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Geochemical Processes in Organic-rich Sediments of South Florida - Mercury and Metals

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rama Kotra

Larry P. Gough

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Geochemical Processes in Organic-rich Sediments of South Florida - Mercury and Metals
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/merc_metals/>
Description:
Abstract:
Human activities have led to the deterioration of the productivity, biodiversity, and stability of the south Florida ecosystem. The fate of anthropogenic contaminants incorporated into the organic-rich sediments is not fully understood. Physical, chemical, and biological processes may remobilize some of the contaminants and reintroduce them into water, atmosphere, and the biological community. Other contaminants may be transformed during diagenesis and remain in surficial materials until the system is disturbed. This project examined the occurrence and cycling of mercury and metals in organic-rich sediments, pore fluids, and plants at selected sites in south Florida.
Purpose:
An understanding of the relationship between diagenesis, concentration, speciation, and historical variation of elements of environmental significance is essential for planners in developing long-term remediation and management strategies for wetlands of south Florida. A better understanding of the controls on the cycling of these elements is critical for making informed decisions regarding the regulation of water levels and anticipating the effect of water regulation.
Supplemental_Information:
This project was part of the Aquatic Cycling of Mercury in the Everglades (ACME) project which has become Integrated Geochemical Studies in the Everglades
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199610
Ending_Date: 199809
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.25
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.3
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.6
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.75
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: mercury
Theme_Keyword: biogeochemistry
Theme_Keyword: mercury cycling
Theme_Keyword: peat
Theme_Keyword: sawgrass
Theme_Keyword: trace elements
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 010
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Shark River Slough
Place_Keyword: Taylor Slough
Place_Keyword: Lake Okeechobee
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Greater Lake Okeechobee
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Rama Kotra
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 911 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648 6271
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 6383
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rkotra@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-327/intro.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: the South Florida ACME study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Gough, L. P.

Kotra, R. K.; Holmes, C. W.; Orem, W. H.; Hageman, P. L.; Briggs, P. H.; Meier, A. L.; Borwn, Z. A.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Regional Geochemistry of Metals in Organic-Rich Sediments, Sawgrass and Surface Water, from Taylor Slough, Florida
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: OFR 00-327
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher: Reston, VA
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-327/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Arbogast, B. F., editor
Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: manual
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 86-525
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr96525>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Balistrieri, L. S.

Gough, L. P.; Severson, R. C.; Montour, M. R.; Briggs, P. H.; Adrian, B. M.; Curry, K. J.; Fey, D. L.; Hageman, P. L.; Papp, C. S.

Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
The effect of acidic, metal-enriched drainage from the Wightman Fork and Alamosa River i=on the composition of selected wetlands in San Luis Valley, Colorado
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 95-568
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Denver, CO
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr95568>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Charles W. Holmes
Publication_Date: 1998
Title: Short-Lived Isotopic Chronometers
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: fact sheet
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: 73-98
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, Florida
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/73-98>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Jackson, L. L.

Engleman, E. E.; Peard, J. L.

Publication_Date: 1985
Title:
Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Environmental Science & Technology
Issue_Identification: v. 19, issue 5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Kennedy, K. R.

Crock, J. G.

Publication_Date: 1987
Title:
Determination of mercury in geological materials by continuous-flow, cold-vapor, atomic absorption spectrophotometry
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Analytical Letters
Issue_Identification: v. 20
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Philadelphia, PA
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Arbogast, B. F., editor
Publication_Date: 1990
Title:
Quality Assurance manual for the Branch of Geochemistry, U.S. Geological Survey
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: manual
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 90-668
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr90668>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Lichte, F. E.

Meier, A. L.; Crock, J. G.

Publication_Date: 1986
Title:
Determination of the rare earth elements in geologic materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Analytical Chemistry
Issue_Identification: v. 59, no. 8
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Meier, A.

Grimes, D. J.; Ficklin,. W. H.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - a powerful tool for mineral resource and environmental suudies
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Circular
Issue_Identification: 1103A
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
in USGS Research on Mineral Resources - 1994, Part A - Program and Abstracts;

carter, L. M. H.; Toth, M. I.; and Day, W. C., editors

Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/cir/cir1103A>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Gough, L. P.

Crock, J. G.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Distinguishing between natural geologic and anthropogenic trace element sources, Denali National Park and Preserve
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Professional Paper
Issue_Identification: 1574
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
in Geologic Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1995;

Dumoulin, J. A. And Gray, J. E., editors

Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1574>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Orem, W. H.

Lerch, H. E.; Rawlik, P.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Geochemistry of surface and pore water at USGS coring sites in wetlands of South Florida, 1994 and 1995
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-454
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/97-454>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Orem, W. H.

Bates, A. L.; Lerch, H. E.; Corum, M.; Boylan, A.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Sulfur contamination in the Everglades and its relation to mercury methylation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 99-181
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/ofr99_181_gerould.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Lichte, F. E.

Golightly, D. W.; Lamother, P. J.

Publication_Date: 1987
Title: Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Bulletin
Issue_Identification: 1770
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: in Methods of Geochemical Analysis; Baedecker, P. A., ed.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Gough, L. P.

Kotra, R. K.; Holmes, C. W.; Briggs. P. H.; Crock, J. G.; Fey, D. L.; Hageman, P. L.; Meier, A. L.

Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Chemical analysis results for mercury and trace elements in vegetation, water, and organic-rich sediments, south Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 96-91
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr9691>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Sampling sites: Field work was conducted from May 17-24, 1996 in Taylor Slough. Information collected included the site no., field ID, latitude, longitude, sample type, date collected, and general comments. May is the end of the dry season and usually allows for ready access to sediment sampling sites because of generally low water levels; however, during May 1996 relatively deep standing water was encountered.

Field collections:

Water - Surface water samples, analyzed for major and trace elements (except Hg), were collected in field-rinsed 1 L polyethylene bottles and transferred via filtration in the field (by passing through pre-rinsed cellulose acetate 0.45 micron membranes) to acid-washed and field-rinsed 250 ml bottles. Element stability was assured by the addition of 10 drops of concentrated, ultra-pure nitric acid. Samples collected for Hg analyses were taken from the same 1 L bottle. The samples were filtered as above and 30 ml was added to glass, oven-baked bottles with teflon-coated lids. Mercury stability was assured by the addition of 1.5 ml of sodium dichromate/nitric acid.

Vegetation - The vegetation component of the biogeochemical cycling of trace elements was investigated using sawgrass (Cladium jamaicensis Crantz), the dominant species in the Everglades marsh. In addition, bromeliads (Tillandsia spp, also known as air plants) were collected when available because of their ability to concentrate airborne metals and therefore act as air quality monitors. Data for the air plant samples are reported in Gough and others, 1996, OFR 96-91.

Sawgrass leaves (about 200 g, dry weight) were clipped using stainless steel shears at about 10 cm above the high water level. Flowering structures, if present, were removed. Samples consisted of a composite of four individual plants collected within three meters of the site where the core material was taken. The material was double sealed in plastic bags and chilled using "wet ice". Sawgrass roots consisted of the material below the sediment level for each sawgrass clump. This usually consisted of the basal protion below the meristem that contains the major rhizomes (but not the fibrous "feeder" roots). The material was field rinsed, double sealed in plastic bags, and chilled using "wet ice".

Organic-rich sediments - Sediment cores were obtained by pushing a piston-sealed, 10.2 cm diameter, acrylic butyrate core liner into the sediment using the method described in Orem and others, 1997, OFR 97-454. Usually greater than 60 cm of sediment were collected in the core liner at the sites. The cores were maintained in an upright position until they were extruded and sectioned, usually within 8 hours of collection. All sediment samples were placed in plastic bags, chilled, and shipped to the laboratory where they were frozen.

Detailed discussions of sample preparation and analyses for water, plant, and sediment samples can be found in Arbogast, 1996, Gough and Crock, 1997, Holmes, 1998, Lichte and others, 1986, and Orem and others, 1999.

In the laboratory, sawgrass was removed from the sample bags, placed in Teflon beakers, submerged and rinsed in deionized water, and drained. This process was repeated at least three times. Plant material was then placed in plastic colanders, rinsed briefly with deionized water, and allowed to drip drain. Colanders were then placed directly into ovens and the material was dried for 24 hr. at about 40 deg. C. This temperature is near the maximum summer ambient field temperature and should not result in any important loss of Hg through volatilization. Samples were then ground in a Wiley mill to pass a 2-mm (10-mesh) sieve. Splits of the ground plant material were ashed at 450-500 deg. C over an 18 hr. period and ash yield was determined.

In order to insure adequate material and sample type for the various analyses conducted, replicate cores were commonly extracted from each study site. The cores used for the geochronology studies (210Pb analyses) and pore water chemistry were sectioned (extracted) at 2 cm intervals whereas the cores used in the trace metal geochemical studies were sectioned at 5 cm intervals. Because most core material below about 40 cm was several hundred years old, the interval for sectioning commonly increased to 5 or 10 cm for all cores. This was performed in order to economize on the total number of samples being analyzed. For element analyses, subsets of the sediment core sections were dried, ground, and ashed in a manner similar to the plant samples (Arbogast, 1990; Balistrieri and others, 1995). For details on the 210Pb sediment dating method see Holmes (1998).

One hundred milligrams of plant and sediment sample ash was digested with mixed acids. After complete digestion of the ash, 40 major and trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) (Lichte and others, 1987). Mercury was determined directly on a subset of the dried, ground, unashed plant and sediment material by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)(Kennedy and Crock, 1987). Total sulfur was determined in plant samples only on 250 mg of the ground material by combustion at 1370 deg. C in an oxygen atmosphere with infrared detection of evolved SO2 (Jackson and other, 1985). Water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Meier and others, 1994; Arbogast, 1996).

The element analyses (except for Hg) for the sediment material were all performed in a non-government contract laboratory. Analyses for plant material and water were performed by the Denver Laboratories of the USGS.

Blind standard reference materials were submitted to the laboratories as part of each suite of samples. This included material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and from internal USGS prepared materials. In addition, some of the material was sampled twice in the field (identified by a "Y"), and split in the laboratory for duplicate analysis (identified by an "X").

Process_Date: 1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Rama Kotra
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 911 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648 6271
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 6383
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: rkotra@usgs.gov

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: geochemistry of metals in organic-rich sediments
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: report
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-327/>
Access_Instructions:
The Open-File Report containing the data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070209
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/metkotra.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology
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