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Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Development

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Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Eric Swain
Publication_Date: 2003
Title: Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Development
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=sheet_flow>
Description:
Abstract:
In order to determine the effects of freshwater inflows and dynamic forcing mechanisms on flow patterns and salinity conditions in the subtidal embayments of northeast Florida Bay, a mathematical/numerical hydrodynamic/transport model of the Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) area is to be developed, implemented, calibrated, and verified with field-collected data. The model can also be used to study the significance of terrain relief, such as the Buttonwood embankment, and dynamic effects, such as wind and weather fronts, on flow patterns and salinity conditions and to provide boundary-condition information in the form of fluxes and gradients for Florida Bay model development.

The approach for this study included selection, enhancement, and application of a numerical model capable of simulating flow and solute transport within the SICS area and into Florida Bay. Data were obtained from several sources to apply, calibrate, and test the model. Additionally, results from ongoing or recently completed process studies were used to develop the model.

Purpose:
One problem of particular concern and uncertainty to water management agencies for the South Florida Ecosystem is what effect future infrastructure and hydrologic changes to Taylor Slough and C-111 will have on the Everglades wetlands and the coastal mangrove ecotone of northeast Florida Bay. Specifically, hydroperiods and hydropatterns, which relate to the duration, timing, and extent of wetland inundation, in the southern part of the Everglades have been greatly distorted to the detriment of plant and animal life as evidenced by shifts in biologic and vegetative species. The quantity, timing, and location of freshwater flows to the subtidal embayments of northeast Florida Bay have been significantly altered by modification of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and C- III drainage basins thereby contributing to aqueous stresses associated with the development of hypersaline conditions. Moreover, excess nutrients and contaminants are adding to the problems experienced by living organisms in both the wetlands and associated subtidal embayments of Florida Bay as well as the Bay itself. For more than a decade, the National Park Service, Army Corps of Engineers, and the South Florida Water Management District have been working jointly on design modifications to the Central and South Florida Project features to reestablish more natural surface flows through the Everglades National Park and into Florida Bay. Numerous process studies are underway and(or) planned to evaluate the effects of implemented redesigns, yet no project is focused on synthesizing and integrating process-study findings into a cohesive management tool to evaluate these plans prior to implementation or to assess the results of implemented restoration actions. A coupled hydrodynamic and constituent transport model is needed to integrate process-study findings in order to evaluate the variable forcing mechanisms that govern both the flow of water and concurrent transport of waterborne constituents in and through the southern Everglades wetlands that discharge into the subtidal embayments surrounding northeast Florida Bay. Once fully developed, implemented, and calibrated the hydrodynamic/transport model can be used to investigate wetland response to freshwater inflows and to compute resultant salinity patterns and concentrations in the subtidal embayments as functions of freshwater inflows and other dynamic forcing mechanisms in order to quantify, assess, and thereby systematically guide restoration efforts.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199608
Ending_Date: 19970930
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.92
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.43
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.62
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.07
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: model
Theme_Keyword: modeling
Theme_Keyword: flow models
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: water level
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Taylor Slough
Place_Keyword: Taylor River
Place_Keyword: C-111 Canal
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Alligator Creek
Place_Keyword: McCormick Creek
Place_Keyword: East Creek
Place_Keyword: Mud Creek
Place_Keyword: Trout Cove
Place_Keyword: Trout Creek
Place_Keyword: Shell Creek
Place_Keyword: Joe Bay
Place_Keyword: Little Madeira Bay
Place_Keyword: West Lake
Place_Keyword: Cuthbert Creek
Place_Keyword: Seven Palm Lake
Place_Keyword: Monroe Lake
Place_Keyword: Terrapin Bay
Place_Keyword: Butternut Key
Place_Keyword: Buoy Key
Place_Keyword: Long Sound
Place_Keyword: Whipray Basin
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: C-111 wetland
Place_Keyword: Stillwater Creek
Place_Keyword: Oregon Creek
Place_Keyword: East Highway Creek
Place_Keyword: West Highway Creek
Place_Keyword: Buttonwood Embankment
Place_Keyword: Craighead Pond
Place_Keyword: Nine Mile Pond
Place_Keyword: P33
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Eric D. Swain
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 3110 SW 9th Avenue
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5925
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: edswain@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig1topx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) study area and selected data-collection sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig2x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing discharge, conductivity, and water-level data-collection sites within the study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig4x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing vegetation features in the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig5x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing location of acoustic Doppler velocimeter measurements in the SICS study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig6x.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: map showing rainfall data collection sites
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig8x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing model grid, location of embankment barriers, and location of creeks in the study area
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig9x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: map showing land-surface elevation in grid cells
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/images/fig10x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Map showing Model boundaries and data-collection sites used to determine discharge, conductivity, and water-level boundary conditions
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel included Melina Lohmann, David Garces, Marc Stewart, and Gina Tillis
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Tillis, G. M.
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Measuring Taylor Slough boundary and internal flows, Everglades National Park, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 01-225
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://fl.water.usgs.gov/PDF_files/ofr01_225_tillis.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Schaffranek, R. W.

Ruhl, H. A., Hansler, M. E.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
An Overview of the Southern Inland and Coastal System Project of the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystem Program
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Ecohydraulics
Issue_Identification: none
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Salt Lake City, UT
Publisher: International Association for Hydraulic Research
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/overview_sics/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Swain. E. D
Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Numerical Representation of Dynamic Flow and Transport at the Everglades/Florida Bay Interface
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Ecohydraulics
Issue_Identification: none
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Salt Lake City, UT
Publisher: International Association for Hydraulic Research
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/numeric/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Jones, John W.
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: Land Characterization for Hydrologic Modeling in the Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ecohydraulics
Issue_Identification: none
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Salt Lake City
Publisher: International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR)
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/landchar/landchar.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Carter, Virginia

Rybicki, Nancy B.; Reel, Justin T.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Stewart, David W.; Jones, John W.

Publication_Date: 199907
Title:
Classification of Vegetation for Surface-Water Flow Models in Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Ecohydraulics
Issue_Identification: none
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Salt Lake City, UT
Publisher:
International Association for Hydraulic Research Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR)
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/vegclass/vegclass.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Stewart, D. W.
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
A GIS interface for environmental systems analysis: application to the south Florida ecosystem
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: fact sheeet
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: 193-97
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/FS-193-97/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Swain, Eric D.

Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of surface-water flow and transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 03-4287
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tallahassee, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Swain, E. D.
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
A model for simulation of surface-water integrated flow and transport in two dimensions: User's guide for application to coastal wetlands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: user's guide
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1033
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1033/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Cline, Jon C.

Swain, Eric

Publication_Date: 2002
Title: Linkage of Hydrologic and Ecological Models: SICS and ALFISHES
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: unknown
Publisher:
Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 8/23/2010

This paper was presented at the Second Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 28 to August 1, 2002

Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/coupling_eco/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Hansen, M.

DeWitt, N.

Publication_Date: 1998
Title: Modern and historical bathymetry of Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: fact sheet
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: 96-98
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: St. Petersburg, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geolocigal Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/96-98/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Henkle, C
Publication_Date: 1996
Title: South Florida high-accuracy elevation data collection project
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: fact sheet
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: 192-96
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/162-96/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Leendertse, J. J.

Gritton, E. C.

Publication_Date: 1971
Title:
A water-quality simulation model for well-mixed estuaries and coastal seas: Volume 2, Computation Procedures
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Rand Institute
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <http://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/2006/R708.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: North Carolina Geographic Information Coordinating Council
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: Official method for horizontal reference conversions
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Position Paper
Issue_Identification: 99-01
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: North Carolina
Publisher:
North Carolina Geographic Information Coordinating Council, GIS Technical Advisory Board
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Hittle, C.
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Quantity, timing, and distribution of freashwater lfows into northeastern Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-449
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/freshwtr_flow/qntytimabgeer00.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Desmond, G. B.

Cyran, E.; Caruso, V.; Shupe, G.; Glover, R.; Henkle, C.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Topography of the Florida Everlgades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File report
Issue_Identification: 00-449
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/elev_data/topflaabgeer00.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Swain, Eric
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Developing insight into coastal wetland hydrology through numerical modeling
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: poster
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Poster presented at the Florida Bay Science Conference, April, 2001 accessed as of 8/23/2010
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/time/publications/posters/wetland_model.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Swain, Eric
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Development of a variable-density groundwater flow model for the Taylor Slough area
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: poster
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Poster presented at the Florida Bay Science Conference, April, 2001

accessed as of 8/23/2010

Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/time/publications/posters/tsgw_model.pdf>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly in the SWIFT2D model, and that the spatial and temporal resolution of these processes in the model is adequate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the effect of changes in boundary conditions and parameter values on simulation results, which aided in identifying areas of greatest uncertainty in the model. The parameter having the most uncertainty (most in need of further field study) was the flow coefficient for coastal creeks. Smaller uncertainties existed for wetlands frictional resistance and wind. Evapotranspiration and boundary inflows indicated the least uncertainty as determined by varying parameters used in their formulation and definition.
Completeness_Report:
Results from field studies were used to estimate model parameters. In some cases, values measured in the field at a few points may not always be the best representation for a parameter in a model due to scale effects; the model represents an effective value as applying over an entire grid cell, whereas measurements sometimes apply to a point. Nonetheless, field measured values typically define model parameters more accurately than values obtained from other indirect sources including the literature and model tuning.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Data used in the modeling included:

Topography: Topographic data included land-surface elevations, embayment bathymetry, Buttonwood Embankment elevations, and the widths and bottom elevations of tidal creeks. The USGS used a helicopter-mounted global positioning system (GPS) unit and weighted line to measure land-surface elevations (Desmond and others, 2000) in the Everglades wetlands. Land-surface elevations were measured on a grid with about 400-m spacing (Henkle, 1996).

The bathymetries of Joe Bay and Florida Bay were measured by the USGS (Hansen and DeWitt, 1998), using a boat with a depth finder and a GPS unit. More than 30,000 individual depth measurements along boat track lines were made in Joe Bay. The bathymetries of other subembayments and Florida Bay were determined from nautical charts developed from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data. The USGS Florida Bay data coincided well with the nautical charts, while providing a much more refined representation of the embayment bathymetry than was previously available. The bathymetries of West Lake and associated lakes were estimated from depth measurements made by USGS personnel in September 1999. All bathymetric and topographic elevations were referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).

The location of the Buttonwood Embankment was derived from 1:24,000 scale USGS topographic maps. Based on observations by USGS personnel, the bottom elevations of tidal creeks at the location where the creeks cut through the embankment are all at an elevation of about 1.5 m below NAVD 88. The creek widths were also determined.

Channels connecting the lakes in the southwestern part of the study area (West Lake area) were estimated to be about 24 m wide.

Vegetation: Aerial- and land-based vegetation surveys (Carter and others, 1999; Jones, 1999) were conducted, and results were compiled into a geographic information system (GIS) database (Stewart, 1997). The aerial surveys were conducted to determine regional vegetation types by using spectral reflectivity and visual onsite observations for ground truthing. These data were compared with data previously collected for the area, such as the 68-class 1993-94 Landsat vegetation map and a 20-class Landsat thematic mapper image (February 2000). The vegetation in the study area was categorized into eight classes at a horizontal resolution of 30 m

Water level, currents, and discharge: Water-level, current, and discharge data were collected at 23 sites in the study area and 1 site (P33) north of the study area. Data used for this study were collected by the SFWMD, USGS, and NPS through existing monitoring networks and research projects.

Gage datums at the continuous water-level recording stations were established relative to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29). The model was developed, however, using topographic data referenced to NAVD 88. Therefore, gage datum adjustments were made at all water-level stations. The CORPSCON datum adjustment routine (North Carolina Geographic Information Coordinating Council, 1999) was used to adjust datums from NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 at all stations except R127, TSH, P37, E146, and CP. At these stations, reference marks relative to NAVD 88 were established during land-surface elevation surveys (Gordon Shupe, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1999). Subsequent surveys determined the differences between the NAVD 88 reference marks and previously established NGVD 29 datums.

Flow velocity, depth, and water-quality constituents (water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, and pH) were measured within the study area at 137 locations, including along three approximately east-west transects in the wetlands (Schaffranek and others, 1999). Acoustic Doppler velocimeters were used to make point velocity measurements at various depths in the water column, and depth-averaged velocities were calculated at each measurement location for use in model evaluation. The data were collected between July 1997 and July 1998. Data from the first two measurement sessions were used in this study.

Salinity: Salinity measurement stations are located at the mouths of coastal creeks. Specific conductance sensors were deployed at multiple vertical positions in the water column to detect any vertical stratification.

Rainfall, wind and solar radiation: Initial applications of the SICS model (version 1.1) used rainfall data collected at the Old Ingraham evapotranspiration site and the Joe Bay weather station. Data for the model domain were interpolated from these two sites. This approach proved to be unsatisfactory, considering the large spatial variations in southern Florida rainfall. In order to improve the spatial representation of rainfall, 15-minute data were collected at a network of 14 rainfall stations, and a kriging algorithm was used to determine rainfall amounts for each cell.

Wind speed and direction were recorded at 15- minute intervals at the Old Ingraham Highway site and at the P33 site, which is located about 29 km north of the Old Ingraham Highway site.

Solar radiation data also were collected by a pyranometer at the Old Ingraham Highway and P33 sites. A comparison of solar radiation between the two sites showed a mean absolute difference (MAD) in hourly solar radiation values of 48.5 W/m2 in 1997, which is 14 percent of the daily mean solar radiation at the Old Ingraham Highway site. Because the Old Ingraham Highway site borders the study area, the pyranometer data from this site are used to represent solar radiation over the entire model domain.

Model Construction, Calibration, Testing, and Application: The modeling approach consisted of: (1) computational grid development; (2) assembly of data for model boundary conditions and model testing; (3) selection of initial values of model parameters based on results of field and laboratory process studies; (4) model calibration using data from the period September 1-30, 1997; (5) performance testing in which simulation results were compared with data collected from August 1996 to July 1997; (6) sensitivity analysis in which the effects on simulation results of small changes in model parameters and boundary data were evaluated; and (7) model application. Sensitivity analysis included evaluation of the effects of changes in the flow coefficient for coastal creeks, wind-friction coefficient, evapotranspiration rate, wetlands frictional resistance, boundary water levels, tidal function, boundary discharge, salinity, and land elevation on simulation results. The model was applied to quantify the effects of wind and of varying discharges at the Taylor Slough boundary on flows in Taylor Slough and to Florida Bay.

Model domain: The model domain is irregularly shaped and contains 9,738 computational cells. The computational cells are 305 m square, so the total area of the model domain is 905.8 km2. The maximum north-south extent of the domain is 29.90 km (98 computational cells), and the maximum east-west extent is 45.14 km (148 computational cells). The 305-m square grid cells provide good resolution of the study area, and do not require unreasonable computer resources to perform simulations. The Florida Bay open boundary of the model was positioned a sufficient distance from the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone to minimize the problems associated with gradient type boundary conditions.

Land-surface elevations were measured at about 400-m spacings (Desmond and others, 2000). A linear distance-weighted four-point interpolation of the 400-m (1,312 ft) spaced data was used to assign land-surface elevations to each computational cell of the 305-m SICS grid.

The spatial characteristics of the Buttonwood Embankment vary at a scale that is much smaller than the computational cell size. Rather than attempting to assign relatively high land-surface elevations to computational cells along the embankment, which would result in poor resolution of the embankment, flow barriers were used to represent the embankment. In cells where the embankment is diagonal to the cell, the embankment is represented by a series of north-south and east-west flow barriers within the cell. The location of the embankment was derived from field observations aided by USGS 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. All creeks flowing through the embankment are defined as cuts in the flow barriers. Elsewhere, creeks are defined as solitary flow barriers with the sill elevations at the creek bottom.

Boundary conditions: Boundary conditions are supplied at the water surface and at lateral boundaries.

Lateral Boundaries: Lateral boundaries are defined as open (having free exchange of water and salt across the boundary) or closed (having no flow across the boundary). Open boundaries can be described by a time series of discharge or water level, with discharge boundary conditions generally providing more realistic simulation results.

Model selection The two-dimensional, vertically integrated, unsteady flow and transport model SWIFT2D (Leendertse, 1987) was applied to the study area. The model was first developed for applications in Jamaica Bay, N.Y. (Leendertse and Gritton, 1971). Since that time, the model has undergone numerous revisions and updates, including enhancements described in this report for the SICS area application.

The SWIFT2D model was originally designed to simulate flow and transport in vertically well-mixed estuaries, coastal embayments, lakes, rivers, and inland waterways. SWIFT2D also includes many features such as time-stepping options, advective term discretization options, transport of passive tracers, coupled salinity transport, flooding and drying, the ability to include hydraulic structures, two alternative bottom friction terms including a form based on the subgrid scale energy level, a parametric expression for turbulence effects, various formulations for horizontal dispersion, and reactions and local inputs for transport.

Calibration: The model was calibrated by adjusting computational control parameters over reasonable ranges to produce the best match between computed and measured values of velocity flow and salinity for the calibration period. The calibrated model was subsequently applied to a different time period to verify or assure that the determined parameter values apply for conditions other than those used for calibration.

The calibration period was chosen to coincide with a time of intensive measurement of flow velocities in the wetlands. The 1-month simulation period was September 1-30, 1997. Results from September 22 to 25 were used for comparison with field velocity data, which corresponds to one of four field measurement efforts conducted from July 1997 to July 1998. A 17- day warm-up period (August 15-31, 1997) was used to allow effects of errors in the initial conditions to dissipate from the model.

Testing: The verification simulation run encompasses the period from August 1996 to July 1997. This time period also was used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the development of boundary conditions for inland and Florida Bay models. Including a 16-day warm-up period, the model run starts on July 15, 1996, and finishes July 31, 1997.

The application of the SICS model allowed both the estimation of flows at locations where field measurements are not made, as well as at measured sites for hypothetical scenarios.

A sensitivity analysis was performed on the major input parameters of the model.

For a more complete description of the model development, calibration, and testing see Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) at <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/wri/03-4287/index.html>.

Process_Date: 1997
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Eric D. Swain
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 3110 SW 9th Avenue
City: Ft. Lauderdale
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33315
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954 377-5925
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954 377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: edswain@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 17
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -81
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
False_Easting: 500000
False_Northing: 0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: Row and Column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 305
Ordinate_Resolution: 305
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name: North American Vertical Datum of 1988
Altitude_Resolution: 0.01
Altitude_Distance_Units: meters
Altitude_Encoding_Method: Attribute values

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20100823
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/sics_model_dev.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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