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Comprehensive Monitoring Plan for Snail Kites and Apple Snails in the Greater Everglades

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Wiley M. Kitchens
Originator: Robert Fletcher
Originator: Christa Zweig
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title:
Comprehensive Monitoring Plan for Snail Kites and Apple Snails in the Greater Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Maps and Data
Online_Linkage:
https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=mpkites_snails
Description:
Abstract:
The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is a wetland-dependent raptor feeding almost exclusively on a single species of aquatic snail, the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa). The viability of the kite population is dependent on the hydrologic conditions (both short-term and long-term) that (1) maintain sufficient abundances and densities of apple snails, and (2) provide suitable conditions for snail kite foraging and nesting, which include specific vegetative community compositions. Many wetlands comprising its range are no longer sustained by the natural processes under which they evolved (USFWS 1999, RECOVER 2005), and not necessarily characteristic of the historical ecosystems that once supported the kite population (Bennetts and Kitchens 1999, Martin et al. 2008). Natural resource managers currently lack a fully integrative approach to managing hydrology and vegetative communities with respect to the apple snail and snail kite populations.

At this point in time the kite population is approximately 1,218 birds (Cattau et al 2012), down from approximately 4000 birds in 1999. It is imperative to improve our understanding hydrological conditions effecting kite reproduction and recruitment. Water Conservation area 3-A, WCA3A, is one of the 'most critical' wetlands comprising the range of the kite in Florida (see Bennetts and Kitchens 1997, Mooij et al. 2002, Martin et al. 2006, 2008). Snail kite reproduction in WCA3A sharply decreased after 1998 (Martin et al. 2008), and alarmingly, no kites were fledged there in 2001, 2005, 2007, or 2008. Bowling (20098) found that juvenile movement probabilities away (emigrating) from WCA3A were significantly higher for the few kites that did fledge there in recent years (i.e. 2003, 2004, 2006) compared to those that fledged there in the 1990s. The paucity of reproduction in and the high probability of juveniles emigrating from WCA3A are likely indicative of habitat degradation (Bowling 20098, Martin et al. 2008), which may stem, at least in part, from a shift in water management regimes (Zweig and Kitchens 2008).

Given the recent demographic trends in snail kite population, the need for a comprehensive conservation strategy is imperative; however, information gaps currently preclude our ability to simultaneously manage the hydrology in WCA3A with respect to vegetation, snails, and kites. While there have been significant efforts in filling critical information gaps regarding snail kite demography (e.g., Martin et al. 2008) and variation in apple snail density to water management issues (e.g., Darby et al. 2002, Karunaratne et al. 2006, Darby et al. 2008), there is surprisingly very little information relevant for management that directly links variation in apple snail density with the demography and behavior of snail kites (but see Bennetts et al. 2006). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) have increasingly sought information pertaining to the potential effects of specific hydrological management regimes with respect to the apple snail and snail kite populations, as well as the vegetative communities that support them.
Purpose:
The following objectives of the proposed work are meant to directly address these critical gaps:

To determine how hydrology, habitat quality, and prey density affect snail availability for foraging and nesting snail kites.

To determine how snail availability affects kite foraging success, and nest and foraging site selection.

To determine how snail availability affects nest success and recruitment.

To determine the role of kite foraging success and nest and foraging site selection on nest success and recruitment.

To determine kite foraging habitat quality within foraging polygons and determine its relationship to hydrology and vegetation communities.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2010
Ending_Date: 2015
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Greater Everglades and Everglades National Park, Florida, USA
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.6
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.6
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 27.6
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.00000
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Everglades
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: vegetation
Theme_Keyword: coastal vegetation
Theme_Keyword: habitat suitability index models
Theme_Keyword: habitat quality
Theme_Keyword: foraging
Theme_Keyword: nesting
Theme_Keyword: recruitment
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword: Environment
Theme_Keyword: Inland waters
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Collier
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade
Place_Keyword: Monroe
Place_Keyword: St. Lucie
Place_Keyword: Martin
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach
Place_Keyword: Broward
Place_Keyword: Hendry
Place_Keyword: Glades
Place_Keyword: Okeechobee
Place_Keyword: Highlands
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_Keywords: animals
Taxonomic_Keywords: invertebrates
Taxonomic_Keywords: snails
Taxonomic_Keywords: birds
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chordata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Vertebrata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Aves
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Accipitriformes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Accipitridae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rostrhamus
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rostrhamus sociabilis
Applicable_Common_Name: Snail Kite
Applicable_Common_Name: Milan des marais
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Mollusca
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Gastropoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Prosobranchia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Architaenioglossa
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ampullariidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pomacea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Pomacea paludosa
Applicable_Common_Name: Florida applesnail
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Cite primary authors and database when using or publishing these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Wiley M. Kitchens
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: P.O. Box 110485
Address: University of Florida
City: Gainesville
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 32611-0485
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (352) 392-1861
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (352) 392-1707
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: kitchensw@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
Organization: University of Florida

Organization: Florida Fish and Wildlife Cooperative Research Unit

Individual: Phil Darby, University of West Florida
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Bennetts, R.E. & W.M. Kitchens
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: The demography and movements of snail kites in Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Technical Report
Issue_Identification: 56, 169pp
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey/Biological Resources Division, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Bennetts, R.E. & W.M. Kitchens
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: Within year patterns of snail kite survival in Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Field Ornithology
Issue_Identification: 70(2):268-275
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Bennetts, R.E., P.C. Darby, and L.B. Karunaratne
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Foraging patch selection by snail kites in response to vegetation structure and prey abundance and availability
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Waterbirds
Issue_Identification: 29:88-94
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Bowling, A.
Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
Effects of habitat degradation on monthly movements of juvenile snail kites
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Other_Citation_Details: MS Thesis
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cattau, C.E., B. Reichert, W. Kitchens, R. Fletcher Jr., J. Olbert, K. PIas, E. Robertson, R. Wilcox and C. Zweig
Publication_Date: 2012
Title: Snail Kite Demography Annual Report
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Gainsville, FL
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Universtiy of Florida
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Darby, P.C., R.E. Bennetts, S.J. Miller, and H.F. Percival
Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Movements of Florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: 22:489-498
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Darby, P.C., R.E. Bennetts, and H.F. Percival
Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
Dry down impacts on apple snail demography: implications for wetlands water management.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: 22:204-214
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Karunaratne, L.B., P.C. Darby, and R.E. Bennetts
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
The effects of wetland habitat structure on Florida apple snail density.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: 26:1143-1150
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Martin, J., J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, and W. M. Kitchens
Publication_Date: 2006
Title:
Multiscale patterns of movement in fragmented landscapes and consequences on demography of the snail kite in Florida.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Animal Ecology
Issue_Identification: 75(2):527-539
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Martin J., Kitchens. W.M., Cattau, C.E. & Oli, M.K
Publication_Date: 2011
Title:
Relative importance of natural disturbances and habitat degradation on snail kite population dynamics
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: ESR
Issue_Identification: 6:25-39
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Mooij, W. M., R. E. Bennets, W. M. Kitchens and D. L. DeAngelis
Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Exploring the effect of drought extent and interval on the Florida snail kite: interplay between spatial and temporal scales.
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ecological Modelling
Issue_Identification: 149:25-39
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: RECOVER
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
The RECOVER team's recommendations for interim targets for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: West Palm Beach, FL
Publisher:
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and South Florida Water Management District
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: USFWS
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: South Florida multi-species recovery plan
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Atlanta, GA
Publisher: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Zweig, C.L. & W.M. Kitchens
Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: information for large-scale restoration
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: 28:1086-1096
Analytical_Tool:
Analytical_Tool_Description: Program R Statistical Software
Tool_Access_Information:
Tool_Access_Instructions: Program R is available at http://www.r-project.org/

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Researchers performed instrument calibrations and spot checked data and spreadsheet macros for outliers.
Logical_Consistency_Report: Not applicable
Completeness_Report:
All years are represented but not all sights are represented each year (collection location depends on the activity of the birds each season)
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Before each survey period a reference point is calculated with the field equipment (range finder, GPS and digital compass). This point can then be used later to correct location data points.
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Identifier:
Methodology_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Methodology_Keyword: foraging observations
Methodology_Keyword: home range estimation
Methodology_Keyword: vegetation sampling
Methodology_Description:
We focus our foraging observations on breeding snail kites. Upon locating a nest, we randomly assigned one tending adult (either the male or female) as the focal individual. We then revisited nests on multiple occasions to perform foraging observations of the focal individual, returning every three to four days as long as the nest had not failed or fledged young. Since many focal individuals were unmarked, we used the presence of an adult of the proper sex (dimorphic plumage) at respective nests to uniquely identify focal individuals. If the focal bird was at the nest site upon our arrival, we initiated a 60-minute observation period immediately. If the focal bird was not at the nest upon our arrival, we waited for it to return to the nest to confirm its identity then started a 60-minute observation period when the bird next left the nest. We recorded the length of time (to the nearest second) of pertinent activities (e.g., course hunting, prey handling, perching, flying, sitting on nest). We recorded spatial locations of perches, snail capture points, and attempted capture points using a rangefinder and digital compass, and we identified the dominant vegetation type at each of these points. We also collected submersed and emergent vegetation at snail capture points using 0.5 m2 quadrats. After identifying and sorting plant samples to the species level, we counted the number of stems and took the wet weight for each species in the sample.
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Darby, P.C., J.D. Croop, R.E. Bennetts, P.L. Valentine-Darby, and W.M. Kitchens
Publication_Date: 2009
Title:
A comparison of sampling techniques for quantifying abundance of the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa, Say).
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Molluscan Studies
Issue_Identification: 65:195-208
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Dufrene, M. and P. Legendre
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Species assemblages and indicator species: The need for a flexible asymmetrical approach
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ecological Monographs
Issue_Identification: 67:345-366
Methodology_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: McCune, B. and M. J. Mefford
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Publication
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Glenden Beach, OR
Publisher: MJM Software
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The spatial points were used to calculate 95% kernel polygons using ABODE in ArcGIS 9.3. Home ranges were only calculated for birds with more than two observation periods and more than 10 spatial points. These polygons and the associated foraging points were provided to Dr. Phil Darby, and he used the throw-trap method (Darby et al. 1999) to estimate the snail density for each polygon in 2011. A foraging rate was calculated for each foraging bout that a kite made as the number of captures made per the minutes of foraging flight. A foraging bout was considered to start when the bird started foraging flight (head downward searching for snails), and was ended when either a capture was made or the bird ceased foraging flight. The relationship between snail density and snail capture rate was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with a binomial error distribution and a logit link, including individual bird as a random effect. The relationship between snail density and home range area (log-transformed) was evaluated using a GLM with a gamma error distribution and a log link. GLM analyses were performed in SAS 9.2. We analyzed biomass and abundance data for all submerged and emergent vegetation for each kite foraging point. To account for high densities of low biomass species and high biomass of low density species, we relativized the foraging habitat data using an index, importance value (IV), which is calculated by: IV for species i = ((Rdi + Rbi)/2)*100, where Rdi is the relative density of species i and Rbi is the relative biomass of species i. Relative measures are the sum of biomass or density of species i divided by the sum of biomass or density of all species within each sample. We performed a hierarchical cluster analysis on the IV data with a Sorenson distance measure and flexible beta of -0.25 in PC-ORD (McCune and Mefford 1999). To choose how many clusters were present during the study period, we ran an indicator species analysis (ISA) (Dufrêne and Legendre 1997) to prune the cluster dendrogram.
Process_Date: Unknown

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.1
Longitude_Resolution: 0.1
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Ellipsoid_Name: World Geodetic System of 1984
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.25722210088

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Bird Information
Entity_Type_Definition: Information pertaining to the bird being observed
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Ref#
Attribute_Definition: Reference number for the observed bird activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: unlimited
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Date
Attribute_Definition: Date of observation
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Date in M/DD/YYYY format
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Location
Attribute_Definition: Location of observation
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3B
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: WCA 3B
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: BCY
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Big Cypress National Preserve
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3A-Y
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: WCA 3A - Cypress
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3A-W
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: WCA 3A - West
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3A-C
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: WCA 3A Central
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: 3A-E
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: WCA 3A - East
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Bird ID
Attribute_Definition: Bird band combination or sex/age description based on plumage
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Sex & Age desciption
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Nest ID
Attribute_Definition:
Current active nest number assocated with the individual of interest
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Nest number assigned by researchers
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Foraging Bout Data
Entity_Type_Definition: Data recorded while observing bird foraging
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Activity Code
Attribute_Definition: Describes bird activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: P
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Perched
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: PS
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Perched with snail
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: PM
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Perched with meat
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: PST
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Perched with stick
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: HP
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Harassed on perch
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: PN
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Perched on nest
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: FL
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Non-foraging flight
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: F
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Foraging
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: FST
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Flying with stick
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: FS
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Flying with snail
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: SM
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Flying with meat
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: AF
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Aggressive flying
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: DF
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Defensive flying
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CF
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Courtship flying
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: ACC
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Attempted course capture
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CC
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Successful course capture
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: ACP
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Attempted capture from perch
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CP
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Successful capture from perch
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: SM
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Soaring
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: CO
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Copulation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: LOST
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Lost visual of bird
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: END
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: end of observation period
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Time Start
Attribute_Definition: Start time of observed activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Time in HH:MM:SS
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: UTM X
Attribute_Definition: Northing location of data collection (the boat)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Northing value in meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: UTM Y
Attribute_Definition: Easting location of data collection (the boat)
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Easting value in meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Distance
Attribute_Definition:
Distance from the boat to activity location (perch, capture, etc.). Measured in meters and collected with a range finder. Three measurements taken
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters (m)
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Bearing
Attribute_Definition:
Bearing of bird with respect to the point of data collection (the boat). Measured in degrees and collected with a digital compass. Three measurements are taken.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: substrate
Attribute_Definition: Perch or foraging substrate/vegetation
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Description of substrate/vegetation
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Snail fate
Entity_Type_Definition:
After a snail is captured it's fate is recorded as either dropped, consumed (could be partial), or given to another kite (could be partial). The total of these three cells should equal 1 for each individual snail capture.
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Snail drop
Attribute_Definition: Bird is observed dropping the snail
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: snail consumed
Attribute_Definition: Bird is observed consuming the snail
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: snail given to another
Attribute_Definition: Bird is observed giving the snail to another bird
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: 1
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: notes
Attribute_Definition: Additional notes/observations
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Free text notes
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: Location Summary
Entity_Type_Definition:
Summarizes the distance/bearing information and calculates the location of the activity (output in UTMs).
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: average dist
Attribute_Definition: Average distance the bird travels during the observed activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SE Dist
Attribute_Definition: Standard error of the average distance
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: avg bear
Attribute_Definition: Average bearing of the bird during the observed activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SE Bear
Attribute_Definition: Standard error of the average bearing
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: degrees
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: change x
Attribute_Definition:
Change in northing location of the bird during the observed activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters (m)
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: change y
Attribute_Definition:
Change in easting location of the bird during the observed activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters (m)
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: bird utm x
Attribute_Definition: Northing location of the bird activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters (m)
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: bird utm y
Attribute_Definition: Easting location of the bird activity
Attribute_Definition_Source: Kitchens et al.
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 0
Range_Domain_Maximum: unknown
Attribute_Units_of_Measure: meters (m)

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-502-8028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-502-8182
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20140124
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-502-8028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-502-8182
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999

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Last updated: 23 December, 2016 @ 01:49 PM (KP)