin killifish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poeciliidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gambusia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gambusia affinis
Applicable_Common_Name: mosquitofish
Applicable_Common_Name: western mosquitofish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Heterandria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Heterandria formosa
Applicable_Common_Name: dwarf livebearer
Applicable_Common_Name: least killifish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poecilia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poecilia latipinna
Applicable_Common_Name: sailfin molly
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Perciformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cichlidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Astronotus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Astronotus ocellatus
Applicable_Common_Name: oscar
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Oreochromis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Oreochromis aureus
Applicable_Common_Name: tilapia azul
Applicable_Common_Name: blue tilapia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Centrarchidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chaenobryttus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chaenobryttus gulosus
Applicable_Common_Name: warmouth
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis macrochirus
Applicable_Common_Name: bluegill
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis marginatus
Applicable_Common_Name: dollar sunfish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis microlophus
Applicable_Common_Name: redear sunfish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepomis punctatus
Applicable_Common_Name: spotted sunfish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Micropterus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Micropterus salmoides
Applicable_Common_Name: largemouth bass
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pomoxis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Applicable_Common_Name: black crappie
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Percidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Etheostoma
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Etheostoma fusiforme
Applicable_Common_Name: swamp darter
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguilliformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguillidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguilla
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Anguilla rostrata
Applicable_Common_Name: American eel
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cypriniformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Catostomidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Erimyzon
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Erimyzon sucetta
Applicable_Common_Name: lake chubsucker
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyprinidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Notemigonus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Notemigonus crysoleucas
Applicable_Common_Name: golden shiner
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Siluriformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Clariidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Clarias
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Clarias batrachus
Applicable_Common_Name: clarias catfish
Applicable_Common_Name: walking catfish
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ictaluridae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ameiurus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ameiurus natalis
Applicable_Common_Name: yellow bullhead
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ameiurus nebulosus
Applicable_Common_Name: brown bullhead
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Loricariidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hypostomus
Applicable_Common_Name: suckermouth catfishes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Esociformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Esocidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Esox
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Esox americanus
Applicable_Common_Name: redfin pickerel
Applicable_Common_Name: grass pickerel
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Esox niger
Applicable_Common_Name: chain pickerel
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Semionotiformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Famly
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepisosteidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepisosteus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lepisosteus platyrhincus
Applicable_Common_Name: Florida gar
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Charophyta
Applicable_Common_Name: stoneworts
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Charophyceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Charales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Characeae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chara
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Nitella
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Tracheobionta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliophyta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliopsida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Alismatales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Alismataceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Sagittaria
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Sagittaria latifolia
Applicable_Common_Name: broadleaf arrowhead
Applicable_Common_Name: wapato
Applicable_Common_Name: duck potato
Applicable_Common_Name: common arrowhead
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocharitales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocharitaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrilla
Applicable_Common_Name: hydrilla
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Najadales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Najadaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Najas
Applicable_Common_Name: water nymph
Applicable_Common_Name: waternymph
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arecidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Araceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arum
Applicable_Common_Name: arum
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pistia
Applicable_Common_Name: pistia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Commelinidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium mariscus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subspecies
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium mariscus ssp. Jamaicense
Applicable_Common_Name: Jamaica swamp sawgrass
Applicable_Common_Name: jamaica sawgrass
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Eleocharis
Applicable_Common_Name: spikerush
Applicable_Common_Name: spikesedge
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Poaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Phragmites
Applicable_Common_Name: reed
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Typhales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Typhaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Typha
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Typha domingensis
Applicable_Common_Name: southern cattail
Applicable_Common_Name: southern cat-tail
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hymenocallis
Applicable_Common_Name: spiderlily
Applicable_Common_Name: hymenocallis
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliopsida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Asteridae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Scrophulariales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Lentibulariaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Utricularia
Applicable_Common_Name: bladderwort
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Scrophulariaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bacopa
Applicable_Common_Name: waterhyssop
Applicable_Common_Name: waer hyssop
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Nymphaeales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Nymphaeaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Nymphaea
Applicable_Common_Name: waterlily
Applicable_Common_Name: water lily
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rosidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Apiales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Apiaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocotyle
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydrocotyle bonariensis
Applicable_Common_Name: largeleaf pennywort
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pteridophyta
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Filicopsida
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Hydropteridales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Azollaceae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Azolla
Applicable_Common_Name: mosquito ferns
Applicable_Common_Name: water ferns
Applicable_Common_Name: mosquitofern
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
These data are subject to change and are not citeable until reviewed and approved for official publication.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Carol Kendall
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 345 Middlefield Road, MS 434
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 650 329-4576
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 650 329-5590
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ckendall@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/lessons-evergl/images/sitesmapx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
locations of USGS sites, USEPA REMAP sites 1996, and USEPA REMAP sites 1999
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3138/images/fig1x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: satellite image of south Florida showing biota collection sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel include Steven R. Silva, Ted Lange, Peter Rawlik, Darren Rumbold, Larry Fink, Robert Shuford, Joel Trexler, Jerry Stober, Doug White, and Doug Choy. Related projects include work by Dave Krabbenhoft, George Aiken, Bill Orem, and Bill Loftus.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Excel spreadsheets
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Haitzer, M.

Aiken, G. R.; Ryan, J. N.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Binding of Mercury (II) to Dissolved Organic Matter: The Role of the Mercury-to-DOM Concentration Ration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Environmental Science and Technology
Issue_Identification: v. 36
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Other_Citation_Details:
The entire paper is available from the Environmental Science and Technology Journal web site; however, a journal subscription is required.
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/hg_dom_binding/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Kendall, Carol

Bemis, Bryan; Wankel, Scott, Silva, Steve; Chang, Cecily; Campbell, Linda

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Lessons from the Everglades: Atypical isotope patterns in a complex ecosystem
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: poster
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/posters/lessons-evergl/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Kendall, C.

Silva, S. R.; Stober, Q. J.; Meyer, P.

Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Mapping spatial variability in marsh redox conditions in the Florida Everglades using biomass stable isotopic compositions
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: EOS Transactions
Issue_Identification: v. 79
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rumbold, D. G.

Fink, L. E.; Laine, K. A.; Niemczyk, S. L.; Chandrasekhar, T.; Wankel, S. D.; Kendall, C

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Levels of mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected along a transect through the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: The Science of the Total Environment
Issue_Identification: vol. 297, issues 1-3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B.V.
Other_Citation_Details:
Only the abstract is available online; a journal subscription is required to access the full article. To view the abstract, click on the link under Journal Articles at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/int_geochem_foodweb/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
McCutchan, Jr., James H.,

Lewis, Jr., William M.; Kendall, Carol; McGrath, Claire C.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Oikos
Issue_Identification: vol. 102, issue 2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Lund, Sweden
Publisher: Nordic Ecological Society
Other_Citation_Details:
Only the abstract is available free of charge. A journal subscription is required for access to the full article. To view the abstract, click on the link under Journal Articles at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/int_geochem_foodweb/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Samples were analyzed for stable isotopic composition (sigma 13C and sigma 15N) using a Micromass Optima continuous flow mass spectrometer coupled to a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer. Samples with carbonate (all algae and sediments) were acidified to remove carbonates. Carbonates were removed from the samples using the acid vapor method, except that the samples were acidified for 18 hours after being moistened with deionized/distilled water. Results are reported in the usual delta format as permil values for: (1) 13C relative to V-PDB, normalized to a scale where NBS-19 is + 1.95 permil and NBS-21 is -28.10 permil, and (2) for 15N relative to air, normalized to a scale where IAEA-N1 is +0.43 permil and IAEA-N2 is +20.41 permil. Analytical precision (1sigma level) was generally in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 permil for both C and N, but for some samples replication was no better than +/- 0.5 permil due to sample heterogeneity.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
We expect to finish all the needed analyses for the synthesis reports in FY02 (unless we ask the SFWMD for selected STA samples to fill in some gaps in our dataset). Most of the year will be spent on continuing the statistical analyses, plots, and interpretation required for the three major synthesis papers: one on spatial variations in foodwebs across the entire Everglades (linking the ACME and 1999 REMAP datasets), one on spatial patterns in biogeochemical reactions, and the last on temporal variations in biogeochemical reactions and foodweb relations.

The goal of these papers is to present a coherent explanation of how biota isotopes provide a simple means for (1) monitoring how future ecosystem changes affect the role of periphyton (vs. macrophyte-dominated detritus) in the foodchain leading to gambusia and its predators, and (2) for developing predictive models for MeHg bioaccumulation under different proposed land-management changes. With our recent success in linking the patterns observed in our ACME foodweb and REMAP 1996 synoptic samples, we can extrapolate the detailed foodwebs developed at ~15 well-studied ACME sites to the ~100 synoptic sites sampled by the REMAP in September 1996. This linkage allows us to determine what environmental variables (thus far, mainly water levels and a complicated reflection of the nature of the local reducing conditions but a lot more statistics are needed to deal with the spatial patterns) correlate with spatial and temporal changes in the dominant base of the foodweb. We will have a completely independent test of the foodweb models we are developing, when we finish analyzing the samples from the spring/fall REMAP 1999 synoptics (we have been careful to not quite finish analyzing the most critical 1999 samples, and to not look at the data, until our synthesis paper is submitted, so that the test is truly rigorous).

Process_Date: 2002
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Other possible activities for FY03-FY05 include: (1) collaborating on a comparison of gut-contents and isotope data for REMAP gambusia samples (with Trexler) and/or largemouth bass (with Lange); (2) working with Thorton on incorporating our REMAP isotope data into his spatial models to determine whether the spatial patterns we both seeare due to spatial changes in foodweb complexity or foodweb base; (3) writing a more comprehensive paper using our isotope data to explain spatial and temporal variations in Hg levels (with Rawlik, Krabbenhoft, and/or Lange); (4) collaborate (with Rawlik and Fink) on a paper on foodweb differences at cells in the ENR and various STA’s where we have analyzed samples collected by the SFWMD; or (5) we will finally report the results of our attempts at using compound-specific C isotopes as a tracer of trophic relations
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Investigation of the effects of temporal and spatial changes in nutrients, water levels, and reactions on the isotopic compositions at the base of the foodweb.

This effort has two major elements. The first element is a collaboration with the SFWMD where they will collect water and plant (and some animal) samples from selected sites (among the sites along the nutrient gradient that they are currently studying), for us to analyze for stable isotopes. Our main focus will be to analyze the water for d15N/d18O of nitrate, d15N of ammonium, d13C of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), d34S of sulfate, and d18O of phosphate (selected samples); biota will be analyzed for d15N/d13C/d34S. These data will allow us to (1) trace the sources of the nutrients in the water column (eg, original, recycled, or mixed-sources of N, S, C, and P), (2) provide information about the nature of the recycling reactions in the water column and floc layer (eg, denitrification vs nitrification of organic N, methane oxidation vs respiration vs exchange with the atmosphere, sulfate reduction), and (3) provide needed empirical data on specifically how changes in water level affect the complex interplay of biogeochemical reactions that result in the isotopic compositions of aquatic plants at the base of local foodwebs.

There are virtually no data on the d15N of nitrate or ammonium, or d18O of phosphate, in the Everglades because such samples pose extreme analytical challenges. After several years of work, we finally have usable methods and we are currently analyzing our first few test samples. In particular, this study is now possible because some recently published methods will allow the analysis of d15N/d18O of nitrate on ml-sized samples instead of the L-sized samples required with our earlier methods (making it much more feasible for our collaborators to collect and transport us bimonthly samples from a number of sites); a newly purchased automated device that makes it easy to analyze d13C of DIC; and a successful collaboration with colleagues at Stanford that has resulted in the development of an improved method for d18O of phosphate. If resources permit, we would like to use phosphate d18O to see if we can distinguish between sources of phosphate along the nutrient gradient and into FL Bay.

The second element is a collaboration with Bill Orem, Chuck Holmes, and others who have collected and age-dated sediment cores from the freshwater marshes; we are particularly interested in changes in the last 100 years. We want to analyze bulk organic matter for d13C, d15N, and d34S (and perhaps organic phosphate-d18O) to test our models for how the isotopic compositions in plants change over time in response to changes in water levels, nutrient conditions, and biogeochemical reactions (especially ones like sulfate reduction and denitrification, that have been significantly affected by recent anthropogenic activities).

These organic matter isotope data will also be extremely useful for refining our understanding of the role of S in the environment.

We will compare these core isotope data with our sediment isotope data for the 300+ REMAP 1996/1999 sites where we have samples, to show how one aspect of the methylation potential (as indirectly measured by sulfate reduction) has changed over time and space. These S results should be useful for the development of a sulfur module for Everglades predictive Hg models, and for modeling or land-management attempts to predict the potential for methylation based on easily measured environmental parameters (like those measured by REMAP). If resources permit, we would be interested in looking at temporal changes in d13C/ d15N/d34S at some of the USGS cores recently collected to assess the evolution of tree islands.

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Work planned for FY2004 includes:

1. Continued evaluation and publication of data generated in previous collaborations with ACME, EPA, FGFFC, SFWMD, and FIU to include a paper on environmental controls on mercury in large mouth bass, spatial/temporal changes in foodwebs, a first isotope synthesis paper, and possibly a paper on isotope-gut contents.

2. Investigation of temporal and spatial changes in nutruients, water levels, and reactions on the isotopoic compositions at the base of the foodweb

We tried several times in 1998 to connect the isotopic compositions in the water column to those of plants, but failed to get reliable d13C of DIC and d15N of nitrate and ammonium because of the high DOC concentrations. Scot Hagerthey (SFWMD) is very interested in collaboration since he feels that our isotope data will provide valuable data on the extent of N recycling along the nutrient gradient in WCA2 (and at other SFWMD sites) that will help them understand processes that affect P concentrations in water. Furthermore, after a lot of hard work in FY03 by Scott Wankel on developing and automating a new nitrate d15N-d18O method, and by Dan Doctor (an NRC postdoc working on C cycling at the Sleepers River Watershed) who got our new automated DIC/DOC- d13C device working, we now have the methods we need to see how temporal and spatial variability in the water column solutes are established, and how they affect the d13C and d15N in plants (and microinvertebrates) at the base of the foodweb. We will also analyze a small number of samples for phosphate-d18O, organic matter d34S, and water d18O/ dD. Hagerthey has a number of sites in WCA2 and elsewhere across the Everglades that he samples monthly, and he will collect us water samples, macrophytes, floc, periphyton, and (we hope) microinvertebrates from some 10-15 sites, several times during the year. We are in the process of developing a similar but smaller collaboration with Paul McCormick for sampling at WCA1. Our nitrate and DIC isotope preparation units are extremely well automated, so these samples will not require much manpower to analyze.

Process_Date: 2004
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The main goals for FY 2005 are to finish several papers for pubication in peer-reviewed journals and to link our isotope data with the REMAP model. Accidental data management errors are being corrected before papers are submitted for publication.

In addition four focused pilot studies designed to answer some questions raised by the earlier studies and to further our ablility to use isotopes to assess ecosystem changes were begun:

1. a study tracing the intrusion of canal water into interior refuge areas in WCA1, 2. a related study on the effect of nutrients on algal mats and other plants in WCA1, 3. a study on the effect on N recycling on P levels and biota isotopes along the nutrient gradient in WCA2A, 4. A study to evaluate the effects of different treatment strategies in STAs in food web structure and MeHg bioaccumulation

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Carol Kendall
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 345 Middlefield Road, MS 434
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 650 329-4576
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 650 329-5590
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ckendall@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 18

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.001
Longitude_Resolution: 0.001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Each data collection site has the following information: date (month-year), critter, common name, scientific name, sigma 15N mean, sigma 15N S(tandard) D(eviation), sigma 15N n, sigma 13C mean, sigma 13C SD, sigma 13C n, C:N mean, C:N SD, and C:N n
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Everglades Isotope Data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains the data for a specific site
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/kendall_isotope/kendallisotope.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070917
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata Part 1: Biological Data Profile
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/kendall_stable_isotopes.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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