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Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the Southeast Coast

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Scott Ishman
Publication_Date: 2006
Title: Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the Southeast Coast
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/eh_bbsec/>
Description:
Abstract:
Historical changes in South Florida related to rapid population growth in the early to mid-1900's have led to significant alteration of the natural hydrocycles and water quality of Florida and Biscayne Bays. The Biscayne Bay ecosystem shows increasing signs of distress; declines in fisheries, increased pollution, and dramatic changes in nearshore vegetation. Northern and central Biscayne Bay are strongly affected by the urban development associated with the growth of Miami. Southern Biscayne Bay is influenced by drainage from the Everglades, which has been altered by canals and agricultural activities. Restoration and preservation of Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park are dependent on a comprehensive understanding of the linkages between the hydrologic system and the bay ecosystem, and of the natural versus human-induced variability of the ecosystem.

In this project modern surface samples were collected from 26 sites in Biscayne Bay. The primary biota analyzed were 1)benthic foraminifera, 2)ostracodes, 3)mollusks, 4)dinoflagellate cysts, 5)pollen and macro-plant material. The distribution of the biota was quantified to determine relationships with environmental conditions. These results were used to interpret historical faunal and floral changes recorded in shallow sediment cores. Water samples, ostracode and foraminiferal shells collected from the modern sediment samples are being analyzed for trace element geochemistry to derive a calibration equation to calculate absolute salinity in down-core samples.

Shallow cores (1-2 meters) were collected along a north-south transect within Biscayne Bay for analysis of the downcore faunal and floral assemblages over the last 150 years. Quantitative down-core assemblage diagrams will be drawn up and the various faunal and floral data will be compared to look for correlated changes among the groups analyzed. Determinations of salinity, bottom conditions, nutrient supply and various other physical and chemical parameters of the environment will be made for each sample based on the fauna and flora present. Data from all cores will be integrated to search for regional patterns of change in diversity and distribution of the fauna and flora; data from Biscayne Bay will supplement and be correlated to onshore data and to data from Florida Bay. The integrated data set will be analyzed to see if detected changes in biota correlate to alterations in physical parameters and/or historic records of human-induced modifications of the environment. Living assemblages will be collected twice a year to provide data on habitat distribution, preferred substrates and seasonality of the living biota for interpretation of the down-core assemblages.

Purpose:
Recent negative trends have been observed in the ecosystem of Florida Bay, including algal blooms, seagrass die-offs, and declining numbers or shellfish, adversely affecting the fishing and tourist industries. Many theories of cause and effect exist to explain the adverse trends, but these theories have not been scientifically tested. Prior to finalizing plans for ecosystem restoration, the relative roles of human activities versus natural ecosystem variations need to be established. This project addresses this need by focusing on two primary goals. First, to determine the characteristics of the ecosystem prior to significant human alteration, including the natural range of variation in the system; this establishes the baseline for restoration. Second, to establish the extent, range, and timing of changes to the ecosystem over approximately the last 150 years and to determine if these changes correlate to human alteration, meteorological patterns, or a combination of factors. In addition, data on recovery times of certain components of the ecosystem will be obtained allowing biologists to estimate responses to proposed restoration efforts. This project is planned as a five year study, to be completed in 2000.

This project is one segment in a group of coordinated USGS projects examining the biota, geochronology, geochemistry, sedimentology, and hydrology of southern Florida, Florida Bay and the surrounding areas. Data are being compiled from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments in onshore and offshore sites in order to reconstruct the ecosystem history for the entire region over the last 150 years.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199603
Ending_Date: 200001
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.1
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: benthic foraminifera
Theme_Keyword: dinocysts
Theme_Keyword: molluscs
Theme_Keyword: ostracodes
Theme_Keyword: pollen
Theme_Keyword: salinity
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: biology
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Barnes Sound
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place_Keyword: Biscayne National Park
Place_Keyword: Card Sound
Place_Keyword: Manatee Bay
Place_Keyword: Bob Allen Key
Place_Keyword: Pass Key
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: Upper Keys
Place_Keyword: Taylor Creek region
Place_Keyword: Russell Bank
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Stratum_Keyword: substrate
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lynn Brewster-Wingard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5352
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lwingard@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/145-96>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: communities in the Biscayne Bay area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Access database
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Edwards, L. E.

Weedman, S. D.; Simmons, K. R.; Scott, T. M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Ishman, S. E.; Carlin, N. M.

Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Lithostratigraphy, petrography, biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of the surficial aquifer system of western Collier County, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 98-205
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/98-205/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Ishman, Scott E.
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Ecosystem History of South Florida: Biscayne Bay Sediment Core Descriptions
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-0437
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97437.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Ishman, Scott E.

Graham, Ian; D'Ambrosio, Jill

Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Modern Benthic Foraminifer Distributions in Biscayne Bay: Analogs for Historical Reconstructions
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-034
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97034.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stone, Jeffery R.

Cronin, Thomas M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Ishman, Scott E.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Holmes, Charles W.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
A Paleoecologic Reconstruction of the History of Featherbed Bank, Biscayne National Park, Biscayne Bay, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-191
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-191>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Spatial accuracy determined from NOAA nautical charts and from GPS readings.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The modern core top samples will be collected twice a year, in March and August, in order to compare the wet and dry season data and record patterns of natural variability. The cores are collected only once, because they provide the historical data.

Modern biotic data are assembled from bottom grab samples; parameters such as salinity, depth, substrate, water clarity etc. are recorded for each site. Geochemical analyses are conducted on ostracode and foraminiferal shells. Historic data is assembled by analyzing the fauna and flora present in shallow cores (<2 meters) sampled at 2 centimeter intervals. Data from the core are converted into percent abundances and plots of salinity and substrate preferences assembled. Data are analyzed from cores to determine any patterns that exist, for example, significant changes in assemblages of mollusks, benthic foraminifera, and ostracodes that occur at the same depth. Determine salinity, bottom conditions, nutrient supply and any other physical or chemical parameters that might be indicated by the fauna and flora present. Obtain age estimates using lead 210 and exotic pollen.

References on modern environmental tolerances of specific biotic elements are used in interpreting the data. Data on rainfall, canal flow, construction, etc. is used to interpret possible causes of change seen in the cores. Modern fauna and flora are assumed to be a good proxy for environmental conditions over the last 150 years.

Five biotic elements are examined independently for each core before the data are compiled, thus each group serves as a cross check (quality control) on the reliability of the results seen in the other groups. Quality control is also provided by the methods of initial core selection. Several cores are collected from each site, x-rayed and visually examined for signs of bioturbation or disturbance. Lead 210 profiles are constructed and the down-core abundance of exotic pollen is examined. All of these indicators must demonstrate that the core represents relatively undisturbed sediments before the core is analyzed for the biotic components.

The primary limitation is the small sampling size constrained by the core diameter. This may not provide a representative sample for the site, particularly for the mollusks.

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Scott Ishman
Contact_Organization: Southern Illinois University
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address:
Geology-SIUC

Mailcode 4324

City: Carbondale
State_or_Province: IL
Postal_Code: 62901
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 618 453-7377
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sishman@siu.edu

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Biscayne Bay and the southeast coast of FL

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Ecosystem History of South Florida Estuaries Data
Distribution_Liability:
The field data contained in this database have not been reviewed for publication and therefore may contain inconsistencies or errors. The field measurements (such as salinity and temperature) were made on an variety of instruments over the years. Project personnel have made every attempt to calibrate and standardize the instruments and check the data, however, the field data should be considered preliminary. Also taxonomic names may not represent the most up to date usage, but are internally consistent.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Access
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: The Access database is available as a zipped file
Transfer_Size: 4.8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/>
Access_Instructions: The database may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070207
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/metish.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Tue Feb 13 10:38:54 2007