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Canal and Wetland Flow/Transport Interaction

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Canal and Wetland Flow/Transport Interaction
Abstract:
Significant canal and wetland flow exchanges can potentially occur along the southwest overbank area of canal C-111 between hydraulic control structures S-18C and S-197. This coupled flow system is of particular concern to restoration efforts in that it provides a pathway for fresh water to nearshore embayments in Florida Bay. New construction modifications and operational strategies proposed for C-111 under the Central and Southern Florida "Restudy" Project are intended to enhance sheet flow to these subtidal embayments. The objectives of the canal and wetland flow/transport interaction project were to (1) develop numerical techniques and algorithms to facilitate the coupling of existing generic models for improved simulation of canal and wetland interactions, (2) translate recent findings of ongoing process studies within the South Florida Ecosystem Program (SFEP) into new mathematical formulations, empirical expressions, and numerical approximations to enhance generic simulation model capabilities for the south Florida ecosystem, (3) investigate new instrument capabilities and field deployment approaches to collect the refined data needed to identify and quantify the important flow-controlling forces and landscape features for model implementation, (4) integrate process-study findings and the results of physiographic mapping and remote sensing efforts specific to the C-111 basin into a numerical simulation model of the interconnected canal and wetland flow system, and (5) use the resultant model and data to study, evaluate, and demonstrate the significance of driving forces relative to controlling flow exchanges between canal C-111 and its bordering wetlands.

Discharge data for Tamiami Canal are also available for water years 1986-1999, 2000, and 2001.

Supplemental_Information:
This project ended in 1999. Related work can be found at <http://time.er.usgs.gov/>.

For additional information about this project contact either: Eric Swain, edswain@usgs.gov, 954 377-5925 or Chris Langevin, langevin@usgs.gov, 954 377-5917

  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Raymond W. Schaffranek (retired), 2005, Canal and Wetland Flow/Transport Interaction.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.6
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.4
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.35
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.25

  3. What does it look like?

    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/geer/2000/posters/c111/images/locationmapx.jpg> (JPEG)
    location of study area
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/locationflow.html> (JPEG)
    velocity data location maps
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/locationQW.html> (JPEG)
    water quality data location maps
    <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/telis/locationdischarge.html> (GIF)
    map showing location of the sampling stations along the Tamiami Canal

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: 23-Sep-1997
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: text files, spreadsheets

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades National Park

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 17
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -81
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
      False_Easting: 500000
      False_Northing: 0

      Planar coordinates are encoded using Coordinate Pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 1
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1983.
      The ellipsoid used is Geodetic Reference System 80.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
    Parameters recorded for water quality include temperature (degrees C), salinity (ppt), and conductivity (mS/cm) for all collection dates. In 1997 dissolved oxygen (mg/l) and pH were also recorded

    Parameters recorded for velocity data on all dates include depth (m), velocity (cm/s) and flow direction (from magnetic north)

    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Raymond W. Schaffranek (retired)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Data were collected by Marvin Franklin, Gina Tillis, Paul Meadows, Darlene Blum, Harry Jenter, and Ray Schaffranek.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dan Nowacki
    U.S. Geological Survey
    430 National Center
    Reston, VA 20192
    USA

    703 648-5467 (voice)
    dnowacki@usgs.gov


Why was the data set created?

A complex network of canals, levees, and control structures, designed to control flooding and provide a continuous supply of fresh water for household and agricultural use, has altered naturally occurring flow patterns through the Everglades and into Florida Bay. Quantification of dynamic flow conditions within the south Florida ecosystem is vital to assessing implications of the residence time of water, potentially nutrient-enriched (with nitrates or phosphates) or contaminant-laden (with metals or pesticides), that can alter plant life and affect biological communities. Improved numerical techniques are needed not only to more accurately evaluate discrete forces governing flow in the canals and wetlands but also to analyze their complex interaction in order to facilitate coupled representation of transport processes. Flow and transport processes are integrally linked meaning that precise quantification of the fluid dynamics is required to accurately evaluate the transport of waterborne constituents. Robust models that employ highly accurate numerical methods to invoke coupled solution of the most appropriately formulated and representative equations governing flow and transport processes are needed. Through strategic use of a model, cause-and-effect relations between discharge sources, flow magnitudes, transport processes, and changes in vegetation and biota can be systematically investigated. The effects of driving forces on nutrient cycling and contaminant transport can then be quantified, evaluated, and more effectively factored into the development of remedial management plans. A well-developed model can be used to evaluate newly devised plans to improve freshwater deliveries to Florida Bay prior to implementation.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1999 (process 1 of 1)
    Velocity Data Collection

    Flow velocities in the C-111 wetlands were measured using portable Acoustic Doppler Velocity (ADV) meters that determine velocity components in the East, North, and Up directions (ENU). The ADV meter consists of a measuring probe attached to a signal-conditioning module, which is cabled to a processing unit equipped with a serial interface to a portable computer. The meter measures the frequency shift between a short acoustic pulse of known frequency and its reflectance from particles moving with the flow of water. The scattering strength of the acoustic signal is a function of particle size and concentration within the sampling volume. The particular ADV meter used (Sontek, 1997) operates internally at an acoustic frequency of 10 MHz with a programmable sampling rate ranging from 0.1 to 25 Hz, producing multiple individual velocity readings, referred to as velocity pings. The ADV meter measures the flow in a remote sampling volume, approximately 0.25 cm3, to a resolution of 0.1 mm/s. Water temperature and salinity, measured independently, are input to the ADV meter processor to compute the speed of sound, which is used to convert Doppler frequency shift to flow velocity. With an optional magnetic compass and tilt sensor, the instrument processor internally converts velocity measurements to an East, North, and Up coordinate system. Data conversion programs supplied by the instrument manufacturer (Sontek, 1997) produce four output text files from the binary data file recorded by the processing unit of the ADV meter: control, velocity, correlation, and signal to noise ratio (SNR) files. The control file contains the water-quality parameters and instrument-specific information used to calculate velocity components as well as site-specific data for identification purposes (fig. 2). The velocity file contains the velocity component values for each ping. A correlation value for each ping, which is a general data quality parameter expressed as a percent that can identify poor data resulting from a variety of factors, such as an instrument malfunction or a fouled probe, is output to the correlation file. The SNR file contains a value for each ping that identifies the signal strength during the measurement, calculated as signal amplitude subtracted from signal noise level and expressed in decibel (dB) units (Sontek, 1997).

    In 1997, flow measurements generally were made at five locations spaced at variable intervals along nine transects oriented southwestward and perpendicular to the canal. In 1999, measurements were repeated at five of these transects and collected along one new transect, perpendicular to the canal at the S18-C control structure. Flow measurements also were made on two new transects along the ENP boundary to the south and west of C-111, one oriented north-south and the other east-west. In 1997, data were collected and recorded in the U.S. Customary System units whereas in 1999 International System (SI) units were used. For reader convenience and use, summary statistics for data collected in 1997 have been converted to SI units in this report. At all measurement sites, velocities generally were sampled at 10 Hz in two-minute bursts consisting of 1200 individual velocity pings. In September 1997, velocities were measured at 0.8d, 0.6d, and 0.2d, where d is total depth from the water surface to the top of the litter layer. In September 1999, velocities were measured at 0.8d, 0.5d, and 0.2d. At sites where the water depth was less than 15 cm, only a mid-depth velocity measurement was made. In 1997, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and pH were measured, always at mid-depth. In 1999, only temperature, salinity, and conductivity were measured. In both years, visual observations of vegetation characteristics (type, density, and height) were noted and recorded at each site. These flow-velocity data were collected to analyze regional surface-water flow patterns in the C-111 wetlands and to compute discharge fluxes across basin boundaries. The data were processed, as described in this report, specifically for these purposes and are not intended, nor are they necessarily suitable, for use in other applications.

    After the preliminary data reduction, two techniques were used to process the data. The first data-processing technique was the application of an automated filtering program to identify velocity pings of poor signal quality and the second technique was the visual inspection of plotted data and the analysis of velocity standard deviation. The filtering criteria used in the automated program are those suggested by the ADV meter manufacturer to identify suspect data due to poor signal quality (Sontek, 1997). The analysis of velocity standard deviation and visual inspection of plotted data were used as a secondary processing technique to identify additional suspect data presumably caused by perturbations in the water column rather than poor signal quality. The first data-processing technique, the automated filtering program, is designed to remove velocity pings with a correlation value less than 70% or SNR value less than 5 dB. (A correlation value above 70% and an SNR greater than 15 dB at 25 Hz and greater than 5 dB at 0.1 Hz are suggested indicators of good acoustic signal quality (Sontek, 1997).) The automated filtering program consists of two functions. The first function calculates component-averages of correlation and SNR values for each ping, whereas the second function uses single-component values for each ping. The first function identifies component-averaged correlation or SNR values that do not meet the above criteria, removes the three velocity components of that ping from the data set, and recalculates the component-velocity average and standard deviation. The second function of the filtering program identifies any single-component correlation or SNR value that does not meet the criteria, removes the identified velocity component of that ping from the data set, and recalculates the component-velocity average and standard deviation (see example in table 2). For the C-111 data processed herein, only results of the single-component filter are tabulated for comparison to values calculated from the raw data. (See Appendix A for data collected in 1997 and Appendix B for data collected in 1999). The second data-processing technique, designed for the C-111 data, combines the visual inspection of plots of component velocities and their 21-point running averages plotted at each depth with the analysis of velocity standard deviation. Inspection of the plots and velocity standard deviation can reveal the presence of large scatter or trends in the data generally not detected by the automated filtering process.

    For both years, slightly more than half of the data sets included pings that did not pass the criteria of the single-component filter in the automated program. However, in many of those data sets only a few pings failed and the majority of the data sets evidenced little change in recalculated velocity magnitude and flow direction.

    For flow-velocity analysis of the C-111 canal and adjacent wetlands, resultant velocity magnitude in the horizontal plane and vector-averaged flow direction, relative to magnetic north, were calculated for each site.

    Water Quality data Collection Collection of flow data in the canal C-111 overbank and adjacent wetland area began in September 1997 near the conclusion of the spoil removal efforts. Data were collected along 9 to 12 transect lines covering the 7.1-km segment of C-111 beginning 1.1 km north of US Hwy 1 bridge and ending 2 km south of S-18C. Transects originate at locations on the southwest bank of the canal opposite culverts under the levee road on the northeast bank and extend normal to the canal approximately 1.5 km into the adjacent wetlands. Transects lines are numbered 1 through 9 beginning with the culvert nearest US Hwy 1 bridge. Measurement sites are spaced at variable-length intervals along the transect lines.

    Five basic water-quality parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and salinity) were collected at each site having sufficient depth using a Hydrolab multi-parameter sensor positioned at mid-depth.

    For a more complete description of data collection, processing, and analysis, see OFR 00-56, Flow-Velocity Data Collected in the Wetlands Adjacent to Canal C-111 in South Florida During 1997 AND 1999.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dan Nowacki
    U.S. Geological Survey
    430 National Center
    Reston, VA 20192
    USA

    703 648-5467 (voice)
    dnowacki@usgs.gov

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Ball, M. H. Schaffranek, R. W., 2000, Flow-Velocity Data Collected in the Wetlands Adjacent to Canal C-111 in South Florida during 1997 and 1999: USGS Open-File Report 00-56, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Schaffranek, R, W., 1999, Hydrologic Studies in Support of South Florida Ecosystem Restoration: Proceedings ASCE 2000 Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management none, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.

    Online Links:

    Sontek, 1997, Sontek ADV acoustic Doppler velocimeter technical documentation: Sontek, San Diego, CA.


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    Parameters for water quality recorded for sites in 1997 include temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and pH. In 1999 only temperature, salinity and conductivity were recorded.

    Parameters for velocity for 1997 and 1999 include depth, velocity, and flow direction.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Locations for sites sampled in 1997 are shown in latitude and longitude. Locations for the 1999 sites are in UTM coordinates. The summary reports for velocity for 1997 and 1999 have all coordinates converted to UTM easting and northing.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 3)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    velocity data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: Files are available for individual collection dates as well as velocity data site summaries, velocity data quality, and raw and filtered data comparisons in format MS Excel (version unknown)
      Network links: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/schafflow.html>

    • Cost to order the data: none


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 2 of 3)

    Heather S.Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth St. South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    hhenkel@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    water quality data

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 3 of 3)

    Heather Henkel
    U.S. Geological Survey
    600 Fourth Street South
    St. Petersburg, FL 33701
    USA

    727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
    727 803-2030 (FAX)
    sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    discharge data (Tamiami Canal)

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Jan-2008
Metadata author:
Heather Henkel
U.S. Geological Survey
600 Fourth Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
USA

727 803-8747 ext 3028 (voice)
727 803-2030 (FAX)
sofia-metadata@usgs.gov

Metadata standard:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/metschaf.faq.html>

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