Home Archived October 29, 2018
(i)

South Florida Information Access (SOFIA)

Development of Ecosystem Restoration and Sea-Level Rise Scenario Simulations for the Greater Everglades using the FTLOADDS Code

Metadata also available as - [Questions & Answers] - [Parseable text] - [XML]

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Dorothy Sifuentes, Eric Swain, Melinda Lohmann, Jeremy Decker, Michael Swain
Publication_Date: 2012
Title:
Development of Ecosystem Restoration and Sea-Level Rise Scenario Simulations for the Greater Everglades using the FTLOADDS Code
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: maps and data
Online_Linkage:
https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=slr_ftloadds
Description:
Abstract:
One of the most apparent effects of climate-change is sea-level rise. Analyses of mean sea elevation and topography can produce maps of shoreline changes, but the climatic fluctuations and structural operations superimposed on the sea-level rise create dynamic and temporal effects. In order to study scenarios related to sea-level rise in south Florida, we propose the use of currently developed dynamic models of surface-water/ground-water flow to simulate varying levels of mean tidal-level increase with tidal and atmospheric fluctuations. The changes in inundation hydroperiod, salinity in urban and natural areas, and aquifer salinity intrusion can all be simulated in the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. Due to the model capability for simulating dynamic events for a multi-year timescale, the simulations will provide more information than map-based approaches. FTLOADDS is a combination of two pre-existing codes, namely, the SWIFT2D two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model code and the SEAWAT three-dimensional ground-water model code (Langevin and others, 2005). SWIFT2D computes vertically-integrated flow by solving the St. Venant equations in two dimensions. Additionally, SWIFT2D computes reactive constituent transport, density variations effects, drying and rewetting of periodically inundated areas, and hydraulic structures (Schaffranek 2004). SEAWAT is a combination of the commonly used ground-water model code MODFLOW and the solute-transport code MT3DMS (Guo and Langevin 2002). FTLOADDS therefore has the ability to simulate salinity transport in two dimensions for surface water and three dimensions for ground water. SWIFT2D and SEAWAT operate independently within FTLOADDS, with the exception of the leakage and salinity fluxes passed between the surface water and ground water. FTLOADDS has been enhanced to represent heat-transport in the surface water linked to evapotranspiration effects (Swain and Decker, 2008). Applications of FTLOADDS to southern Florida coastal areas provide a comprehensive framework for predicting hydrologic changes (Swain and others, 2003). Applications in the area include: 1) The Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Everglades (TIME) application in the Everglades National Park area (Wang and others, 2007); 2) The Ten-Thousand Islands (TTI) application between Everglades National Park and Naples; and 3) The Biscayne application from Biscayne Bay inland to the L-31N levee. The model-domain locations are shown in figure 1. The TIME application is used to evaluate CERP restoration scenarios by using output from the SFWMD regional 2x2 model and the TTI application yield information on manatee habitats. The TIME and Biscayne applications have been combined to produce the BIscayne/South-East Coastal Transport (BISECT) application. This tool has been used to develop a series of hindcast and futurecast simulations that can be used to examine landscape and topography changes, sea-level rise effects, precipitation changes, and ternperature changes. The modeling application to the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) area required a smaller-scale application to the Port of the Islands marina that can represent vertical stratification in salinity and temperature. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was applied for this purpose and used boundary conditions from the TTI model to represent existing and restoration conditions. The implementation of heat-transport in a wetland environment requires a number of heat-budget parameters that have not been well defined for the South Florida environment such as soil heat storage and albedo. Physical experiments are required to define these factors and improve the numerical model.
Purpose:
To achieve our goals, we are:
1: Refining model parameters and algorithms to better simulate water-levels, flows, salinity, and temperature in the hydrodynamic coastal area and underlying aquifer. Based on ongoing testing of the FTLOADDS applications, advancements have been made in the following critical areas: The southern and western coastal boundaries are moved further offshore. The Gulf of Mexico boundaries are moved to approximately longitude 81° 24' west longitude and the Florida Bay boundary to latitude 25° 00' north latitude in order to delineate near-shore conditions. The discretization of the aquifer has been increased from 10 to 15 layers and newer aquifer characteristic data have been incorporated. The upper aquifer thickness has been reduced from 7 to 2.5 meters to improve the simulation of saltwater intrusion. The peat-layer representation for computing leakage will be given spatially-variable values based on recently developed peat maps.
2: Develop test simulation with the Sea Water Interface (SWI) package replacing the SEAWAT package to simulate ground-water flow and salinity. SWI has a simpler representation of the interface as opposed to the full salinity transport capabilities of SEAWAT. The use of SWI represents a significant saving of computational effort and complexity, and the ability of SWI to represent the groundwater salinity interface is of great interest.
3: Develop simulations of sea-level rise and restoration scenarios. The BISECT model using FTLOADDS has incorporating different scenarios of projected SLR and restoration options from CERP. These have been used to generate information on percent of time inundation and extent of salinity intrusion. Regional climate parameters downscaled from global models are used to define rainfall for future-scenario simulations. Comparisons of these scenarios yields information for coastal natural and urban areas.
4: Physical experimentation to delineate soil heat parameters for wetland and offshore heat-transport. Physical experiments involve several circular tanks filled with soil and water to determine heat storage in the underlying soil and effects of bottom reflectance on the total heat budget. Thermocouples measure the temperature at various points in the soil and water, and instruments also measure solar radiation and humidity. The information is used to determine soil heat storage and albedo. Additional testing looks at different bottom types and their effect on the total heat budget.
Supplemental_Information:
Highlights and Key Findings:

1: The FTLOADDS code was modified to compute groundwater salinity with the Sea Water Interface (SWI) package replacing the SEAWAT constituent transport code. This formulation was tested on the BISECT model, demonstrating similar results between the two methods for the location of the saltwater zone.
2: The Biscayne coastal portion of the BISECT model has been thoroughly documented (Lohmann and others, 2012), combining with the TIME model to complete BISECT.
3: Improvements to the model representation have been implemented for the BISECT area and transferred to the overlapping TIME model region. These include: Extension of the western boundary further offshore to allow for more near-shore predictive capabilities; finer vertical discretization of the aquifer reducing the top layer thickness from 7.2 to 2.5 meters; and extending the base simulation period for BISECT encompassing years 1996-2008 and for TTI encompassing years 1998-2008.
4: Physical experiments were developed with tanks containing water and soil to identify heat-transfer properties between wetland flow and the underlying soil. This information helps determine important model heat-transport parameters such as soil heat storage and albedo (Swain and other, 2011). The research indicates that bottom type and submerged vegetation significantly affect the effective albedo and thus the heat transport and evapotranspiration. Based on this information, offshore parameters were altered in the BISECT model to obtain better results. The results are being published in Journal of Hydrology (Swain and others, 2012).
5: Scenarios have been generated with the existing BISECT formulation for two types of sea-level rise scenarios, a constant higher value of sea level for a short term simulation and a progressive rise in sea-level for a long-term simulation. Additional sea-level rise scenarios were also simulated with the Ten-Thousand Island model for the extended simulation period of 10 years.
6: Simulation outputs and hydrologic results have been delivered to the following applications: Spatial and Stage-Structured Population Model of the American Crocodile (Green and others, 2010); Individually-Based Manatee Model in Ten-Thousand Islands area; and IMMAGE web-based GIS tool for displaying model results.
7: The simulation for the TIME area, developed in Wang and others (2007), was applied by ENP personnel to examine the effects of restoration and sea-level rise specifically on Everglades National Park. The model was heavily examined and recommendations developed for code and application.
8: The use of the full hydrodynamic flow equations for surface water, a unique aspect of FTLOADDS, was investigated through a combined use of field data and numerical modeling. This analysis helps determine the need to implement various levels of mathematical complexity in the solution, and determining when they may be important. The magnitudes of the hydrodynamic flow terms were computed from field data at Shark River and Miami Canal and compared to the other flow terms. A dimensionless number was formulated to define the relative magnitudes. The results are being written up for a journal article.
9: A numerical hindcast model of past hydrology and hurricane windfields reliable captures historic hurricane surge and precipitation effects for both surface and groundwater flow.
10: Output from regionally down-scaled climate model projections have been successfully applied to the hydrodynamic model in the first step to project future effects.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2009
Ending_Date: 2012
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Unknown
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Broward-Monroe-Collier-Dade Counties, Florida
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.66
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.38
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.26
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.11
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: ecosystem restoration
Theme_Keyword: sea-level rise
Theme_Keyword: FTLOADDS
Theme_Keyword: model
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Ten Thousand Islands National Wildlife Refuge
Place_Keyword: Florida
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Cite primary authors and database when using or publishing these data
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Timothy W. Green, Daniel H. Slone, Eric D. Swain, Michael S. Cherkiss, Melinda Lohmann, Frank J. Mazzotti, and Kenneth G. Rice
Publication_Date: 2010
Title:
Spatial and Stage-Structured Population Model of the American Crocodile for Comparison of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) Alternatives
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2010-1284
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1284/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Eric Swain and Jeremy D. Decker
Publication_Date: 2010
Title:
Measurement-derived Heat-budget Approaches for Simulating Coastal Wetland Temperature with a Hydrodynamic Model
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: 30(3): 635-648
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bradley M. Stith, James P. Reid, Catherine A. Langtimm, Eric D. Swain, Terry J. Doyle, Daniel H. Slone, Jeremy D. Decker, and Lars E. Soderqvist
Publication_Date: 2011
Title:
Temperature Inverted Haloclines Provide Winter Warm-Water Refugia for Manatees in Southwest Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Estuaries and Coasts
Issue_Identification: 34(1): 106-119
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Michael Swain, Matthew Swain, Melinda Lohmann, and Eric Swain
Publication_Date: 2012
Title:
Experimental Determination of Heat Storage for the Simulation of Heat Transport in a Coastal Wetland
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Hydrology
Issue_Identification: 422-423: 53-62
Other_Citation_Details: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.036
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Brad Stith, Daniel Slone, M. DeWit, H. Edwards, C. Langtimm, E. Swain, L. Soderqvist, and J. Reid
Publication_Date: 2012
Title:
Passive thermal refugia provided warm water for Florida manatees during the severe winter of 2009-2010
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Marine Ecology Progress Series
Issue_Identification: 462:287-301
Other_Citation_Details: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v462/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Melinda Lohmann, Eric Swain, John Wang, and Joann Dixon
Publication_Date: 2012
Title:
Evaluation of Effects of Changes in Canal Management and Precipitation Patterns on Salinity in Biscayne Bay, Florida, Using an Integrated Surface-Water/Groundwater Model
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report
Issue_Identification: 2012-5099
Other_Citation_Details: https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5099/
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Jeremy Decker, Eric Swain, Brad Stith, and Catherine Langtimm
Publication_Date: 2013
Title:
Assessing Factors Affecting the Thermal Properties of a Passive Thermal Refuge Using Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flow and Transport Modeling
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering
Issue_Identification: 139(3): 209-220
Online_Linkage:
http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29WW.1943-5460.0000165
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Timothy Green, Daniel Slone, Eric Swain, Michael Cherkiss, Melinda Lohmann, Frank Mazzotti, and Kenneth Rice
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
Evaluating Effects of Everglades Restoration on American Crocodile Populations in South Florida Using a Spatially-Explicit, Stage-Based Population Model
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: 34(1) Supplement:213-224
Other_Citation_Details:
doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13157-012-0370-0
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Eric Swain, Lydia Stefanova, and Thomas Smith
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
Applying Downscaled Global Climate Model Data to a Hydrodynamic Surface-Water and Groundwater model
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: American Journal of Climate Change
Issue_Identification: 3(1):33-49
Other_Citation_Details: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2014.31004
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Eric Swain, Jeremy Decker, and Joseph Hughes
Publication_Date: 2014
Title:
Utilizing Dimensional Analysis with Observed Data to Determine the Significance of Hydrodynamic Solutions in Coastal Hydrology
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering
Issue_Identification: 3:57-77
Other_Citation_Details:
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2014.32008

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: Unknown
Completeness_Report: Unknown
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Task 1: Numerical Hydrology Modeling

Task Objectives: 1).Develop and refine the coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/groundwater model of the TIME area to best represent critical areas in Everglades National Park and the eastern coastal zone. This involves the representation of coastal salinities and water levels in both the surface and ground water. The representation of canals and control structures will be tested and evaluated. 2). Scenarios that represent CERP restoration and Climate-Change scnearios will be finalized with all revised aquifer parameters, canal and control structure representations, initial and boundary conditions, and boundary locations. 3). The three-dimensional Port of the Island model will be modified to represent proposed changes to help the manatee habitat suitability after the Picayune Strand Restoration Project is implemented.

Methods: The locations of primary interest will be indentified with input from ENP, SFWMD, and ACOE. Comparisons will be made with field measured values of flow, water-level, and salinity for both surface water and groundwater. Initial conditions for ground-water salinity will be modified to represent measured values better at the locations of primary interest. The effects of spatial variability of parameters of interest, such as peat-layer thickness, will be examined. The compatibility of parameters between BISECT and the TIME and Biscayne models will be verified as the final versions of these models. The incorporation of canals and control structures will be tested by incorporating features of the Surface Water Routing (SWR) package developed for MODFLOW. ACOE personnel will be familiarized with the 3-D POI model so several changes which have been proposed to maintain the manatee refugia can be simulated. Boundaries from the larger TTI model for the restoration scheme are used.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Eric Swain
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 7500 SW 36th Street
City: Davie
State_or_Province: Florida
Postal_Code: 33314
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954-377-5925
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954-377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: edswain@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Task 2: Physical Experimentation to Support Heat-Transport Modeling

Task Objectives: The physical experiments are designed to deterine soil heat storage and other components of the heat budget and observe the effects of variations in environmental factors, plant density, and bottom type. The derived parameters assist the accurate computation of heat-transport and temperature, as well as evapotranspiration in the numerical models.

Methods: The experimental apparatus are several circular tanks filled with soil and water to determine heat storage in the underlying soil and effects of bottom reflectance on the total heat budget. Synthetic vegetation is used that reproduces the density and size of plants observed in the field. Thermocouples measure the temperature at various points in the soil and water, and instruments also measure solar radiation and humidity. The information is used to determine soil heat storage and albedo. Additional testing looks at different bottom types and their effect on the total heat budget. Collecting over a two-year period provides data that is used in a one-dimensional heat-transfer model to derive the heat storage in the soil. An effective depth of soil that is in thermal connection to the surface water can be computed with heat budget parameters such as albedo.
Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Dorothy Sifuentes
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 7500 SW 36th Street
City: Davie
State_or_Province: Florida
Postal_Code: 33314
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 954-377-5902
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 954-377-5901
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dsifuentes@usgs.gov

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 4th Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-502-8028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-502-8182
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Distribution_Liability: The data have no explicit or implied guarantees.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20141030
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical
Address: 600 4th Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727-502-8028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727-502-8182
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Biological Data Profile of the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Access_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata to be sure you have the most recent version.

Generated by mp version 2.9.27 on Wed Oct 30 2014

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
This page is: http://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/slr_ftloadds.html
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Last updated: 23 December, 2016 @ 01:49 PM (KP)