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Characterizing Past and Present Mangrove Shorelines to Aid Conservation of the Smalltooth Sawfish, Pristis pectinata, Along the Southwest Coast of Florida

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Thomas J. Smith III

Ginger Tiling-Range

Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title:
Characterizing Past and Present Mangrove Shorelines to Aid Conservation of the Smalltooth Sawfish, Pristis pectinata, Along the Southwest Coast of Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: none
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=mangrove_sawfish>
Description:
Abstract:
This pilot project has several related goals concerning a specific type of habitat thought to be important for juvenile sawfish habitat: mangrove shorelines. First, we will delineate and classify historic mangrove shorelines. Second, we will map and classify current mangrove shorelines. Third, we will determine amounts of shoreline change. Lastly, we will conduct an analysis to compare sawfish sightings and / or captures with the type of shoreline where those sightings-captures occurred. This will allow us to answer the question: Are juvenile sawfish selecting for a specific type of mangrove shoreline, and if so, what type of mangrove shoreline is it?
Purpose:
Historically, the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) was reported from Texas to New York. Hundreds of sightings of this fish have been documented on the east and west coasts of Florida since the late 1800s (Sietz and Poulakis 2002). Sawfish habitat is considered to be inshore, shallow sandbars, sea grass beds, and shallow muddy shorelines with adjacent mangroves (Carlson et al. 2007). Mangrove shorelines are felt to be especially important for sawfish pups, those individuals <2.0 m in length. Sawfish populations have been declining for some time. This may be the result of bycatch, habitat loss, and / or pollution (Sietz and Poulakis 2006, Carlson et al. 2007). The species has been placed on the Federal Endangered Species list (NMFS 2003). Many questions concerning the biology and ecology of this endangered species remain to be answered. One of the more important questions centers on habitat use and selectivity by juvenile sawfish.

Due to the vast amount of mangrove shoreline in southwest Florida, its entirety cannot be examined in this pilot project. We propose to examine three areas within southwest Florida where Pristis pectinata has been found (based on the sighting and capture data-set provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). From north to south along the coast these will be: the lower Caloosahatachee River and Matlacha Pass; the 10,000 Islands from Goodland to Fakahatchee Bay, including the lower Faka-Union Canal; and from Lostmans River to Shark River in Everglades National Park. These three areas have differing mixes of mangrove shoreline types and thus present an excellent opportunity to examine utilization of shorelines by sawfish. More importantly, they comprise a gradient of human impacts on shorelines, with greatest modification to shorelines in the Caloosahatchee and least in the Lostmans - Shark Rivers.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2008
Ending_Date: 2010
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: southwest Florida mangrove shorelines
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -82.16
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.8
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.75
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.3
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: mangroves
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: habitat
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Lee County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Caloosahatchee River
Place_Keyword: Matlacha Pass
Place_Keyword: Ten Thousand Islands
Place_Keyword: Goodland
Place_Keyword: Fakahatchee Bay
Place_Keyword: Faka-Union Canal
Place_Keyword: Lostmans River
Place_Keyword: Shark River
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: ENP
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Taxonomic_Keywords: fish
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smithsonian Institution - National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Database
Other_Citation_Details:
Retrieved from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, <http://www.itis.gov>.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.itis.gov>
Taxonomic_Procedures:
Occurence of Pristis pectinata taken from the sighting and capture dataset provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Taxonomic_Completeness: unknown
General_Taxonomic_Coverage: identified to the species level
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Applicable_Common_Name: animal
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Applicable_Common_Name: chordates
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Applicable_Common_Name: vertebrates
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chondrichthyes
Applicable_Common_Name: cartilaginous fishes
Applicable_Common_Name: rays
Applicable_Common_Name: shark
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Elasmobranchii
Applicable_Common_Name: cartilaginous fishes
Applicable_Common_Name: rays
Applicable_Common_Name: sharks
Applicable_Common_Name: skates
Applicable_Common_Name: torpedoes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superorder
Taxon_Rank_Value: Euselachii
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pristiformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pristidae
Applicable_Common_Name: sawfishes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pristis
Applicable_Common_Name: narrowtooth sawfishes
Applicable_Common_Name: sawfishes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pristis pectinata
Applicable_Common_Name: smalltooth sawfish
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Southeastern Ecological Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/mangrove_sawfish/images/fig1compmapx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
image of the study area of the lower Caloosahatchee River and Matlacha Pass
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/mangrove_sawfish/images/fig2compimgx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: image of the 10,000 Islands from Goodland to Fakahatchee Bay
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/mangrove_sawfish/images/fig3compimgx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
image of the southwest coast of Everglades National Park from the Lostmans River to the Shark River
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith III,Thomas J.

Foster, Ann M.; Briere, Peter R.; Jones, John W.; Van Arsdall, Carson

Publication_Date: 20020115
Title:
Conversion of historical topographic sheets (T-sheets) from paper to digital form: Florida Everglades and vicinity
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 02-204
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 12/9/2009
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/02-204/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Smith, Thomas J., III

Foster, Anne M.; Briere, Peter R.; Coffin, Alisa W.; Jones, John W.; Van Arsdall, Carson; Frye, Laurinda J.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Historical Aerial Photography for the Greater Everglades of South Florida: the 1940, 1:40,000 Phtoset
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: DVD
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 02-327
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 12/9/2009
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/02-327/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Seitz, J. C.

Poulakis, G. R.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Recent occurrence of sawfishes (Elasmobranchiomorphi: Pristidae) along the southwest coast of Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Florida Scientist
Issue_Identification: v. 65, p. 256-266
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Orlando, FL
Publisher: Florida Academy of Sciences
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Seitz, J.C.

Poulakis, G. R.

Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Anthropogenic effects on the smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) in the United States
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Issue_Identification: v. 52, n. 11, p. 1533-1540
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/9/2009

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0025326X>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Carlson, J. K.

Osborne, J.; Schmidt, T. W.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title:
Monitoring recovery of smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, using standardized relative indices of abundance
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Biological Conservation
Issue_Identification: v. 136, n. 2, p. 195-202
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 12/9/2009

The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.

Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Feinberg, S. E.
Publication_Date: 1977
Title: The analysis of cross-classified categorical data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Cambridge, MA
Publisher: The MIT Press
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rutchey, K.

Schall, T. N.; Doren, R. F.; Atkinson, A.; Ross, M. S.; Jones, D. T.; Madden, M.; Vilchek, L. Bradley, K. A.; Snyder, J. R.; Burch, J. N.; Pernas, T.; Witcher, B.; Pyne, M.; White, R.; Smith III, T. J.; Sadle, J.; Smith, C. S.; Patterson, M. E.; Gann, G. D.

Publication_Date: 2006
Title: Vegetation Classification for South Florida Natural Areas
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2006-1240
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 12/9/2009
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2006-1240/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Marine Fisheries Service
Publication_Date: 200304
Title:
Endangered and threatened species: Final endangerment status of a distinct population segment of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) in the United States
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Federal Register
Issue_Identification: v. 68, n. 62, p. 15674-15680
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 12/14/2009
Online_Linkage:
<http://frwebgate6.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/TEXTgate.cgi?WAISdocID=790959132340+1+1+0&WAISaction=retrieve>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The original National Sawfish Encounter Database (NSED) did not separate juveniles by size-class. The latest version of NSED separates them into three size-classes. Sawfish sightings were analyzed by this size-class distinction. The analysis was not weighted based on the number of sawfish counted during a sighting.

An arbitrary limit of 200 m was chosen for classifying a sighting as being along a shoreline. Every sighting 200 m or less was considered adjacent to a shoreling and the nearest shoreline was classified. Sightings greater than 200 m were classified as open water and recorded so that a shoreline could be assigned later if needed.

Completeness_Report:
Analysis dealt with sightings which could involve more than one sawfish.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
Shorelines will be classified using a hierarchical scheme, much like those used for vegetation classifications (e.g. Rutchey et. al. 2006). In such a scheme, the highest level represents the broadest class, for example, forest versus grassland. The next lower level might be oak versus pine, and the next lower level might be density, with pine savannah (low) versus pine forest High). For this work, we will use natural versus altered as the highest level of classification. The second level will be vegetated versus un-vegetated, and the third level will be depth (shallow vs deep). The first level differentiates all natural shorelines from created shorelines, be they dredged channels, dredge spoil islands, or hard-walled canals. The second level is primarily intended to separate mangroves from beaches. The third level gets at an additional factor that sawfish may be selecting for: depth. The classification scheme can be easily modified after the PIs receive input from the Sawfish Recovery Team.

The frequency distribution of shoreline types will be determined using the following method. Random points within the three study areas will be generated using ArcGIS. The nearest shoreline to each point will be located and then classified using the scheme above. The location of each classified shoreline point will be recorded and a shape-file of classified points will be developed. This procedure will be repeated three times for each study area and for each year (1940 and 2004). The number of random points will be from 50 to 100.

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The Kick-off meeting was held in August. In this meeting we addressed issues such as boundaries for the three study areas, shoreline classification scheme, how random shorelines will be selected for analyses, and how the juvenile sawfish sighting data would be used in the analyses.

New boundaries were created for each study area and 300 randomly generated points were created in each of the study areas.

Historic aerial photos have been collected, scanned and georeferenced for each of the study areas and the historic photos were superimposed on the modern Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangles (DOQQ) for analysis of habitat change.

A draft shoreline classification has been developed. Three levels of classification are proposed. The level one classifier is Natural versus Impacted. The second level classifier is Vegetated versus Un-vegetated. Within the Vegetated class, sub-classes include mangrove, marsh, mixed wetland, and upland. In the Un-vegetated class, subclasses include beach and reef. For "Impacted - Vegetated" a subclass was added for the presence of exotic species on the shoreline. For "Impacted - Un-vegetated" the sub-classes are spoil, concrete and rubble. The third classifier is depth with shallow and deep as the sub-classes.

Three separate databases for each study areas were created. Data stored in each database includes mosaiced DOQQs, mosaiced historic photos, Smalltooth Sawfish, Pristis pectinata data, shorelines, Collison Regulations from the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea of the International Maritime Organization (colregs), random points, bathymetry data.. In our case there is a "colregs" line drawn at the mouth of most rivers. We used some of the colregs demarcations as our boundaries.

Two field reconnaissance trips were undertaken to ground-truth some initial shoreline classifications based on the aerial photos. One trip was by vehicle around the Caloosahatchee River where we attempted to locate shorelines adjacent to known sawfish sightings in the Cape Coral canal system (without trespassing on private property). The second trip was by boat in the 10,000 Islands National Wildlife Refuge

Process_Date: 2008
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The shoreline classification scheme, and initial results, were presented to the Sawfish Implementation Team. The scheme was revised to replace the term "impacted" with the less judgmental word "altered".

Several errors were discovered in the bathymetry data set. Therefore, we went through the complete dataset and checked polygon by polygon to see if they agreed with our interpretation which based on the 2004 imagery and the bathymetry in the National Sawfish Encounter Database (NSED) dataset. Inspection of the bathymetry dataset resulted in three polygons being changed.

Completed classification and QA/QC of the 300 random shoreline points for the 10,000 Islands and Lostmans - Shark River study areas, for both historic and present day eras (1,200 total points classified).

Completed change analyses of the classified shorelines for these study areas.

Conducted statistical analyses of the classified points for the 10,000 Islands and Lostmans - Shark Rivers study areas.

Incorporated the newly updated NSED into our geo-database for each of the three study areas.

Classified shorelines associated with sawfish for the 10,000 Island and Lostmans - Shark River study areas.

Performed QA/QC on the sawfish shorelines.

Conducted preliminary analyses of the relationship of sawfish sightings to shoreline class for both study areas.

Completed acquiring the historic air photos for the Caloosahatchee - Matlacha study area.

Geo-referenced and mosaiced these images and incorporated the mosaic into the geo-database.

Added the "negative" collection data to the geo-database.

In the original sawfish dataset we were provided, juveniles were not separated by size-class. In the latest version of NSED, juveniles are separated into Large (201 - 330 cm), Small (100 - 200 cm) and Very small (<100 cm) size-classes. We have analyzed sawfish sightings by this size-class distinction. Our analysis dealt with sightings" which could involve more than one sawfish. We did not weight the analysis based on number counted during a sighting .

A number of sawfish sightings in NSED dataset are for individuals well off-shore, with several >1,000 m from shore. We arbitrarily set a limit of 200 m for classifying a sighting as being along the shoreline. Every sighting 200 m or less was considered adjacent to a shoreline and the nearest shoreline was classified. Sightings >200 m were classed as "open water". We recorded these "open water" points so that a shoreline class can be assigned at a later date if it is decided to do so.

In the Lostmans - Shark river area both Small and Very small sawfish appeared to be over-represented along Natural - Mangrove - Shallow and Natural - Beach - Shallow shorelines and juveniles appear to be under-represented along Natural - Mangrove - Deep shorelines.

These two conditions above are most likely a result of how the NSED is put together. Most sightings are from recreational fisherman or researchers who are fishing in the shallow flats, and not in deeper channels, and end up catching or seeing a sawfish.

In the 10,000 Islands study area sightings are very much over-represented for the Altered - Mangrove - Shallow class. This point was discussed at the Implementation Team meeting and is the result of researchers catching large numbers of all sized juveniles around mangrove spoil islands off the mouth of the Faka-Union Canal

Process_Date: 2009
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Planned work includes:

Start and finish the shoreline classification for the random points in the Caloosahatchee - Matlacha study area for both the historic (1944) and modern (2004) periods.

Conduct change analysis of the Caloosahatchee - Matlacha study area.

Conduct the shoreline classification of the NSED sightings for the Caloosahatchee - Matlacha study area.

Conduct analyses of sawfish sightings for both un-weighted (i.e. each sighting = 1) and weighted (i.e. sighting multiplied by number of sawfish recorded in the event) for all three study areas.

Analyze the shorelines of successful and unsuccessful capture locations for differences.

Provide all GIS data-layers, graphics, the geo-databases and all ancillary data and graphics to NOAA.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey, Southeastern Ecological Science Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20091214
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata Part 1: Biological Data Profile
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/mangrove_sawfish.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Mon Dec 14 11:37:10 2009