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Smith, Thomas J. III, 2002, Vegetation Dynamics in Land-Margin Ecosystems: The Mangroves of South Florida.
Project personnel included Gordon Anderson, Kevin Whalen, and Christa Walker
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Land-margin ecosystems (mangroves, brackish marshes and coastal lakes / back bays) comprise some 40% of Everglades NP. Primary production in these ecosystems fuels the detrital foodweb which supports sport and commercial fisheries and numerous endangered species (e.g. manatee, wood stork, roseatte spoonbill). Freshwater inflow is critical in regulating the salinity and nutrient regimes of these systems and thus their productivity. In August 1992, the land-margin systems of south Florida were severely damaged by Hurricane Andrew. A great potential exists for water management (i.e. regulation of freshwater inlfow) to impact the natural recovery processes currently underway. The research discussed here asks several questions related to how the hydrologic restoration of the Everglades will affect land margin ecosystems, including: 1) How does freshwater inflow regulate primary productivity? 2) How does freshwater inflow interact with other factors (nutrients, soil type) to influence primary productivity? 3) Is there an affect of freshwater inflow on recovery from natural disturbance in these ecosystems? 4) Does freshwater inflow influence below-ground production, peat formation and soil accretion in mangroves? 5) Will the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone respond to upstream water management? 6) What non-hydrological factors influence the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone (e.g. soil type and depth, nutrients, fire)?
In addition to providing answers to scientific questions of both basic and applied interest, this project is developing data crucial to the evaluation of hydrological alterations being proposed as part of the "Central & South Florida Project Restudy" and for the development of the Everglades Landscape Model and the Across Trophic Level System Simulation programs.
This work addresses several of the key gaps in "Performance Measures" for the Restudy (USACOE 1999a, b). At present Performance Measures exist for salinity in Florida Bay and only a single small distributary on the southwest coast (North River). There are NO performance measures for any of the important estuarine biota, plants or animals, on the southwest coast of the restudy area. Potential subjects for performance measures have been identified in the "Conceptual Model" process (USACOE, 1999).
This study determined reliable values of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) for mangrove peat under both the unsaturated Kfs and saturated Ksat soil conditions. The principle field method used to determining soil hydraulic conductivity Kfs under unsaturated conditions utilized a cylindrical permeameter (Guelph Permeameter) and the auger-hole method was used to determine soil hydraulic conductivity Ksat under saturated soil conditions. The hydraulic conductivity K samples were taken along a 300-meter transect, perpendicular to the south Harney riverbank through a mixed mangrove riparian forest and ending in a freshwater sawgrass prairie. Initial measurements were recorded in May-June 2001. A second year measurement set will be collected in March-April 2002. Hydraulic conductivity K measurements were observed in shallow peat holes (15 cm) at five equally spaced sample sites (60 m) from the river edge. Soil cores were taken at each sampling site to determine soil profile and bulk density.
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Person who carried out this activity:
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Smith III, Thomas J. Foster, Ann M.; Briere, Pet, 20020115, Conversion of historical topographic sheets (T-sheets) from paper to digital form: Florida Everglades and vicinity: USGS Open-File Report 02-204, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
Schaffrenek, Raymond Smith, Thomas J. III, Holmes, C, 2001, An Investigation of the Interrelation of Everglades Hydrology and Florida Bay Dynamics to Ecosystem Processes in South Florida: USGS Fact Sheet 49-01, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
Fry, Brian Smith, Thomas J., III, 2002, Stable Isotope Studies of Red Mangroves and Filter Feeders from the Shark River Estuary, Florida: Bulletin of Marine Science v. 70, n. 3, p. 871-890, University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL.
Posted, in full, with permission from the Bulletin of Marine Science.
Allen, J. A. Ewel, K. C.; Keeland, B. D., 2000, Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests: Wetlands v. 20, n. 1, p. 169-176, Society of Wetland Scientists, McLean, VA.
The abstract and fulltext preview are available at the website below. The full article is available to subscribers, through a participating library, or single article purchase.
Bolster, Carl, H. Genereux, David P.; Saiers,, 2001, Determination of Specific Yield for the Biscayne Aquifer with a Canal-Drawdown Test: Ground Water v. 39, n. 5, p. 768-777, National Ground Water Association, Westerville, OH.
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Wiley InterScience website
Bolster, Carl. H Saiers, James E., 2002, Development and evaluation of a mathematical model for surface-water flow within the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades: Journal of Hydrology v. 259, n. 1-4, p. 221-235, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website
Smith, Thomas J., III Foster, Anne M.; Brier, 2002, Historical Aerial Photography for the Greater Everglades of South Florida: the 1940, 1:40,000 Phtoset: USGS Open-File Report 02-327, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.
Houston, S. H. Powell, M. D., 2003, Surface wind fields for Florida Bay hurricanes: Journal of Coastal Research v. 19, n. 3, p. 503-513, Coastal Education and Research foundation (CERF), West Palm Beach, FL.
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the JSTOR website.
Pimm, S. Davis, G.; Loope, L.; Roman, C., 1994, Hurricane Andrew: Bioscience v. 44, p. 224-229, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.
Smith, T. J. III Cahoon, D. R., 2003, Wetland sediment surface elevation in the Florida Everglades: response to surface water stage variation: Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes, East Meets West Productions, Corpus Christi, TX.
Smith, T. J. III Hudson, J. H.; Robblee,, 1989, Freshwater flow from the Everglades to Florida Bay: A historical reconstruction based on fluorescent banding in the coral Solenastrea bournoni: Bulletin of Marine Science v. 44, n. 1, p. 274-282, University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Research, Miami, FL.
The full article is free by clicking on the link below.
Smith, T. J. III Robblee, M. B.; Wanless, 1994, Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes: Bioscience v. 44, p.256-262, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.
Cahoon, D. R. Lynch, J. C.; Hensel, P.; P, 2002, A device for high precision measurement of wetland sediment elevation: 1. Recent improvements to the sedimentation-erosion-table: Journal of Sedimentary Research v. 72, n. 5, p. 703-733, SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK.
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below
During a resampling of vegetation plots in the mangrove forests, all tagged stems were located and their diameter at breast height (dbh) and condition recorded
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- Access_Constraints: none
- Use_Constraints: none
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