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Understanding and Predicting Global Climate Change Impacts on the Vegetation and Fauna of Mangrove Forested Wetlands in Florida

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Thomas J. Smith III

Carol McIvor

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Understanding and Predicting Global Climate Change Impacts on the Vegetation and Fauna of Mangrove Forested Wetlands in Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/gcc_impacts/>
Description:
Abstract:
An overall strategy of this project is to conduct integrated research at a number of different locations to address key questions related to global climate change impacts on the coastal mangrove forests and adjacent marshes. The integrated elements of the project include hydrology, vegetation and fauna. This project established, runs and maintains the Mangrove Hydrology Monitoring Network, a series of 17 stations arrayed along upstream downstream gradients in major rivers on the southwest coast of the Park and in the C-111 basin. The sites are also used for sampling vegetation, and soil elevation changes. Additionally the project adds a key research element concerning mangrove fauna, that is not present in related projects dealing with the mangrove dominated coastal zone. The network provides data on water (ground and surface) stage and conductivity that are used by the TIME and other modeling groups. Water year reports have been prepared and data are available via the TIME website and Everglades NP "Data for Ever" database. Open File Reports are being generated which provide historical aerial photographs in digital format.

The data generated by this project is being used in models (hydrological and ecological) for gauging restoration success. The data are also being used in the formulation of Performance Measures. For example, spatial data on the movement of the mangrove / marsh ecotone (derived from the digital historical aerial photographs) will be used to provide a pre-drainage baseline of the Everglades ecosystem and metrics of success in restoration.

Purpose:
This project is addressing several key hypothesis related to global change impacts on the flora and fauna of the mangrove forested ecosystems which occur at the downstream end of the greater Everglades: 1) Mangroves in a geomorphic setting with relatively more edge (open-water/mangrove interface) support greater fishery productivity as measured by density and biomass/area than near-by mangroves with relatively little edge; 2) fishery productivity along complex environmental gradients is a function of the frequency and duration of tidal flooding, and of the variability in a suite of physicochemical parameters; 3) fires along the mangrove-marsh ecotone promote invasion of mangroves into adjacent marshes; and, 4) shifts in the position of the mangrove-marsh ecotone are linked to the passage of major tropical storms and hurricanes.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1996
Ending_Date: 2002
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.890295
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.210693
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.12415
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.931055
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: mangrove ecotone
Theme_Keyword: mangroves
Theme_Keyword: wetland
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: monitoring
Theme_Keyword: climate change
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 004
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Big Sable Creek
Place_Keyword: Chatham River
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Harney River
Place_Keyword: Shark River
Place_Keyword: Shark River Slough
Place_Keyword: Lostmans River
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: C-111 Basin
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
The Open-File Report with containing data from this project is currently unavailable. Contact Tom Smith for information and data from this project.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization:
U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3015/images/fig2x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: location of sampling sites in Everglades National Park
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/2004-3015/>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: figure 2 with explanation of dots for samplng data
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Other project personnel include Noah Silverman, Katie Kuss, Christa Walker, Kevin Whelan, Fara Ilami, Suzanne Chwala, Ann Foster, and Gordon Anderson.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Fry, Brian

Smith, Thomas J., III

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Stable Isotope Studies of Red Mangroves and Filter Feeders from the Shark River Estuary, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletin of Marine Scinece
Issue_Identification: v. 70, n. 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher:
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/mang_feeders/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Allen, J. A.

Ewel, K. C.; Keeland, B. D.; Tara, T.; Smith, T. J., III

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands
Issue_Identification: v. 20, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: McLean, VA
Publisher: Society of Wetland Scientists
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bolster, Carl, H.

Genereux, David P.; Saiers, James E.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Determination of Specific Yield for the Biscayne Aquifer with a Canal-Drawdown Test
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ground Water
Issue_Identification: v. 39, n. 5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Westerville, OH
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bolster, Carl. H

Saiers, James E.

Publication_Date: 2002
Title:
Development and evaluation of a mathematical model for surface-water flow within the Shark River Slough of the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Hydrology
Issue_Identification: v. 259, n. 1-4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science BV

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Fisheries productivity in relation to geomorphic setting

Hurricane damage to mangrove forests is most often followed by seedling recruitment, tree growth and forest recovery. Occasionally, however, recovery fails to occur over some affected areas, likely because of site-specific changes in sediment loss and character. Such sediment-related changes in pockets along mangrove-forested creeks in the Big Cape Sable Creek (BSC) complex have resulted in a mosaic of mangrove forests and either adjacent or partially enclosed mudflats of a range of sizes. Our goal is to take advantage of this situation to ask: " what is the consequence of long-term habitat conversion from mangrove forests to pocket mudflats - with a concomitant increase in the amount of edge - following hurricane landfall?"

During FY 2002, the seven major creeks of the BSC complex were exhaustively explored for three creeks that would meet the following criteria: suitable forest and mudflat sites occurred along a single creek; sites were approachable by research boat but were removed from areas most frequently used by the boating public; replicate creeks were available with both habitat types; mudflats were of a size that could be sampled with existing gear (intertidal rivulet nets) used along the Shark River transect. We were delayed in April 2002 in building necessary researcher walkways along intertidal rivulets at the 3 mudflat sites because of a change in ENP policy about compliance with the Wilderness Act and the possible need for NEPA review. We currently (June 2002) have detailed documentation into permitting channels at ENP regarding choice of safe environmental materials, but have been stymied in our efforts to obtain a valid research permit for this portion of the work. Efforts are continuing.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Fisheries productivity in relation to flooding frequency and duration, physicochemical variability

The degree and duration of tidal flooding appears to greatly affect the suite of species capable of routinely using the intermittently available flooded mangrove forest floor. Similarly, the amount of variability in physicochemical parameters, specifically salinity, appears to be another "filter" for species capable of surviving wide ranges in variability in exchange for expanded habitats exploited.

Fish sampling stations have been established at three sites along the salinity (and flooding) gradient to test this hypothesis. Samples have been, and will continue to be taken every two months from replicate nets and two methods at each site. The objectives in the next fiscal year are to quantify the micro-drainage basins draining into each of 9 intertidal nets, and to begin integrating biological and physicochemical data to partition the variance due to the multiple factors affecting fish productivity.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Effects of marsh fires on the position of the mangrove marsh ecotone

Fire appears to play a crucial role in the maintenance of the coastal marine prairies within Everglades National Park and elsewhere in far south Florida. Occurrence of marsh fires may impact the ability of mangrove forests to invade marsh areas. The objective of this task is to understand the effect of fire on controlling the spatial extent of mangrove expansion into upstream coastal marine prairies.

A transect has been established across a mangrove marsh ecotone adjacent to the Harney River for detailed study. A series of permanent vegetation plots have been set up to measure mangrove tree growth and seeding recruitment. Replicate sediment porewater sampling wells are monitored near each vegetation plot. Mangrove seedling transplants have been established to assess the ability of mangroves to grow under a sawgrass canopy. In conjunction with ENP Fire Cache, a controlled burn was conducted to assess fire impacts on the vegetation along the ecotone. Sampling of the burn area will continue. Available data on the location of historical fires will be entered into a GIS system for comparison with overlays of the movement of the ecotone with time.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Changes in the marsh ecotone in relation to sea level, hurricanes, and freshwater inflow

Measure changes in the position of the mangrove marsh ecotone over recent time (1920s to present). Relate movement of the ecotone to measurable environmental factors such as recent sea level variation and freshwater inflow. Estimate decadal and greater term variation via down core analyses of long cores taken at sites SH1-5.

Assist with scanning historical aerial photographs of the coastal regions of Everglades NP and south Florida. Photos will be scanned at 800dpi, mosaiced and georeferenced for use in conventional GIS packages. Position of the mangrove / marsh ecotone will be determined by photo interpretation and changes maps developed. The scanned photos will be compiled into CD / DVD sets for distribution to clients as USGS Open File Reports. Sediment cores from sites SH1-5 will be collected by vibracoring. Cores will be returned to the lab for processing by collaborating USGS scientists.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Operation and maintenance of the Mangrove Hydrology Sampling Network in Everglades National Park

Seventeen hydrological sampling stations have been established across the mangrove marsh ecotone at four locations in Everglades National Park (downstream of the C-111 canal, Shark River Slough, Lostmans River and the Chatham River). Each station consists of at least two sampling wells, one for groundwater and one for surface water. Subsets of stations are instrumented to sample soil water and measure rainfall. Data are collected at intervals ranging from every hour to every four hours depending on the ability to recharge batteries. Data are downloaded daily and archived for later QA/QC operations. In FY02 significant equipment upgrade is being carried out to standardize instrumentation across all sites. During FY03 and 04 the network will be operated and the data distributed to all parties, especially the TIME modeling group and the hydrology section at the South Florida Natural Resources Center.

Process_Date: 2003
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization:
U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Thomas J. Smith III
Contact_Organization:
U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 x3130
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2032
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: tom_j_smith@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 0900-1700 ET M-F
Resource_Description: mangrove-global climate change data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees
Standard_Order_Process:
Non-digital_Form: unknown
Fees: none
Ordering_Instructions: Contact Tom Smith for data from this project.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20070306
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/smith_gcc_mangrove.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
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