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Flow Effects on Greater Everglades Ecosystems

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Judson Harvey

Gregory Noe; Raymond Schaffranek (retired)

Publication_Date: Unpublished Material
Title: Flow Effects on Greater Everglades Ecosystems
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: project
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=susparticlesp2>
Description:
Abstract:
The overall objective is to conduct the needed field experiments to quantify the relative importance of hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes to help determine the most effective means of preserving and restoring topographic heterogeneity and biotic diversity of the Everglades Ridge and Slough Landscape.

Our proposed experiments and modeling are fundamental to building a reliable predictive capability of how the Everglades will respond to the restorationís higher flows.

Purpose:
A growing concern is that augmenting Everglades sheet flow to benefit the hydrology of certain downstream areas could have unintended consequences to other areas, such as transporting surface-water contaminants farther into the central and southern parts of the Everglades ecosystem than ever before. Therefore, an important specific objective is to determine how far downstream suspended sediments and associated nutrients will be transported as a result of reconnected hydrology and higher sheetflow velocities.

Additional scientific questions that must be answered to support The Water Conservation Area 3A Decompartmentalization and Sheet Flow Enhancement Project (DECOMP) include:

1. How do the characteristic ridge and slough topographic variation and its associated vegetation patterns influence the sources, transport rates, rates of interception, and storage residence times of suspended particulates and nutrients? 2. What are relative roles of transport of fine suspended particulate matter and coarser flocculent benthic organic matter (floc) in suspended sediment and phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetlands? 3. To what extent will sources, concentrations, and transport distances of suspended sediments and nutrients in Everglades wetlands be altered by DECOMP? Will increased sheet flow velocities or the extent of canal backfilling after levee removal be the more important driver of changes in transport? 4. What flow velocities are necessary to entrain and redistribute sediment in the ridge and slough landscape?

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 2008
Ending_Date: 2010
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.25
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.5
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25.125
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: nutrients
Theme_Keyword: suspended particles
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: biogeochemistry
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Shark River Slough
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3A
Place_Keyword: WCA3A
Place_Keyword: Ridge and Slough
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Judson W. Harvey
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5876
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jwharvey@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel include: Laurel Larsen, Jeff Woods, Morgan Franklin, and Lauren McPhillips
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey J. W.

Saiers, J. E.; Newlin, J. T.

Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 41 n. 5
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details:
Posted on SOFIA with permission from the American Geophysical Union

accessed as of 4/26/2011

Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/soltransport_storage/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Saiers, James E.

Harvey, Judson W.; Mylon, Steven E.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Surface-water transport of suspended matter through wetland vegetation of the Florida everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Geophysical Research Letters
Issue_Identification: v. 30 n. 19, 1987
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details:
Copyright by the American Geophysical Union. Posted on SOFIA with permission

accessed as of 4/26/2011

Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/swtrans_wetveg/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Noe, Gregory B.

Childers, Daniels L.

Publication_Date: 200701
Title:
Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: the effects of hydrology and nutrient enrichment
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Wetlands Ecology and Management
Issue_Identification: v 15, no. 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Publisher: Springer+Business Media B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
Copyright 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B. V.. Posted with permission.

accessed as of 4/26/2011

Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/sheetflow/publications/Noe> Childers 2007 Everglades P budgets.pdf
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Noe, G. B.

Harvey, J. W.; Saiers, J. E.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title: Characterization of suspended particles in Everglades wetlands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Limnology and Oceanography
Issue_Identification: v. 52, no. 3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 4/26/2011
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/sheetflow/publications/Noe> et al 2007 LO Everglades particles.pdf
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Huang, Y. H.

Saiers, J. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Noe, G. B.; Mylon, S.

Publication_Date: 200804
Title:
Advection, dispersion, and filtration of fine particles within emergent vegetation of the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 44
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 4/26/2011
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/sheetflow/publications/Huang_etal_2008_Everglades_particles.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Schaffranek, Raymond W.

Riscassi, Ami L.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Flow velocity, water temperature, and conductivity at selected locations in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: July 1999 - July 2003
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: maps and data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Digital Data Series
Issue_Identification: 2004-110
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 4/26/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2004/110/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, Judson W.

McCormick, Paul V.

Publication_Date: 200902
Title:
Groundwater's significance to changing hydrology, water chemistry, and biological communities of a floodplain ecosystem
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Hydrogeology Journal
Issue_Identification: v. 17, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
Other_Citation_Details:
accessed as of 4/26/2011

The article was originally published in the Hydrogeology Journal.

Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/jharvey/pdf/Harvey&McCormick_2009_gladesGW.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harvey, Judson W.

Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Nowacki, Daniel J.; O'Connor, Ben L.

Publication_Date: 20090328
Title:
Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 45
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 4/26/2011
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/sheetflow/publications/Harvey%20et%20al%202009_floodplain%20flow%20velocities_WRR.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Larsen, Laurel G.

Harvey, Judson W.; Crimaldi, John P.

Publication_Date: 2009
Title: Morphologic and transport properties of natural floc
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 45
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 4/26/2011
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/jharvey/pdf/Larsen_etal_WRR_2008WR006990.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Larsen, Laurel G.

Harvey, Judson W.; Noe, Gregory B.; Crimaldi, John P.

Publication_Date: 20090114
Title:
Predicting organic floc transport dynamics in shallow aquatic ecosystems: Insights from the field, the laboratory, and numerical modeling
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: publication
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Water Resources Research
Issue_Identification: v. 45
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 4/26/2011
Online_Linkage:
<http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/jharvey/pdf/Larsen_etal_WRR_2008WR007221.pdf>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: unknown
Completeness_Report: unknown
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Methods to quantify sheetflow velocities in the Everglades using acoustic Doppler methods have only recently been made reliable and have demonstrated that relatively low velocities now characterize even the areas with relatively well preserved ridge and slough characteristics (Shaffranek and others, 2004).

Up to now our team has focused its experimental research at two research sites: northern Shark Slough, and more recently, at site 3A-5 in north central Water Conservation Area 3A, an area that has proved to be an excellent "reference" site for measuring transport rates and processes in remnant conditions where ridge and slough topography is relatively well preserved. This research is providing perspective on pre-drainage conditions which is critical to understanding the flow-topography-sediment interactions that occurred in the historic flow regime and topography of the Everglades. Among our accomplishments is developing the techniques that will be applied in the near future to characterize flow and transport conditions in areas possessing more degraded landscape characteristics.

Starting in FY08 our investigations of "reference" conditions at our WCA-3A-5 will be supplemented by adding "first response" research sites in WCA-3B, where we will have the ability to test our predictions within the framework of the Decompartmentalization Physical Modelís (DPM) landscape-scale manipulation of sheet flow in an area of degraded landscape characteristics. Those sites will possess substantially degraded ridge and slough topography and will be located downstream of where substantial levee removal is expected to take place (i.e., WCA-3B). Preliminary planning is already underway for the DPM, a long-term, landscape-scale experiment. The overall purpose of DPM is to test hydrologic and ecosystem-level responses to opening of large gaps in levees and filling of canals at a large but manageable experimental scale. The USGS role will be to conduct the experimental and modeling work to assess how increased sheetflow across various levels of levee removal and canal backfill designs perform in terms of transport of sediments and associated nutrients to downstream areas. A 3-year test period is planned which will not only reveal the first response characteristics of levee removal and increased sheetflow, but which will establish the sites and protocols for further evaluation in later years to assess the long term geomorphic and ecosystem-level changes that can be expected over a large proportion of the central Everglades after DECOMP is fully implemented

After first developing our tracer experimental methods in Shark Slough (Saiers and others, 2003; Harvey and others, 2005) and our methods for suspended particle sampling in a cross-system comparison of the Water Conservation Areas and Everglades National Park (Noe and others, 2007), we have most recently focused our attention on measuring flow and sediment transport in the ridge and slough environments of Water Conservation Area 3 as they relate to flow velocity, vegetation type and density, and sources of water to WCA3 (e.g. precipitation and structure inflows). Modeling is underway to interpret the controlling processes on velocity and shear stress as they differ within ridge and slough plant communities (Harvey and others and Larsen and others, in preparation) and effects of flow, meteorological conditions, and vegetation communities on suspended particle abundance, sources, size distribution, and phosphorus content (Noe and others, in preparation)

In FY08 we will build upon our previous work by quantifying the entrainment, transport, biogeochemistry, and sources of suspended particles under a range of experimental flow velocities. The most important improvement in the planned experiments is the use of an underwater camera and a Sequoia Scientific LISST-100X laser diffraction particle size analyzer (LISST-100x) to detect movement of natural suspended particulates rather than the fluorescent or mineral "model" particles that we introduced in previous experiments with our Yale University colleagues (Saiers and others, 2003; Huang and others, 2008). Use of natural particles in these experiments is essential to reliably characterize "entrainment" of suspended particulates under the naturally complex conditions of mixed particle sizes that arise from several different sources of organic matter (e.g., fine suspended vs. coarse floc). Of particular importance is determining the threshold conditions of sheetflow velocity and bed shear stress that cause entrainment of floc, and determining whether and under what flow conditions those particles will experience a net redistribution from slough to ridge. We will also test the ability of spectral analysis of suspended material and other ecosystem components (floc, peat, different forms of periphyton, macrophytes) to identify the source(s) of suspended material under the different experimental flow velocities in ridge and slough. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spesctroscopy has been used to differentiate plant communities in the Everglades for remote sensing (John Jones, USGS, personal communication) and to assess wetland soil characteristics in general (Cohen and others, 2005). We will conduct preliminary sampling to evaluate the ability of this method to distinguish the potential sources of particles and develop spectral source mixing models for suspended particles, and then possibly apply the method in the flow experiments. Finally, in addition to measuring changes in suspended sediment concentrations, flux, and sources across the experimental flow velocities, we will also quantify the forms of phosphorus associated with fine suspended particles and floc through sequential chemical extractions. Understanding the quality of entrained sediment is necessary to predict its fate at downstream locations of retention.

Modeling will be used to interpret the results of tracer experiments, with the goal to produce a fundamental set of transport parameters representing the role of fine suspended particles, floc, and storage of water and solutes in relatively slow-moving areas of thick vegetation and subsurface pore water.

Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Judson W. Harvey
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5876
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: jwharvey@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades Ridge amd Slough

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20110502
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/susparts_p2.html>

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