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Vegetative Resistance to Flow Data

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Harry Jenter

Raymond Schaffranek (retired); Virginia Cater (retired); Jonathan K. Lee (deceased)

Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Vegetative Resistance to Flow Data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: digital files
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=vege_resist>
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rybicki, N. B.

Reel, J.; Ruhl, H. A.; Gammon, P. T.; Carter, V.; Lee, J. K.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Biomass and Vegetative Characteristics of Sawgrass Grown in a Tilting Flume as Part of a Study of Vegetative Resistance to Flow
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open File Report
Issue_Identification: 99-230
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/99-230/>
Description:
Abstract:
Surface-water flow models are needed to evaluate restoration and management alternatives for the south Florida ecosystem. Model results are sensitive to expressions used to represent flow resistance due to vegetation. The project seeks to develop methods for representing flow resistance due to vegetation types typically found in the Everglades. The project also seeks an understanding of the effect of vegetation on surface-water flow and improved techniques for measuring flow velocities and water-surface slopes in wetlands.
Purpose:
Data fundamental to quantifying the effects that the highly variable vegetation of the Everglades has on shallow surface-water flows is lacking. Models presently being used to manage the ecosystem need to quantify the flow-resistance effects of vegetation in order to properly simulate flow. These management models have been forced to rely primarily on qualitative estimates and engineering judgments for the treatment and representation of vegetative flow resistance. The objectives of this project are: 1) to collect data to produce accurate values of flow-resistance coefficients for use in numerical simulation models, 2) to analyze these flow data to quantify the resistance effects of the submerged vegetation, 3) to investigate the vegetation/flow-resistance correlation in controlled laboratory experiments and in the field, 4) to isolate the key vegetation properties to which the evaluation of resistance effects can best be correlated, and 5) to derive expressions that can be used to more creditably represent these effects in numerical models. These findings can be used to establish the validity of management models presently in use throughout the entire Everglades ecosystem as well as to provide improved expressions for representing the resistance effects of vegetation on flow for incorporation in newly developed models.
Supplemental_Information: This project is part of the TIME project.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 199410
Ending_Date: 200209
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Everglades
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.201351
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -79.141576
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 27.141576
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.838753
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: hydrology
Theme_Keyword: flow
Theme_Keyword: vegetation
Theme_Keyword: Manning's n
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Glades County
Place_Keyword: Hendry county
Place_Keyword: Martin County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Shark River Slough
Place_Keyword: Taylor Slough
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Greater Lake Okeechobee
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: WCA2
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Taxonomic_Keywords: vegetation
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Smithsonian Institution - National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)

Publication_Date: 2000
Title: Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Database
Other_Citation_Details:
Retrieved from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, <http://www.itis.gov>.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.itis.gov>
Taxonomic_Procedures: The sawgrass was planted specifically for the experiment.
Taxonomic_Completeness: Known species of sawgrass were used
General_Taxonomic_Coverage: Sawgrass is identified to subspecies
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
Applicable_Common_Name: plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Magnoliophyta
Applicable_Common_Name: angiosperms
Applicable_Common_Name: flowering plants
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Liliopsida
Applicable_Common_Name: monocotyledons
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Sub Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Commelinidae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperales
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Family
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cyperaceae
Applicable_Common_Name: sedges
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Genus
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium P. Br.
Applicable_Common_Name: sawgrass
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Species
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium mariscus
Applicable_Common_Name: swamp sawgrass
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subspecies
Taxon_Rank_Value: Cladium mariscus ssp. Jamaicense
Applicable_Common_Name: jamaica sawgrass
Applicable_Common_Name: jamaica swamp sawgrass
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints: none
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Harry Jenter
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5916
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hjenter@usgs.gov
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel include Michael Duff, Nancy Rybicki, Al Lombana, Lisa Roig, and Vincent Lai.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: html tables, Adobe pdf
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Carter, Virginia

Rybicki, Nancy B.; Reel, Justin T.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Stewart, David W.; Jones, John W.

Publication_Date: 199907
Title:
Classification of Vegetation for Surface-Water Flow Models in Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Third International Symposium on Ecohydraulics
Issue_Identification: Proceedings
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Salt Lake City, UT
Publisher:
International Association for Hydraulic Research Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR)
Online_Linkage: <http://time.er.usgs.gov/sics/vegclass/vegclass.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Carter, Virginia

Reel, Justin T.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Gammon, Patricia T.; Lee, Jonathan K.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Vegetative Resistance to Flow in South Florida: Summary of Vegetation Sampling at Sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River Slough, November, 1996
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open File Report
Issue_Identification: 99-218
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/99-218/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rybicki, Nancy B.

Reel, Justin T.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Gammon, Patricia T.; Carter, Virginia

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Vegetative Resistance to Flow: Summary of Vegetation Sampling in Taylor Slough, Everglades National Park, September 1997-July 1998
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 01-102
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/01-102/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Rybicki, Nancy B.

Reel, Justin T.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Gammon, Patricia T.; Carter, Virginia; Lee, Jonathan K.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Sawgrass density, biomass, and leaf area index: a flume study in support of research in wind sheltering effects in the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-172
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-172/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Lee, J. K.

Visser, H. M.; Jenter, H. L.; Duff, M. P.

Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
Velocity and Stage Data Collected in a Laboratory Flume for Water Surface Slope Determination Using a Pipe Manometer
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-393
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-393/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Carter, Virginia

Reel, Justin T.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Gammon, Patricia T.; Lee, Jonathan K.

Publication_Date: 1999
Title:
Vegetative Resistance to Flow in South Florida: Summary of Vegetation Sampling ar Sites NESRS3 and P33, Shark River Slough, November, 1996
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open File Report
Issue_Identification: 99-218
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/99-218/>

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report: not available
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Biomass of the sawgrass was measured in 37x55 cm quadrats; the number of quadrats varied by date. Leaves, culms, and dead material were cut and removed at 90, 60, 40, 20, and 0 cm from the sediment/water interface, starting at the top of the plants. The plant material from each layer was sorted (see plant description below) and dried at 105&deg; C for about 12 hours, weighed, and the weight expressed as grams dry weight per square meter (gdw/m2). This method, with variations in the number and positions of the quadrats, was used throughout the duration of the sawgrass experiments. For the first three sampling periods, all live leaves and culms were separated from dead standing leaves and culms and the remaining litter; thus, live biomass includes both leaves and culms, and dead biomass includes all dead material. In October, 1996, separation of live leaves and culms started and their biomass was measured separately. The dead standing leaves and culms were still combined with the dead litter. By March, 1997, there were dead upright leaves and culms at the time of the sampling and the biomass measurements were further refined to include them. In March and June of 1997, all components, live leaves, live culms, dead standing leaves, dead standing culms, and dead litter were separated and their biomass measured separately. Biomass data for individual quadrats was averaged to give biomass data for the flume for each date.

It was necessary to trim the tops of the sawgrass back to 1 meter total height frequently to permit the measuring cart to move across the top of the flume. For this reason, the >90 cm layer was not measured after September, 1995, until June 1997, when the tops of the plants were allowed to grow for wind simulation experiments. Visually, the plants were generally healthy and green with strongly stiff and upright leaves (the tips having been cut off). Some mortality occurred as time went on and new plants also sprouted. During some periods between sampling, plants were thinned out or transplanted to fill gaps. The amount of litter in the bottom increased naturally, but was far less than observed in the field. For this reason, the bottom litter was added to by throwing the cut-off tops of the plants into the flume in order to more closely simulate the natural field conditions.

Plant descriptions: For the descriptive information, all leaves and culms in each layer were counted and dried. Leaves were separated into small, medium, and large classes and 6 widths for each size class measured (when possible). Likewise, culms were divided into small and large classes and 6 diameters measured for each class. In October 1996, March 1997, and June 1997, additional descriptive information was collected including number of live culms, number of dead standing culms, number of live leaves, number of dead standing leaves, and, in June, 1997, composition of the vegetation above 90 cm.

Leaf area index (LAI) in m2 m-2 was calculated for each layer using the equation:

LAI = (LL x AW for the LL + ML x AW for the ML + SL x AW for the SL+ LC x AW for the LC + SC x AW for the SC) x DL,

where LL = number of large live plus dead leaves, AW = average width of live leaves or culms, ML = number of medium live plus dead leaves, SL = number of small live plus dead leaves, LC = number of large live plus dead culms, SC = number of small live plus dead culms, and DL = depth of the layer in meters. LAI includes only standing plant material; however, dead litter accumulates in the flume over time, and this also provides resistance to flow. To account for the resistance of the dead litter, the ratio of dead litter biomass to standing plant biomass was calculated, the LAI was multiplied by this ratio, and the result was added to the LAI to provide a corrected LAI.

For procedures used at each sampling date and treatment between and during sampling data, see OFR 99-230.

Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Velocity-profile and vegetation data collected in the flume in FY 1996 and FY 1997 were analyzed. Water-surface-elevation and pipe-flow data collected in the flume in FY 1996 were analyzed and used to calibrate a unique pipe manometer used to obtain water-surface slopes in wetlands. A 2.4-meter-long, 7.6-centimeter-diameter plastic pipe with a short elbow at one end is positioned horizontally just below the water surface and parallel to the flow direction with the elbow at the upstream end and pointing down. The velocity of water in the pipe is a function of the characteristics of the pipe and the difference in water-surface elevation at the entrance and exit. The centerline flow velocity in the pipe is measured by inserting an ADV that is equipped with a side-looking probe into the downstream end of the pipe. The pipe was calibrated in the flume at the hydraulics laboratory at Stennis Space Center and has proven to be an efficient, accurate method for the local measurement of water-surface slopes for the low-velocity, small-gradient flows of the Everglades.

Velocity-profile and vegetation data collected in the field in FY 1996 and FY 1997 at sites P33 and NESRS3 in the Everglades National Park were analyzed. Pipe-flow data collected at these sites in FY 1997 were analyzed, and water-surface slopes were obtained from the pipe-flow data. Field measurements were made in November 1997 in the Taylor Slough basin in the Everglades National Park to obtain information on the relation between flow and vegetation characteristics. Measurement of flow depth, flow velocity, and water-surface slope was necessary to evaluate flow resistance. Vegetation was sampled wherever hydraulic measurements were made. Approximately 20 hydraulic and 20 vegetation measurements were made during this field trip. An ADV was used to measure flow velocities, and the pipe manometer was used to obtain water-surface slopes.

Process_Date: 1998
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
In June of 1997, one end of the flume was covered with a wind cowling with a removable top to determine the wind sheltering effect of sawgrass. The wind cowling was a rectangular channel made of plywood with structural modifications to ensure a nearly uniform, steady wind field with minimal secondary circulation patterns (Jenter, 1999; Jenter and Duff, 1999). Wind was generated by a portable band of four fans arranged in a two-by-two array with a portable expansion section inserted between the fan bank and the wind cowling. The fan bank and expansion section could be moved to either end of the cowling to create winds that either opposed or were in the same direction as water flow in the flume. The removable top was intended to allow the plants to receive light from a band of mercury halide lamps when experiments were not being conducted. A series of wind sheltering experiments were conducted between June, 1997 and July, 1998.

During each experimental wind series, the vegetation in the flume was sampled to determine biomass per unit area, the number of live and dead standing culms and leaves per unit area, and leaf and culm width as a function of distance from the bed or the sediment/water interface. Other characteristics of the vegetation were also measured during these experiments. The general methods for measuring biomass and plant characteristics are outlined below. Measurements were made in June, 1997, October, 1997, April, 1998, and July, 1998. Measurement dates, type of measurements, condition of plants, and activity between measurements are summarized in the report.

Quadrat Biomass Measurements Sawgrass biomass was measured in 37x55 cm quadrats; eight to twelve quadrats were characterized on each date. In June, 1997, three quadrats were randomly selected from each quarter of the entire flume. Six of these (1A-C and 2A-C) were located in the area where the wind cowling would be placed. After June, 1997, the wind cowling was constructed, and the flume beneath the wind cowling was divided into an upstream (1) and a downstream (2) half. Four quadrats (A-D) were randomly selected in each half. For each quadrat and on all sample dates, leaves, culms, and dead material were cut and removed in 20-cm layers between 0 and 60 cm from the sediment/water interface and at 30-cm layers above 60 cm, starting at the top. The plant material from each layer was sorted (see plant descriptions below), dried at 105 &deg;C for about 12 hours, and weighed, with weight expressed as grams dry weight per square meter (gdw/m2). All vegetative components, live leaves, live culms, dead standing leaves, dead standing culms, and dead litter were separated, and their biomass was measured separately. Biomass data for individual quadrats were averaged to give layer-by-layer biomass data for the flume for each date.

Plant Descriptions For each quadrat and on all sample dates, all leaves and culms in each layer were counted. Live leaves and dead leaves were separated into small, medium, and large classes; six widths were measured for each live size class (when possible). Likewise, live and dead standing culms were divided into small and large classes, and six live diameters were measured for each class, except in April, 1998, and July, 1998, when no widths were obtained for dead culms. Descriptive data were summarized for each date. Leaf area index (LAI) in m2 m-2 was calculated for each layer using the equation:

LAI = (LL x AW for the LL + ML x AW for the ML + SL x AW for the SL+ LC x AW for the LC + SC x AW for the SC) x DL,

where LL = number of large live plus dead leaves, AW = average width of live leaves or culms, ML = number of medium live plus dead leaves, SL = number of small live plus dead leaves, LC = number of large live plus dead culms, SC = number of small live plus dead culms, and DL = depth of the layer in meters. LAI includes only standing plant material; however, dead litter accumulates in the flume over time, and this also provides resistance to flow. To account for the resistance of the dead litter, the ratio of dead litter biomass to standing plant biomass was calculated, the LAI was multiplied by this ratio, and the result was added to the LAI to provide a corrected LAI.

For procedures used at each sampling date and treatment between and during sampling data, see OFR 00-172.

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Nancy B. Rybicki
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Hydrologist, ER
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648 5728
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: nrybicki@usgs.gov
Hours_of_Service: 9:30-18:00 M-F
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Data collected in the USGS tilting flume at the Stennis Space Center, MS, were used to determine the flow resistance of uniform stands of sawgrass. Experiments were conducted for five flow depths between 0.15 and 0.76 meters, for mean cross-sectional velocities between 0.15 and 5 cm/s, and for three plant densities. Hydraulic measurements of the water-surface slope and flow velocities were made during each experiment using modified hook gages and acoustic Doppler velocity (ADV) meters. The vegetation in the flume was sampled and characterized during each experimental series (Rybicki, et. al., 1999), each consisting of 20 to 40 experiments. The vegetation in the flume was sampled to determine, as a function of depth, the biomass per unit area, number of stems and leaves per unit area, leaf and stem widths, as well as other characteristics. Concurrent flow and vegetation data were also collected at numerous sites in Shark Valley Slough, Taylor Slough, WCA-2, and the ENR area for various types of plant communities including sawgrass, rush, cattail, and others, to supplement the laboratory experiments.

In order to collect the data needed to evaluate and develop flow-resistance expressions, a unique pipe-manometer method was devised to determine the local water-surface slope in wetlands. The device is a 2.4-meter-long plastic pipe, 7.6 cm in diameter, with a 90-degree elbow at one end. The pipe was positioned in the water column parallel to the flow direction and an ADV meter equipped with a side-looking probe was used to measure the centerline flow velocity in the pipe. Knowing the flow characteristics of the pipe, the difference in the water-surface elevation at the ends of the pipe is calculated from appropriate expressions using the measured centerline flow velocity in the pipe. The pipe manometer is currently calibrated, and appears to hold great potential as an efficient, accurate method for the local measurement of the shallow water-surface slopes typical of the low-velocity, small-gradient flows in the Everglades.

The death of Dr. Jonathan Lee, the project chief, in December of 1999 prompted the need for development of new approaches to accomplish the project objectives. All project laboratory and field datasets collected over the four-year duration of the project (1996-1999) were organized and catalogued by project personnel during December of 1999 and January of 2000 and have been analyzed throughout the remainder of the year to yield velocity profiles, depth-averaged velocities and Manning’s n values. Data from the laboratory, Shark Slough, Taylor Slough and Water Conservation Area 2A have been analyzed and tabulated. Summary reports describing these data sets were prepared.

In the spring of 2000, contracts were initiated with Dr. Vincent Lai to complete the pipe manometer theoretical analysis and calibration and Dr. Lisa Roig to complete the vegetative resistance calculations for both laboratory and field data.

All data pertaining to the calibration of the pipe manometer were processed during January and February of 2000. The data were turned over to Lai for evaluation in March 2000. In turn, Lai has provided the Project Chiefs with a draft report describing the theory of the pipe manometer, including definition of the limits of laminar, transitional and turbulent flow theory.

At the end of March, Roig initiated a literature review on the subject of vegetative resistance to flow using Lee’s files and notes as one source of reference information. This review is completed and serves as a precursor to her analysis of Lee’s laboratory and field data. It also serves as a valuable reference resource for others contributing to this project.

Major scientific outcomes for this project during FY 2000 included:

1. The theoretical limits of applicability of Lee’s pipe manometer method for computing water-surface slopes have been determined and defined. This allows other researchers to identify situations in which the pipe manometer technique can be used to accurately measure the local water-surface slope.

2. The pipe manometer calibration data show a distinct, nearly-linear variation between the pipe centerline velocity and the square root of the water surface slope. For the pipe manometer geometry used on this project in both the field and laboratory, this implies that the developed calibration is applicable throughout the range of velocities typically observed in the Everglades (Calibration data collected in the laboratory span the range 0.3 cm/s - 7.5 cm/s).

Process_Date: 2000
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Harry Jenter
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 430 National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5916
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-5484
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hjenter@usgs.gov

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Table 1 shows the procedures used at each vegetation sampling date and treatment between and during sampling dates

Table 2 contains selected results of flume vegetation sampling for six months. Parameters are Average total biomass, Class (medium sawgrass), Total number of leaves at 40-60 cm, Total number of leaves at 20-40 cm, Total number of culms at 0-20 cm, Total number of culms at 20-40 cm, and Total dead biomass at 9 months, 13 months, 17 months, 21 months, 27 months, and 30 months.

Table 3 shows the summary of uncorrected Leaf Area Indices (LAI) for six plant ages (9 months, 13 months, 17 months, 21 months, 27 months, and 30 months) for 60-90 cm, 40-60 cm, 24-40 cm, 0-20 cm and total.

Table 4 shows data for the sawgrass biomass in the flume for September, 1995 (9 months)

Table 5 shows data for the sawgrass biomass in the flume for January, 1996 (13 months)

Table 6 shows data for the sawgrass biomass in the flume for May, 1996 (17 months)

Table 7 shows data for the sawgrass biomass in the flume for October, 1996 (21 months)

Table 8 shows data for the sawgrass biomass in the flume for March, 1997 (27 months)

Table 9 shows data for the sawgrass biomass in the flume for June, 1997 (30 months)

Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS Open-File Report99-230

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: vegetative resistance to flow data
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: PDF
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
tables showing procedures, selected results, and data collected for six sampling dates
Transfer_Size: 2.8
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/99-230/pdf.html>
Access_Instructions: The data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: html tables
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/99-230/tables.html>
Access_Instructions: The data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090304
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata Part 1: Biological Data Profile
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/veg_resist_flow_data.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Wed Mar 04 14:34:40 2009