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Canal and Wetland Flow/Transport Interaction

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Raymond W. Schaffranek (retired)
Publication_Date: 2005
Title: Canal and Wetland Flow/Transport Interaction
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: text files, spreadsheets
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/coupling_mdls/>
Description:
Abstract:
Significant canal and wetland flow exchanges can potentially occur along the southwest overbank area of canal C-111 between hydraulic control structures S-18C and S-197. This coupled flow system is of particular concern to restoration efforts in that it provides a pathway for fresh water to nearshore embayments in Florida Bay. New construction modifications and operational strategies proposed for C-111 under the Central and Southern Florida "Restudy" Project are intended to enhance sheet flow to these subtidal embayments. The objectives of the canal and wetland flow/transport interaction project were to (1) develop numerical techniques and algorithms to facilitate the coupling of existing generic models for improved simulation of canal and wetland interactions, (2) translate recent findings of ongoing process studies within the South Florida Ecosystem Program (SFEP) into new mathematical formulations, empirical expressions, and numerical approximations to enhance generic simulation model capabilities for the south Florida ecosystem, (3) investigate new instrument capabilities and field deployment approaches to collect the refined data needed to identify and quantify the important flow-controlling forces and landscape features for model implementation, (4) integrate process-study findings and the results of physiographic mapping and remote sensing efforts specific to the C-111 basin into a numerical simulation model of the interconnected canal and wetland flow system, and (5) use the resultant model and data to study, evaluate, and demonstrate the significance of driving forces relative to controlling flow exchanges between canal C-111 and its bordering wetlands.

Discharge data for Tamiami Canal are also available for water years 1986-1999, 2000, and 2001.

Purpose:
A complex network of canals, levees, and control structures, designed to control flooding and provide a continuous supply of fresh water for household and agricultural use, has altered naturally occurring flow patterns through the Everglades and into Florida Bay. Quantification of dynamic flow conditions within the south Florida ecosystem is vital to assessing implications of the residence time of water, potentially nutrient-enriched (with nitrates or phosphates) or contaminant-laden (with metals or pesticides), that can alter plant life and affect biological communities. Improved numerical techniques are needed not only to more accurately evaluate discrete forces governing flow in the canals and wetlands but also to analyze their complex interaction in order to facilitate coupled representation of transport processes. Flow and transport processes are integrally linked meaning that precise quantification of the fluid dynamics is required to accurately evaluate the transport of waterborne constituents. Robust models that employ highly accurate numerical methods to invoke coupled solution of the most appropriately formulated and representative equations governing flow and transport processes are needed. Through strategic use of a model, cause-and-effect relations between discharge sources, flow magnitudes, transport processes, and changes in vegetation and biota can be systematically investigated. The effects of driving forces on nutrient cycling and contaminant transport can then be quantified, evaluated, and more effectively factored into the development of remedial management plans. A well-developed model can be used to evaluate newly devised plans to improve freshwater deliveries to Florida Bay prior to implementation.
Supplemental_Information:
This project ended in 1999. Related work can be found at <http://time.er.usgs.gov/>.

For additional information about this project contact either: Eric Swain, edswain@usgs.gov, 954 377-5925 or Chris Langevin, langevin@usgs.gov, 954 377-5917

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Multiple_Dates/Times:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19970923
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19970926
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19990920
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19990922
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19990923
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.6
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.4
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.35
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: model
Theme_Keyword: flow models
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: freshwater flow
Theme_Keyword: tidal effects
Theme_Keyword: salinity
Theme_Keyword: contaminants
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: chemistry
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Joe Bay
Place_Keyword: Long Sound
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: C-111 Canal
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dan Nowacki
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5467
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dnowacki@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/geer/2000/posters/c111/images/locationmapx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: location of study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/locationflow.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: velocity data location maps
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/locationQW.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: water quality data location maps
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/telis/locationdischarge.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing location of the sampling stations along the Tamiami Canal
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
Data were collected by Marvin Franklin, Gina Tillis, Paul Meadows, Darlene Blum, Harry Jenter, and Ray Schaffranek.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: ASCII comma-separated values (.csv) text files and MS Excel
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Ball, M. H.

Schaffranek, R. W.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Flow-Velocity Data Collected in the Wetlands Adjacent to Canal C-111 in South Florida during 1997 and 1999
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-56
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-56>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Schaffranek, R, W.
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Hydrologic Studies in Support of South Florida Ecosystem Restoration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Proceedings ASCE 2000 Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management
Issue_Identification: none
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/hydrostudies/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Sontek
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: Sontek ADV acoustic Doppler velocimeter technical documentation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: technical instructions
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: San Diego, CA
Publisher: Sontek

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Locations for sites sampled in 1997 are shown in latitude and longitude. Locations for the 1999 sites are in UTM coordinates. The summary reports for velocity for 1997 and 1999 have all coordinates converted to UTM easting and northing.
Completeness_Report:
Parameters for water quality recorded for sites in 1997 include temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and pH. In 1999 only temperature, salinity and conductivity were recorded.

Parameters for velocity for 1997 and 1999 include depth, velocity, and flow direction.

Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Velocity Data Collection

Flow velocities in the C-111 wetlands were measured using portable Acoustic Doppler Velocity (ADV) meters that determine velocity components in the East, North, and Up directions (ENU). The ADV meter consists of a measuring probe attached to a signal-conditioning module, which is cabled to a processing unit equipped with a serial interface to a portable computer. The meter measures the frequency shift between a short acoustic pulse of known frequency and its reflectance from particles moving with the flow of water. The scattering strength of the acoustic signal is a function of particle size and concentration within the sampling volume. The particular ADV meter used (Sontek, 1997) operates internally at an acoustic frequency of 10 MHz with a programmable sampling rate ranging from 0.1 to 25 Hz, producing multiple individual velocity readings, referred to as velocity pings. The ADV meter measures the flow in a remote sampling volume, approximately 0.25 cm3, to a resolution of 0.1 mm/s. Water temperature and salinity, measured independently, are input to the ADV meter processor to compute the speed of sound, which is used to convert Doppler frequency shift to flow velocity. With an optional magnetic compass and tilt sensor, the instrument processor internally converts velocity measurements to an East, North, and Up coordinate system. Data conversion programs supplied by the instrument manufacturer (Sontek, 1997) produce four output text files from the binary data file recorded by the processing unit of the ADV meter: control, velocity, correlation, and signal to noise ratio (SNR) files. The control file contains the water-quality parameters and instrument-specific information used to calculate velocity components as well as site-specific data for identification purposes (fig. 2). The velocity file contains the velocity component values for each ping. A correlation value for each ping, which is a general data quality parameter expressed as a percent that can identify poor data resulting from a variety of factors, such as an instrument malfunction or a fouled probe, is output to the correlation file. The SNR file contains a value for each ping that identifies the signal strength during the measurement, calculated as signal amplitude subtracted from signal noise level and expressed in decibel (dB) units (Sontek, 1997).

In 1997, flow measurements generally were made at five locations spaced at variable intervals along nine transects oriented southwestward and perpendicular to the canal. In 1999, measurements were repeated at five of these transects and collected along one new transect, perpendicular to the canal at the S18-C control structure. Flow measurements also were made on two new transects along the ENP boundary to the south and west of C-111, one oriented north-south and the other east-west. In 1997, data were collected and recorded in the U.S. Customary System units whereas in 1999 International System (SI) units were used. For reader convenience and use, summary statistics for data collected in 1997 have been converted to SI units in this report. At all measurement sites, velocities generally were sampled at 10 Hz in two-minute bursts consisting of 1200 individual velocity pings. In September 1997, velocities were measured at 0.8d, 0.6d, and 0.2d, where d is total depth from the water surface to the top of the litter layer. In September 1999, velocities were measured at 0.8d, 0.5d, and 0.2d. At sites where the water depth was less than 15 cm, only a mid-depth velocity measurement was made. In 1997, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and pH were measured, always at mid-depth. In 1999, only temperature, salinity, and conductivity were measured. In both years, visual observations of vegetation characteristics (type, density, and height) were noted and recorded at each site. These flow-velocity data were collected to analyze regional surface-water flow patterns in the C-111 wetlands and to compute discharge fluxes across basin boundaries. The data were processed, as described in this report, specifically for these purposes and are not intended, nor are they necessarily suitable, for use in other applications.

After the preliminary data reduction, two techniques were used to process the data. The first data-processing technique was the application of an automated filtering program to identify velocity pings of poor signal quality and the second technique was the visual inspection of plotted data and the analysis of velocity standard deviation. The filtering criteria used in the automated program are those suggested by the ADV meter manufacturer to identify suspect data due to poor signal quality (Sontek, 1997). The analysis of velocity standard deviation and visual inspection of plotted data were used as a secondary processing technique to identify additional suspect data presumably caused by perturbations in the water column rather than poor signal quality. The first data-processing technique, the automated filtering program, is designed to remove velocity pings with a correlation value less than 70% or SNR value less than 5 dB. (A correlation value above 70% and an SNR greater than 15 dB at 25 Hz and greater than 5 dB at 0.1 Hz are suggested indicators of good acoustic signal quality (Sontek, 1997).) The automated filtering program consists of two functions. The first function calculates component-averages of correlation and SNR values for each ping, whereas the second function uses single-component values for each ping. The first function identifies component-averaged correlation or SNR values that do not meet the above criteria, removes the three velocity components of that ping from the data set, and recalculates the component-velocity average and standard deviation. The second function of the filtering program identifies any single-component correlation or SNR value that does not meet the criteria, removes the identified velocity component of that ping from the data set, and recalculates the component-velocity average and standard deviation (see example in table 2). For the C-111 data processed herein, only results of the single-component filter are tabulated for comparison to values calculated from the raw data. (See Appendix A for data collected in 1997 and Appendix B for data collected in 1999). The second data-processing technique, designed for the C-111 data, combines the visual inspection of plots of component velocities and their 21-point running averages plotted at each depth with the analysis of velocity standard deviation. Inspection of the plots and velocity standard deviation can reveal the presence of large scatter or trends in the data generally not detected by the automated filtering process.

For both years, slightly more than half of the data sets included pings that did not pass the criteria of the single-component filter in the automated program. However, in many of those data sets only a few pings failed and the majority of the data sets evidenced little change in recalculated velocity magnitude and flow direction.

For flow-velocity analysis of the C-111 canal and adjacent wetlands, resultant velocity magnitude in the horizontal plane and vector-averaged flow direction, relative to magnetic north, were calculated for each site.

Water Quality data Collection Collection of flow data in the canal C-111 overbank and adjacent wetland area began in September 1997 near the conclusion of the spoil removal efforts. Data were collected along 9 to 12 transect lines covering the 7.1-km segment of C-111 beginning 1.1 km north of US Hwy 1 bridge and ending 2 km south of S-18C. Transects originate at locations on the southwest bank of the canal opposite culverts under the levee road on the northeast bank and extend normal to the canal approximately 1.5 km into the adjacent wetlands. Transects lines are numbered 1 through 9 beginning with the culvert nearest US Hwy 1 bridge. Measurement sites are spaced at variable-length intervals along the transect lines.

Five basic water-quality parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and salinity) were collected at each site having sufficient depth using a Hydrolab multi-parameter sensor positioned at mid-depth.

For a more complete description of data collection, processing, and analysis, see OFR 00-56, Flow-Velocity Data Collected in the Wetlands Adjacent to Canal C-111 in South Florida During 1997 AND 1999.

Process_Date: 1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dan Nowacki
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5467
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dnowacki@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades National Park

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 17
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -81
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 1
Ordinate_Resolution: 1
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Parameters recorded for water quality include temperature (degrees C), salinity (ppt), and conductivity (mS/cm) for all collection dates. In 1997 dissolved oxygen (mg/l) and pH were also recorded

Parameters recorded for velocity data on all dates include depth (m), velocity (cm/s) and flow direction (from magnetic north)

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: velocity data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
Files are available for individual collection dates as well as velocity data site summaries, velocity data quality, and raw and filtered data comparisons
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/schafflow.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: water quality data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ASCII
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: comma separated values
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/schaffranek/schafQW.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: discharge data (Tamiami Canal)
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content: data is available by water year for the sites
Transfer_Size: 0.74
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/telis/telisdischarge.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20080107
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/metschaf.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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