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Determination of Nutrient Loads to East Coast Canals

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Arthur C. Lietz (retired)
Publication_Date: 2005
Title: Determination of Nutrient Loads to East Coast Canals
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheets and text files
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/methodology/>
Description:
Abstract:
The objectives of this project were threefold: 1) to determine if historical water-quality data collected as grab samples at 0.5 and c1.0 m below the surface near the centroid of flow adequately represent stream cross-sectional chemistry, 2) to develop reliable estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads for east coast canals based on statistical models developed from utilizing the techniques of ordinary least squares regression, and 3) to summarize water-quality data and determine temporal trends for water-quality constituents at two sites that are strategic to Biscayne Bay and the south Florida ecosystem. During phase 1 of the project an intensive field sampling and data collection effort was undertaken. Depth-integrated samples were collected by the equal-width-increment method as well as grab samples at each canal. During Phase 2 data analysis was done.

Nutrient data were collected upstream of 15 coastal control structures in Miami-Dade County. Samples were collected over a typical hydrologic period during various flow conditions. Sampling began at 5 sites in May 1996 and at 10 sites in October 1996. Constituents collected included ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus.

Purpose:
Of major concern in many coastal areas around the Nation is the ecological health of bays and estuaries. A common problem in many of these areas is increased nutrient loads as a result of agricultural, commercial, industrial, and urban processes. Biscayne Bay is a shallow subtropical estuary along the southern coast of Florida. The Biscayne Bay ecosystem provides an aquatic environment that is a habitat to a diverse array of plant and animal communities. Nutrients are essential compounds for the growth and maintenance of all organisms and especially for the productivity of aquatic environments. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds are especially important to seagrass, macroalgae, and phytoplankton. However, heavy nutrient loads to bays and estuaries can result in conditions conducive to eutrophication and the attendant problems of algal blooms and high phytoplankton productivity. Additionally, reduced light penetration in the water column because of phytoplankton blooms can adversely affect seagrasses, which many commercial and sport fish rely on for their habitat. Providing reliable estimates of nonpoint source nutrient loads to Biscayne Bay is important to the development of nutrient budgets as well as input to eutrophication models. Understanding the effects of these nutrient loads is a necessary initial step in planning restoration of the ecological health of Biscayne Bay.

Nutrient data have been collected from the east coast canals for many years by various government agencies. Much of the data collected have been from grab samples at 0.5 or 1.0 meter below the stream surface near the centroid of flow. The degree to which these samples adequately represent nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations within the water column of the canals of south Florida is presently unknown and limits confidence in loading estimates. Furthermore, the relation between discharge and nutrient concentration that occurs in natural uncontrolled streams in other parts of the Nation may not apply to the artificially controlled canals of south Florida. Both of these issues need to be addressed to develop nutrient budgets and to plan effective restoration strategy now and in the future.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199605
Ending_Date: 199710
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.39
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.15
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.94
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.35
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: surface water
Theme_Keyword: water quality
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme_Keyword: nitrogen
Theme_Keyword: phosphorus
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: Snake Creek Canal at S-29
Place_Keyword: Comfort Canal at S-25
Place_Keyword: Little River Canal at S-27
Place_Keyword: Miami Canal at S-26
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Canal at S-28
Place_Keyword: Tamiami Canal at S-25B
Place_Keyword: Arch Creek at G-58
Place_Keyword: Coral Gables Canal at G-93
Place_Keyword: Cutler Drain Canal at S-123
Place_Keyword: Black Creek Canal at S-21
Place_Keyword: Princeton Canal at S-21A
Place_Keyword: Military Canal at S-206
Place_Keyword: Model Land Canal at S-20
Place_Keyword: Mowry Canal at S-20F
Place_Keyword: Snapper Creek Canal at S-22
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints: None.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Michael Byrne
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geologcial Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address:
1400 Colonial Blvd.

Suite 70, Royal Palm Square

City: Fort Myers
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33907
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 239 275-8448 ext. 10
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 239 275-6820
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mbyrne@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/lietz/locationnuts.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Nutrients Data Location Map
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/lietz/locationphy.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Water Quality Physical Parameters Data Location Map
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Excel spread sheets and ASCII text files (tab delimited)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lietz, A. C.
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Methodology for estimating nutrient loads discharged from the east coast Canals to Biscayne Bay, Miami-Dade County, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 99-4094
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://sflwww.er.usgs.gov/publications/wri/99-4094>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lietz, A. C.
Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Feasibility of Estimating Constituent Concentrations and Loads Based on Data Recorded by Acoustic Instrumentation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 02-285
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/ofr02_285_lietz.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lietz, A. C.
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Analysis of Water-Quality Trends at Two Discharge Stations - One within Big Cypress National Preserve and One near Biscayne Bay - Southern Florida, 1966-94
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: WRIR 00-4099
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/00-4099/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Lietz, A. C.

Dixon, Joann; Byrne, Michael

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Average altitude of the water table (1990-99) and frequency analysis of water levers (1974-99) in the Biscayne Aquifer, Miami-Dade County, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: OFR 02-91
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/ofr02_91_lietz.html>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The positional accuracy of the sampling sites was determined using GPS techniques and published topographic maps.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
During periods of flow, water samples were collected for the determination of nitrogen and phosphorus species that truly represent the stream cross-section. This was accomplished by collecting depth-integrated samples and point (grab) samples from mid-stream at 0.5- and 1.0-m depths for comparison. These samples were collected mostly upstream of the gated control structures at locations where most of the historical data were collected. Additionally, hydrologic data were collected concurrent with each sampling event for use in the determination of instantaneous discharge. Based on these data, statistical comparisons were made between point (grab) and depth-integrated samples, and models were developed to estimate total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads.

Depth-integrated and point (grab) samples for nutrients were collected from the gated control structures at the east coast canal sites in Miami-Dade County during periods of flow. Most of the samples were collected near low tide when the gates at the sites usually are open. Depth-integrated samples were collected by means of the equal-width-increment method, which commonly is used when a discharge measurement is not made before sampling. In this method, the width of the stream is subdivided into equal-width intervals with a sampling vertical associated with each interval.

In each cross section for the study, 8 to 10 verticals were used. The first vertical selected was half the distance of the first interval from the edge of the stream bank, and the other verticals were equally spaced apart across the stream from the first vertical. Because flow velocities of the east coast canals in Miami-Dade County are nearly always less than 2 ft/s (feet per second), the weighted-bottle method was used to collect each sample. The weighted bottle does not sample isokinetically (nozzle velocity equal to stream velocity); however, it can be used during low flows and when differences in water quality across the stream are believed to be insignificant. In the initial step, the vertical with the greatest velocity is selected; the weighted bottle is then lowered and raised at a constant rate so that it is not overfilled when returned to the surface. For each specific site, this transit rate was maintained throughout for all the verticals in the cross section, and a sample from each vertical was composited in a churn splitter for processing. The transit rate as well as the nozzle size was varied for each specific site in order to prevent overfilling of the bottle.

During sample processing, the water in the churn was stirred by the churn disc at a rate of about 9 in/s (inches per second) to minimize error, with care being exercised to prevent the churn disc from breaking the surface. A total of 125 mL (milliliters) of this composite sample was siphoned off into an amber polyethylene bottle, chilled immediately, and within 48 hours was shipped to the USGS Water Quality Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., for analysis. The constituents determined were total organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate. A point (grab) sample was collected concurrently with each depth-integrated sample. Point (grab) samples, depending on the site, were collected at 0.5 or 1.0 m below the surface near the centroid of flow by using a Niskin bottle. This bottle is spring loaded so that a messenger can trip it shut at the appropriate depth. After collection of the point (grab) sample, 125 mL of the sample was transferred from the Niskin bottle into an amber polyethylene bottle, chilled, and shipped for analysis according to protocol.

Before each sampling trip, the Niskin bottle, weighted bottle, and churn splitter were cleaned with a dilute nonphosphate detergent and then rinsed with tap water followed by deionized water. Two rinses with native water were required for the samplers before sample collection at each east coast canal site. Between sampling sites, the samplers were rinsed with deionized water before being rinsed with native water.

To ensure the integrity of the field data collected for the study, quality assurance samples (equipment blanks, field blanks, and split samples) were used extensively in the data-collection phase. Blank solutions essentially are samples free of the analytes being determined in the environmental samples. An equipment blank is a blank solution that is processed through all of the equipment used in the collection and processing of the environmental samples. Field blanks are actually equipment blanks done in the field and are subject to all aspects of the data-collection efforts as the environmental samples, including processing, preservation, transport, and laboratory handling. Two types of field and equipment blanks were used: one for the Niskin bottle and the other for the weighted bottle and churn splitter. These two field blank solutions consisted of inorganic blank water prepared at the USGS Water Quality Service Unit and were processed and analyzed according to protocol. Analytical results from the equipment blanks and field blanks indicated that most of the concentrations for the individual nitrogen and phosphorus species were below the detection limits for the analytical methods.

Split samples were collected concurrently by the USGS and DERM to verify interlaboratory accuracy. The sampling data consisted of point (grab) samples that were collected from the same Niskin bottle by both agencies. The samples were sent to the USGS Water Quality Service Unit and to the DERM laboratory for analysis.

Process_Date: 1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Michael Byrne
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geologcial Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address:
1400 Colonial Blvd.

Suite 70, Royal Palm Square

City: Fort Myers
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33907
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 239 275-8448 ext. 10
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 239 275-6820
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: mbyrne@usgs.gov

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.01
Longitude_Resolution: 0.01
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The data collected for nutrients at each site include station name, station id, date, time, water temperature, pH reading, specific conductance, oxygen dissolved, distance from left bank, and sampling depth.

Data collected for water-quality include nitrogen organic total, nitrogen ammonia total, nitrogen AMM+ORG total, nitrogen nitrite total, nitrogen nitrate total, nitrogen nitrite+nitrate total, phosphorus total, and orthophosphorus total..

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Nutrients data
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII text
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: tab-delimited
Format_Information_Content:
Data may be downloaded as one file for all sites or individual data files
Transfer_Size: 0.032
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/lietz/lietznuts.html>
Access_Instructions: data may be downloaded form the SOFIA web site
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: 2000
Format_Information_Content:
The data may be downloaded as one file for all sites or as individual files
Transfer_Size: 0.084
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/lietz/lietznuts.html>
Access_Instructions: data may be downloaded from the SOFIA web site
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: water quality physical parameters
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: 2000
Format_Information_Content:
The data may be downloaded as one file for all sites or as individual files
Transfer_Size: 0.032
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/lietz/lietzphy.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: tab-delimited
Format_Information_Content:
The data may be downloaded as one file for all sites or as individual files
Transfer_Size: 0.012
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/lietz/lietzphy.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070214
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/metlietz.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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