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Ground-Water Discharge to Biscayne Bay

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Christian Langevin
Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Ground-Water Discharge to Biscayne Bay
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/grndwtr_disch/>
Description:
Abstract:
The purpose of this project was to quantify the rates of ground water discharge to Biscayne Bay. This was achieved through the collection of field data and the development of two- and three-dimensional numerical models to simulate variable-density ground water flow. As part of this project, the SEAWAT code, which represents variable-density ground water flow, was developed to simulate ground water discharge. Monitoring wells were installed offshore and inland along three transects perpendicular to the shore of Biscayne Bay.
Purpose:
Several surveys during the late 19th and early 20th centuries describe the occurrence of large quantities of ground-water flow to Biscayne Bay by way of underground channels or conduits. The construction of the drainage and flood-control network in southeastern Florida began during the early 20th century for the purpose of managing the water resources of the area. This drainage canal network affected the hydrologic pattern in southeastern Florida by replacing sheetflow with canal flow, thereby significantly reducing the altitude of the water table and diminishing ground-water flow to Biscayne Bay. This led to the inland movement of the saltwater interface. In 1960, there was still ground water discharging to the bottom of Biscayne Bay, but no quantification of the amount of ground-water discharges to the bay was made at the time. In 1967, discharges to the bay in the Cutler Ridge area were estimated by assuming Darcian flow and considering the tidal cycle. It was estimated that 210 cubic feet per square foot of flow section area was discharged during a 12.5-hour tidal cycle.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is planning to construct gated spillways and culverts to allow for the restoration of natural sheetflow conditions to Everglades National Park (ENP). These proposed changes may further affect the hydrologic conditions of ENP and other parts of the ecosystem, thus leading to the following questions:

(1) Is ground water flowing to Biscayne Bay a significant component of the water budget in south Florida?

(2) Would the quantity of ground water flowing to Biscayne Bay be greatly affected by changes in the operation of gates and control structures in canals?

(3) How much change in ground-water discharges to Biscayne Bay has occurred due to modifications to the hydrologic system?

Quantification of ground water flowing to Biscayne Bay is needed as input to two interagency projects: the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program and the Biscayne Bay Feasibility Study. The principal objective of the Biscayne Bay Feasibility Study is to investigate ongoing construction/dredging projects and propose solutions to alleviate adverse factors that affect the bay and to aid in the development of guidelines for future management of the natural resources of Biscayne Bay. The Biscayne Bay Feasibility Study includes the implementation of a surface-water circulation model which will be developed by the Waterway Experimental Station of the COE. Quantification of ground-water discharges to Biscayne Bay is needed as input to the bay water circulation model.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199606
Ending_Date: 1998
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.63
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.12
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.9
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.12
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: flow models
Theme_Keyword: groundwater
Theme_Keyword: discharge
Theme_Keyword: water budget
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Christian Langevin
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 3110 SW 9th Avenue
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5917
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: langevin@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/00-4251/images/fig1x.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Southern Florida showing location of study area, domain of regional-scale model, and location of field transects
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit: Project personnel included Raul Patterson and Melinda Wolfert.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Sonenshein, Roy S.
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Delineation and Extent of Saltwater Intrusion in the Bisacayne Aquifer, Eastern Dade County, Florida, 1995.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Resources Investigation Report
Issue_Identification: 96-4285
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
This report was prepared in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/wri/wri964285>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Fish, J. E.
Publication_Date: 1988
Title:
Hydrogeology, Aquifer Characteristics, and Ground-Water Flow of the Surficial Aquifer System, Broward County, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 87-4034
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
prepared in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/87-4034/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Parker, G. G.

Ferguson, G. E.; Love, S. K.; and others

Publication_Date: 1955
Title:
Water resources of southeastern Florida, with special reference to the geology and ground water of the Miami area
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water Supply Paper
Issue_Identification: 1255
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/wsp1255>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Clinton D. Hittle
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Delineation of saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system in eastern Palm Beach, Martin, and St. Lucie Counties, Florida, 1997-98
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 99-4214
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/wri99_4214_hittle.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fitterman, David V.

Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Stoddard, Carl E.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Results of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Soundings in Everglades National Park, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 99-426
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/99-426/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Guo, Weixing

Langevin, Christian D.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
SEAWAT: A Computer Program for Simulation of Three-Dimensional Variable-Density Ground-Water Flow
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: computer program
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
There are two versions of the program: SEAWAT Version 2 (old version) and SEAWAT 2000
Online_Linkage: <http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/seawat/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Langevin, Christian

Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geolgical Survey Modular Ground-Water Model - Documentation of the SWAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 03-426
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/ofr03_426_langevin.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Brown, Eugene

Skougstad, M. W.; Fishman, M. J.

Publication_Date: 1970
Title:
Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Techniques of Water-Resource Investigation
Issue_Identification: 05-A1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/twri/twri05A1_1970>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Shinn, E. A.

Reese, R. S.; Reich, C. D.

Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 94-276
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Florida
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/94-276>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Shoemaker, W. B.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Geophysical delineation of hydrostratigraphy within the Big Cypress National Preserve
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: M.S. Thesis
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tampa, FL
Publisher: University of South Florida

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A field investigation was conducted to collect data that would help quantify ground-water discharge to Biscayne Bay. The design of the field investigation was based on the general and widely accepted concept that fresh ground water flowing toward a coastal boundary will flow up and over a saltwater wedge. To better characterize this flow pattern within the study area, three transects, each located on a ground-water flow line toward Biscayne Bay, were selected for further study. The locations of these transects are referred to as Coconut Grove, Deering Estate, and Mowry Canal.

The field investigation was initiated by installing ground-water monitoring wells at each of the three transects. In an effort to fully characterize the transition zone between fresh and saline ground water, monitoring wells were installed both inland and offshore. Inland monitoring wells were installed by the Florida Geological Survey, and the offshore monitoring wells were installed by the USGS. The offshore wells were installed from a floating barge using the methods presented in Shinn and others (1994).

During the installation of selected monitoring wells, lithologic cores were collected and analyzed to provide a better understanding of the stratigraphy and hydrogeologic characteristics at the monitoring well locations. Permeameter analyses were performed on several rock samples extracted from the cores, but the analyses were inconclusive. For selected inland monitoring wells, geophysical logging was performed by the South Florida Water Management District prior to setting the steel surface casing.

Water samples were collected with a centrifugal pump from selected monitoring wells for each month from March 1998 to February 1999. Measurements of depth to water were recorded prior to sampling, and if the well had been leveled, a water-table elevation was calculated. During the first 3 months, water samples were analyzed by the USGS for chloride concentration, [Cl-], using the titration method (Brown and others, 1974). Measurements of specific conductance (SC) also were performed on the ground-water samples. After 3 months of directly measuring chloride concentrations, it was determined that chloride concentrations could be adequately estimated from measurements of specific conductance, which are easier to perform. Chloride concentrations for all subsequent ground-water samples were estimated from specific conductance using the following equation: [ Cl- ] = 1 . 10-6 . SC 2 + 0.3224 . SC - 177.7,

where [ Cl- ] is in milligrams per liter and SC is in microsiemens per centimeter. This polynomial equation was created by a fit to 120 measurements of specific conductance and chloride concentrations and represents the data with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9967. (See the Introduction to OFR WRI 00-4251 for the correct format for the equation.)

The numerical model used in this study requires concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) rather than chloride concentrations. Chloride concentrations were linearly converted to TDS by assuming that seawater has a chloride concentration of 19,800 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and a TDS value of 35,000 mg/L (Parker, and others, 1955). Fish (1988) estimates that water-rock interactions in the surficial aquifer of southeastern Florida can affect the TDS value by 350 to 550 mg/L; therefore, the TDS values in this study, which were estimated from chloride concentrations, may contain a 1 to 2 percent error relative to the observed range of TDS values. This suggests that a linear relation between chloride and TDS is reasonable, even for ground-water samples.

During the initial part of the field investigation, much time was spent trying to obtain reliable results from seepage meters. A seepage meter is a cylindrical tube that is pressed into the bottom sediments of a surface-water body; seepage rates are determined by measuring liquid volumes in a bag attached to the tube. After many unsuccessful attempts, it was determined that seepage meters could not be used within the tidal environment of Biscayne Bay because flow rates measured at seepage meters were not in agreement with tidal phase, or were not proportional to vertical head differences at nested offshore monitoring wells. There is evidence that seepage meters may not work in tidal environments or under certain conditions because they may be artificially pumped from tides, waves, and fluctuations in barometric pressure (C. Reich, U.S. Geological Survey, oral commun., 2000). This artificial pumping can result in seepage measurements that are not representative of the actual seepage rate.

To better delineate the position of the saltwater interface, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings were made at the Mowry Canal transect. The TDEM method has been successfully used in southern Florida to locate the saltwater interface (Sonenshein, 1997; Fitterman and others, 1999; and Hittle, 1999) and lithologic boundaries (Shoemaker, 1998). The TEMIX software (Interpex Limited, 1996) was used to invert the geophysical data. The approach described by Fitterman and others (1999) was used to interpret the inverted TDEM data and determine approximate depths of the saltwater interface.

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Christian Langevin
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 3110 SW 9th Avenue
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5917
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: langevin@usgs.gov

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: SEAWAT
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: computer program
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/seawat/>
Access_Instructions:
The computer programs may be downloaded from the USGS Water Resources website.
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070212
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/metlang.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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