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Vegetation Dynamics in Land-Margin Ecosystems: The Mangroves of South Florida

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Thomas J. Smith III
Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Vegetation Dynamics in Land-Margin Ecosystems: The Mangroves of South Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=land_margin>
Description:
Abstract:
This research addresses several important needs of the Greater Everglades Restoration including: 1) Mangrove primary productivity is a key indicator in the Mangrove Conceptual Model and forms the basis of the detrital foodweb that supports secondary production of estuarine fishes and crustaceans; 2) Secondary productivity in mangroves (e.g. commercially and recreationally important estuarine fisheries) is a key component of biological performance measures for restoration success and is used in the Mangrove Conceptual Models. Estuarine fish production is identified as a key Success Indicator. 3) Understanding processes of soil building, sediment accretion and erosion have been identified as critical to measuring restoration success. 4) Landscape level changes in the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone indicate largscale vegetation change in the coastal zone. Vegetation change monitoring has been identified as a priority issue. 5) Data from the studies of primary productivity will be used in the ATLSS modeling program in the development of the mangrove community and landscape models. 6) Actual field measurements of sediment accretion / erosion will be vital to the development of models regarding soil dynamics.
Purpose:
Land-margin ecosystems (mangroves, brackish marshes and coastal lakes / back bays) comprise some 40% of Everglades NP. Primary production in these ecosystems fuels the detrital foodweb which supports sport and commercial fisheries and numerous endangered species (e.g. manatee, wood stork, roseatte spoonbill). Freshwater inflow is critical in regulating the salinity and nutrient regimes of these systems and thus their productivity. In August 1992, the land-margin systems of south Florida were severely damaged by Hurricane Andrew. A great potential exists for water management (i.e. regulation of freshwater inlfow) to impact the natural recovery processes currently underway. The research discussed here asks several questions related to how the hydrologic restoration of the Everglades will affect land margin ecosystems, including: 1) How does freshwater inflow regulate primary productivity? 2) How does freshwater inflow interact with other factors (nutrients, soil type) to influence primary productivity? 3) Is there an affect of freshwater inflow on recovery from natural disturbance in these ecosystems? 4) Does freshwater inflow influence below-ground production, peat formation and soil accretion in mangroves? 5) Will the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone respond to upstream water management? 6) What non-hydrological factors influence the position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone (e.g. soil type and depth, nutrients, fire)?

In addition to providing answers to scientific questions of both basic and applied interest, this project is developing data crucial to the evaluation of hydrological alterations being proposed as part of the "Central & South Florida Project Restudy" and for the development of the Everglades Landscape Model and the Across Trophic Level System Simulation programs.

This work addresses several of the key gaps in "Performance Measures" for the Restudy (USACOE 1999a, b). At present Performance Measures exist for salinity in Florida Bay and only a single small distributary on the southwest coast (North River). There are NO performance measures for any of the important estuarine biota, plants or animals, on the southwest coast of the restudy area. Potential subjects for performance measures have been identified in the "Conceptual Model" process (USACOE, 1999).

Supplemental_Information:
This project is now part of the Dynamics of Land Margin Ecosystems: Historical Change, Hydrology, Vegetation, Sediment, and Climate
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1992
Ending_Date: 2002
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.3
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.75
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -24.75
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: mangroves
Theme_Keyword: vegetation
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: aerial photography
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 010
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Chatham River
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Lostmans River
Place_Keyword: Shark River
Place_Keyword: C-111 Canal
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3015/images/fig2x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: location of sampling sites in Everglades National Park
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/mang_feeders/images/figure1.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Shark River estuary sampling sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel included Gordon Anderson, Kevin Whalen, and Christa Walker
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith III,Thomas J.

Foster, Ann M.; Briere, Peter R.; Jones, John W.; Van Arsdall, Carson

Publication_Date: 20020115
Title:
Conversion of historical topographic sheets (T-sheets) from paper to digital form: Florida Everglades and vicinity
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 02-204
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 12/9/2009
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/02-204/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Schaffrenek, Raymond

Smith, Thomas J. III, Holmes, Charles W.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
An Investigation of the Interrelation of Everglades Hydrology and Florida Bay Dynamics to Ecosystem Processes in South Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: 49-01
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 12/15/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/49-01/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fry, Brian

Smith, Thomas J., III

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Stable Isotope Studies of Red Mangroves and Filter Feeders from the Shark River Estuary, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletin of Marine Science
Issue_Identification: v. 70, n. 3, p. 871-890
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

Posted, in full, with permission from the Bulletin of Marine Science.

Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/mang_feeders/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Allen, J. A.

Ewel, K. C.; Keeland, B. D.; Tara, T.; Smith, T. J., III

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: v. 20, n. 1, p. 169-176
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: McLean, VA
Publisher: Society of Wetland Scientists
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

The abstract and fulltext preview are available at the website below. The full article is available to subscribers, through a participating library, or single article purchase.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.springerlink.com/content/j16r244v25316334/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bolster, Carl, H.

Genereux, David P.; Saiers, James E.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Determination of Specific Yield for the Biscayne Aquifer with a Canal-Drawdown Test
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ground Water
Issue_Identification: v. 39, n. 5, p. 768-777
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Westerville, OH
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Wiley InterScience website

Online_Linkage: <http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119017135/abstract>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bolster, Carl. H

Saiers, James E.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Development and evaluation of a mathematical model for surface-water flow within the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Hydrology
Issue_Identification: v. 259, n. 1-4, p. 221-235
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science BV
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V6C-44KVW96-5&_user=10&_coverDate=03%2F01%2F2002&_rdoc=14&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info%28%23toc%235811%232002%23997409998%23283536%23FLA%23display%23Volume%29&_cdi=5811&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=18&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a82d28a5e8d21f8c8cabe7acae6db35f>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, Thomas J., III

Foster, Anne M.; Briere, Peter R.; Coffin, Alisa W.; Jones, John W.; Van Arsdall, Carson; Frye, Laurinda J.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Historical Aerial Photography for the Greater Everglades of South Florida: the 1940, 1:40,000 Phtoset
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: DVD
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 02-327
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 12/9/2009
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/02-327/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Houston, S. H.

Powell, M. D.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title: Surface wind fields for Florida Bay hurricanes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Coastal Research
Issue_Identification: v. 19, n. 3, p. 503-513
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: West Palm Beach, FL
Publisher: Coastal Education and Research foundation (CERF)
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the JSTOR website.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4299193>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Pimm, S.

Davis, G.; Loope, L.; Roman, C.; Smith, T. J. III; Tilmant, J.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title: Hurricane Andrew
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bioscience
Issue_Identification: v. 44, p. 224-229
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Institute of Biological Sciences
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, T. J. III

Cahoon, D. R.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Wetland sediment surface elevation in the Florida Everglades: response to surface water stage variation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: presentation
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Proceedings
Issue_Identification:
5th International Symposium on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Corpus Christi, TX
Publisher: East Meets West Productions
Other_Citation_Details: The Proceedings are available on a CD-ROM
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, T. J. III

Hudson, J. H.; Robblee, M. B.; Powell, G. V. N.; Isdale, P. J.

Publication_Date: 1989
Title:
Freshwater flow from the Everglades to Florida Bay: A historical reconstruction based on fluorescent banding in the coral Solenastrea bournoni
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletin of Marine Science
Issue_Identification: v. 44, n. 1, p. 274-282
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
University of Miami - Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Research
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

The full article is free by clicking on the link below.

Online_Linkage:
<http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/1989/00000044/00000001/art00021>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, T. J. III

Robblee, M. B.; Wanless, H. R.; Doyle, T. W.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title: Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bioscience
Issue_Identification: v. 44, p.256-262
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Institute of Biological Sciences
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cahoon, D. R.

Lynch, J. C.; Hensel, P.; Perez, B. C.' Segura, B.; Day, J. W., Jr

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
A device for high precision measurement of wetland sediment elevation: 1. Recent improvements to the sedimentation-erosion-table
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Sedimentary Research
Issue_Identification: v. 72, n. 5, p. 703-733
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/15/2010

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the website below

Online_Linkage:
<http://jsedres.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/5/734>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: unknown
Completeness_Report:
During a resampling of vegetation plots in the mangrove forests, all tagged stems were located and their diameter at breast height (dbh) and condition recorded
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
In October 1992, six large plots were established in the heavily damaged areas of mangrove forest on the southwest coast of the Everglades, along the Lostmans and Broad Rivers. The plot network was expanded during the next 24 months and now encompasses more than 20 permanent plots. Each plot is circular. For each stem >1.4 m in height, the distance and bearing from the stem to a permanent center stake was measured. The stem was identified to species and its diameter at breast height measured. The condition of each stem was recorded (alive or killed by Andrew). Each living stem was marked with an aluminum tree tag for future identification. Since establishment, each plot has been sampled from 6-9 times. During a resampling, all tagged stems were located and their dbh and condition recorded. Recruits (previously untagged stems now having grown to 1.4m in height) were identified, measured and mapped. Changes in condition of all stems were noted (e.g. mortality from various causes). Increases or decreases in biomass were calculated for individual stems based on allometric equations relating biomass to dbh. Total biomass was determined by summing individual changes and changes due to addition of recruits and losses from mortality. Coincident with the establishment of the permanent vegetation plot network, researchers from the USGS were constructing a network of hydrological monitoring stations in the southwest coastal Everglades. Each hydrology monitoring station has one or more vegetation plots nearby (but not all vegetation plots have an adjacent hydrology station).
Process_Date: 1992
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
This project assists in the maintenance of the Mangrove Hydrology Monitoring Network, a series of 17 stations arrayed along upstream downstream gradients in major rivers on the southwest coast of the Park and in the C-111 basin. The sites are also used for sampling vegetation, and soil elevation changes. The hydrology network provides data on water (ground and surface) stage and conductivity that are used by the TIME and other modeling groups. Water year reports have been prepared and data are available via the TIME website or Everglades NP "Data for Ever" database.
Process_Date: 2002
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The goal of this part of the project is to characterize the role of lightning generated gaps within south Florida mangrove ecosystems. This is being accomplished by: following short-term changes in community level and environmental processes; evaluating community characteristics in a time series of gaps along a known salinity gradient; and appraising the regional signal for mangrove gap dynamics. Data were collected from 39 gaps from the general region for canopy and expanded gap size and direction of orientation. Additionally, ihabitat characteristics for six gaps of differing successional age located in the lower Shark River Region were measured.
Process_Date: 2002
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The Shark-Harney river estuary is located in the southwest region of Everglades National Park and is the principle outflow for the freshwater everglades slough.

This study determined reliable values of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) for mangrove peat under both the unsaturated Kfs and saturated Ksat soil conditions. The principle field method used to determining soil hydraulic conductivity Kfs under unsaturated conditions utilized a cylindrical permeameter (Guelph Permeameter) and the auger-hole method was used to determine soil hydraulic conductivity Ksat under saturated soil conditions. The hydraulic conductivity K samples were taken along a 300-meter transect, perpendicular to the south Harney riverbank through a mixed mangrove riparian forest and ending in a freshwater sawgrass prairie. Initial measurements were recorded in May-June 2001. A second year measurement set will be collected in March-April 2002. Hydraulic conductivity K measurements were observed in shallow peat holes (15 cm) at five equally spaced sample sites (60 m) from the river edge. Soil cores were taken at each sampling site to determine soil profile and bulk density.

Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government

Process_Date: 2002
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20101215
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/land_margin.html>

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