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Vegetation Dynamics in Land-Margin Ecosystems: The Mangroves of South Florida

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Vegetation Dynamics in Land-Margin Ecosystems: The Mangroves of South Florida
Abstract:
This research addresses several important needs of the Greater Everglades Restoration including: 1) Mangrove primary productivity is a key indicator in the Mangrove Conceptual Model and forms the basis of the detrital foodweb that supports secondary production of estuarine fishes and crustaceans; 2) Secondary productivity in mangroves (e.g. commercially and recreationally important estuarine fisheries) is a key component of biological performance measures for restoration success and is used in the Mangrove Conceptual Models. Estuarine fish production is identified as a key Success Indicator. 3) Understanding processes of soil building, sediment accretion and erosion have been identified as critical to measuring restoration success. 4) Landscape level changes in the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone indicate largscale vegetation change in the coastal zone. Vegetation change monitoring has been identified as a priority issue. 5) Data from the studies of primary productivity will be used in the ATLSS modeling program in the development of the mangrove community and landscape models. 6) Actual field measurements of sediment accretion / erosion will be vital to the development of models regarding soil dynamics.
Supplemental_Information:
This project is now part of the Dynamics of Land Margin Ecosystems: Historical Change, Hydrology, Vegetation, Sediment, and Climate
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Smith, Thomas J. III, 2002, Vegetation Dynamics in Land-Margin Ecosystems: The Mangroves of South Florida.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.3
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.75
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -24.75

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3015/images/fig2x.jpg> (JPEG)
    location of sampling sites in Everglades National Park
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/mang_feeders/images/figure1.gif> (GIF)
    Shark River estuary sampling sites

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1992
    Ending_Date: 2002
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Thomas J. Smith III

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Project personnel included Gordon Anderson, Kevin Whalen, and Christa Walker

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Thomas J. Smith III
    U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center
    600 Fourth Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 x3130 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    tom_j_smith@usgs.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F


Why was the data set created?

Land-margin ecosystems (mangroves, brackish marshes and coastal lakes / back bays) comprise some 40% of Everglades NP. Primary production in these ecosystems fuels the detrital foodweb which supports sport and commercial fisheries and numerous endangered species (e.g. manatee, wood stork, roseatte spoonbill). Freshwater inflow is critical in regulating the salinity and nutrient regimes of these systems and thus their productivity. In August 1992, the land-margin systems of south Florida were severely damaged by Hurricane Andrew. A great potential exists for water management (i.e. regulation of freshwater inlfow) to impact the natural recovery processes currently underway. The research discussed here asks several questions related to how the hydrologic restoration of the Everglades will affect land margin ecosystems, including: 1) How does freshwater inflow regulate primary productivity? 2) How does freshwater inflow interact with other factors (nutrients, soil type) to influence primary productivity? 3) Is there an affect of freshwater inflow on recovery from natural disturbance in these ecosystems? 4) Does freshwater inflow influence below-ground production, peat formation and soil accretion in mangroves? 5) Will the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone respond to upstream water management? 6) What non-hydrological factors influence the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone (e.g. soil type and depth, nutrients, fire)?

In addition to providing answers to scientific questions of both basic and applied interest, this project is developing data crucial to the evaluation of hydrological alterations being proposed as part of the "Central & South Florida Project Restudy" and for the development of the Everglades Landscape Model and the Across Trophic Level System Simulation programs.

This work addresses several of the key gaps in "Performance Measures" for the Restudy (USACOE 1999a, b). At present Performance Measures exist for salinity in Florida Bay and only a single small distributary on the southwest coast (North River). There are NO performance measures for any of the important estuarine biota, plants or animals, on the southwest coast of the restudy area. Potential subjects for performance measures have been identified in the "Conceptual Model" process (USACOE, 1999).


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1992 (process 1 of 4)
    In October 1992, six large plots were established in the heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everglades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers. The plot network was expanded during the next 24 months and now encompasses more than 20 permanent plots. Each plot is circular. For each stem >1.4 m in height, the distance and bearing from the stem to a permanent center stake was measured. The stem was identified to species and its diameter at breast height measured. The condition of each stem was recorded (alive or killed by Andrew). Each living stem was marked with an aluminum tree tag for future identification. Since establishment, each plot has been sampled from 6-9 times. During a resampling, all tagged stems were located and their dbh and condition recorded. Recruits (previously untagged stems now having grown to 1.4m in height) were identified, measured and mapped. Changes in condition of all stems were noted (e.g. mortality from various causes). Increases or decreases in biomass were calculated for individual stems based on allometric equations relating biomass to dbh. Total biomass was determined by summing individual changes and changes due to addition of recruits and losses from mortality. Coincident with the establishment of the permanent vegetation plot network, researchers from the USGS were constructing a network of hydrological monitoring stations in the southwest coastal Everglades. Each hydrology monitoring station has one or more vegetation plots nearby (but not all vegetation plots have an adjacent hydrology station).

    Date: 2002 (process 2 of 4)
    This project assists in the maintenance of the Mangrove Hydrology Monitoring Network, a series of 17 stations arrayed along upstream downstream gradients in major rivers on the southwest coast of the Park and in the C-111 basin. The sites are also used for sampling vegetation, and soil elevation changes. The hydrology network provides data on water (ground and surface) stage and conductivity that are used by the TIME and other modeling groups. Water year reports have been prepared and data are available via the TIME website or Everglades NP "Data for Ever" database.

    Date: 2002 (process 3 of 4)
    The goal of this part of the project is to characterize the role of lightning generated gaps within south Florida mangrove ecosystems. This is being accomplished by: following short-term changes in community level and environmental processes; evaluating community characteristics in a time series of gaps along a known salinity gradient; and appraising the regional signal for mangrove gap dynamics. Data were collected from 39 gaps from the general region for canopy and expanded gap size and direction of orientation. Additionally, ihabitat characteristics for six gaps of differing successional age located in the lower Shark River Region were measured.

    Date: 2002 (process 4 of 4)
    The Shark-Harney river estuary is located in the southwest region of Everglades National Park and is the principle outflow for the freshwater everglades slough.

    This study determined reliable values of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) for mangrove peat under both the unsaturated Kfs and saturated Ksat soil conditions. The principle field method used to determining soil hydraulic conductivity Kfs under unsaturated conditions utilized a cylindrical permeameter (Guelph Permeameter) and the auger-hole method was used to determine soil hydraulic conductivity Ksat under saturated soil conditions. The hydraulic conductivity K samples were taken along a 300-meter transect, perpendicular to the south Harney riverbank through a mixed mangrove riparian forest and ending in a freshwater sawgrass prairie. Initial measurements were recorded in May-June 2001. A second year measurement set will be collected in March-April 2002. Hydraulic conductivity K measurements were observed in shallow peat holes (15 cm) at five equally spaced sample sites (60 m) from the river edge. Soil cores were taken at each sampling site to determine soil profile and bulk density.

    Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Thomas J. Smith III
    U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center
    600 Fourth Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 x3130 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    tom_j_smith@usgs.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Smith III, Thomas J. Foster, Ann M.; Briere, Pet, 20020115, Conversion of historical topographic sheets (T-sheets) from paper to digital form: Florida Everglades and vicinity: USGS Open-File Report 02-204, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 12/9/2009
    Schaffrenek, Raymond Smith, Thomas J. III, Holmes, C, 2001, An Investigation of the Interrelation of Everglades Hydrology and Florida Bay Dynamics to Ecosystem Processes in South Florida: USGS Fact Sheet 49-01, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 12/15/2010
    Fry, Brian Smith, Thomas J., III, 2002, Stable Isotope Studies of Red Mangroves and Filter Feeders from the Shark River Estuary, Florida: Bulletin of Marine Science v. 70, n. 3, p. 871-890, University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    Posted, in full, with permission from the Bulletin of Marine Science.

    Allen, J. A. Ewel, K. C.; Keeland, B. D., 2000, Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests: Wetlands v. 20, n. 1, p. 169-176, Society of Wetland Scientists, McLean, VA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    The abstract and fulltext preview are available at the website below. The full article is available to subscribers, through a participating library, or single article purchase.

    Bolster, Carl, H. Genereux, David P.; Saiers,, 2001, Determination of Specific Yield for the Biscayne Aquifer with a Canal-Drawdown Test: Ground Water v. 39, n. 5, p. 768-777, National Ground Water Association, Westerville, OH.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Wiley InterScience website

    Bolster, Carl. H Saiers, James E., 2002, Development and evaluation of a mathematical model for surface-water flow within the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades: Journal of Hydrology v. 259, n. 1-4, p. 221-235, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website

    Smith, Thomas J., III Foster, Anne M.; Brier, 2002, Historical Aerial Photography for the Greater Everglades of South Florida: the 1940, 1:40,000 Phtoset: USGS Open-File Report 02-327, U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 12/9/2009
    Houston, S. H. Powell, M. D., 2003, Surface wind fields for Florida Bay hurricanes: Journal of Coastal Research v. 19, n. 3, p. 503-513, Coastal Education and Research foundation (CERF), West Palm Beach, FL.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the JSTOR website.

    Pimm, S. Davis, G.; Loope, L.; Roman, C., 1994, Hurricane Andrew: Bioscience v. 44, p. 224-229, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Smith, T. J. III Cahoon, D. R., 2003, Wetland sediment surface elevation in the Florida Everglades: response to surface water stage variation: Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes, East Meets West Productions, Corpus Christi, TX.

    Other_Citation_Details: The Proceedings are available on a CD-ROM
    Smith, T. J. III Hudson, J. H.; Robblee,, 1989, Freshwater flow from the Everglades to Florida Bay: A historical reconstruction based on fluorescent banding in the coral Solenastrea bournoni: Bulletin of Marine Science v. 44, n. 1, p. 274-282, University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Research, Miami, FL.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    The full article is free by clicking on the link below.

    Smith, T. J. III Robblee, M. B.; Wanless, 1994, Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes: Bioscience v. 44, p.256-262, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Cahoon, D. R. Lynch, J. C.; Hensel, P.; P, 2002, A device for high precision measurement of wetland sediment elevation: 1. Recent improvements to the sedimentation-erosion-table: Journal of Sedimentary Research v. 72, n. 5, p. 703-733, SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details:
    accessed as of 12/15/2010

    The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    During a resampling of vegetation plots in the mangrove forests, all tagged stems were located and their diameter at breast height (dbh) and condition recorded

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    unknown


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 15-Dec-2010
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/land_margin.faq.html>

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