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Development and Stability of Everglades Tree Islands, Ridge & Slough, & Marl Prairies

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Debra Willard

William H. Orem

Publication_Date: 2007
Title:
Development and Stability of Everglades Tree Islands, Ridge & Slough, & Marl Prairies
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: spreadsheets, database, html tables
Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/index.php?project_url=tree_islands>
Description:
Abstract:
Analysis of 209 pollen assemblages from surface samples in ten vegetation types in the Florida Everglades form the basis to identify wetland sub-environments from the pollen record. This calibration dataset makes it possible to infer past trends in hydrology and disturbance regime based on pollen assemblages preserved in sediment cores. Pollen assemblages from sediment cores collected in different vegetation types throughout the Everglades provide evidence on wetland response to natural fluctuations in climate as well as impacts of human alteration of Everglades hydrology. Sediment cores were located primarily in sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, tree islands, sawgrass ridges, sloughs, marl prairies, and mangroves. The datasets contain raw data on pollen abundance as well as pollen concentration (pollen grains per gram dry sediment).
Purpose:
Everglades restoration planning requires an understanding of the impact of natural and human-induced environmental change on wetland stability, and this project focuses specifically on three wetland types: tree islands, the sawgrass ridge and slough system, and marl prairies.

Tree islands are considered key indicators of the health of the Everglades ecosystem because of their sensitivity to both flooding and drought conditions. Tree islands also act as a sink for nutrients in the ecosystem and may play an important role in regulating nutrient dynamics. Although management strategies to restore and even create tree islands are being formulated, the published data on their age, developmental history, geochemistry, and response to hydrologic alterations is limited. To address these issues, this project integrates floral and geochemical data with geologic and vegetational mapping activities to establish the timing of tree-island formation and impacts of both flooding and droughts on tree islands throughout the Everglades.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1962
Ending_Date: 2007
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.25
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80.2
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 27
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 25
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: tree islands
Theme_Keyword: ridge and slough landscape
Theme_Keyword: vegetation
Theme_Keyword: pollen
Theme_Keyword: marl prairies
Theme_Keyword: sawgrass ridge
Theme_Keyword: slough
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 012
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, DC, NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place_Keyword: Palm Beach County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge
Place_Keyword: Rattlesnake Ridge
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 1
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2A
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3A
Place_Keyword: WCA1
Place_Keyword: WCA2
Place_Keyword: WCA3
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
Data from publications have been reviewed and approved. All other data are provisional until reviewed and approved for official publication.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Debra Willard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Project Chief
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5320
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dwillard@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/tree_islands/tree_island.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: location of tree islands cored 1998-2000
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/projects/tree_islands/images/devnstability03fig1x.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Location of transects across ridges and sloughs, Water Conservation Area 3A, Everglades, Florida.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/03-26/figure2map.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Locality of tree islands sampled in Everglades between 1998-2002
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/willard/pollendata-map.gif>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Surface samples collected for pollen analysis in southern Florida
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/willard/EvergladesCoreMap5-07x.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: Map showing core sites through 2007
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Project personnel included Anne Bates, Christopher Bernhardt, Patrick Buchanan, Margo Corum, Julie Damon, Charles Holmes, David Korejwo, Bryan Landacre, Harry Lerch, Marci Marot, James Murray, William Orem, Tom Sheehan, Neil Waibel, Lisa Weimer (deceased), and Debra Willard.

Assistance with the previous phase of the project was provided by: Lorraine Heisler, Tim Towles: Florida Game and Fresh-Water Fish Commission. Scientific collaboration and logistic support and elevation and vegetation data from tree islands and guidance in tree-island selection.

Fred Sklar, Susan Newman, Tom Fontaine, Ken Rutchey, Yegang Wu, Steve Krupa, Cindy Bevier, Jeff Giddings: South Florida Water Management District. Scientific collaboration and logistic support, elevation and vegetation data from tree islands and guidance in tree-island selection, and data on ground-water/surface water interactions and cores with lithologic description of underlying bedrock

Laura Brandt: Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge. Scientific collaboration and guidance on tree-island selection, vegetation data.

Tom Armentano, David Jones: Everglades National Park. Scientific collaboration on tropical hammocks in Everglades National Park.

David L. Dilcher: Florida Museum of Natural History. Scientific collaboration and vegetational reconstruction and evaluation of Late Holocene CO2 concentrations.

Native_Data_Set_Environment: MS Excel spreadsheets, MS Access database
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, Debra A.

Weimer, Lisa M.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title: Palynological Census Data from Surface Samples in South Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-0867
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97867.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Willard, Debra A.
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Pollen Census Data from Southern Florida: Sites Along an Nutrient Gradient in Water Conservation Area 2A
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-0497
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97497.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, Debra A.

Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Weimer, Lisa (deceased); Gamez, Desire; Cooper, Sherri R.; Jensen, Jennifer

Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Atlas of Pollen and Spores of the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Palynology
Issue_Identification: 28
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Arlington, TX
Publisher: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists
Other_Citation_Details:
Posted with permission from Palynology and the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/pollen_atlas/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Marshall, Curtis H.

Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; Steyaert, Louis T.; Willard, Debra A.

Publication_Date: 200401
Title:
The Impact of Anthropogenic Land-Cover Change on the Florida Peninsula Sea Breezes and Warm Season Sensible Weather
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Monthly Weather Review
Issue_Identification: v. 132, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boston, MA
Publisher: American Meterological Society
Other_Citation_Details:
Permission to post a copy of this work on the SOFIA server has been provided by the American Meterological Society
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/cover_weather/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Orem, W. H.

Willard, D. A.; Lerch, H. E.; Bates, A. L.; Boylan, A.; Corum, M.

Publication_Date: 200302
Title:
Nutrient geochemistry of sediments from two tree islands in Water Conservation Area 3B, The Everglades, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Other_Citation_Details:
in Tree Islands of the Everglades

Sklar, Fred H. and van der Valk, A. (editors)

Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/sfrsf/rooms/wild_wet_eco/tree_islands/ch5.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kloor, Keith
Publication_Date: 2001
Title: Forgotten Islands
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Audubon magazine
Issue_Identification: July-August 2001
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: National Audobon Society
Other_Citation_Details:
The article is available for purchase from Audubon Magazine. Search the Archives for the July-August 2001 issue
Online_Linkage: <http://www.audubonmagazine.org/issueArchives.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, Debra A.

Holmes, Charles W.

Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Pollen and geochronological data from South Florida Taylor Creek Site 2
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-035
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/flaecohist/publications/OFR97-35.pdf>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, Debra A.

Weimer, Lisa M.; Riegel, W. L.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Issue_Identification: v. 113, n. 4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B.V.
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00346667>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, D. A.

Holmes, C. W.; Korvela, M. S.; Mason, D.; Murray, J. B.; Orem, W. H.; Towles, T.

Publication_Date: 200302
Title:
Paleoecological Insights on Fixed Tree Island Development in the Florida Everglades: I. Environmental Controls
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Dordrecht, Netherlands
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Other_Citation_Details:
in Tree Islands of the Everglades

Sklar, F. H. and van der Valk A. (editors)

Online_Linkage:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/sfrsf/rooms/wild_wet_eco/tree_islands/index.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, D. A.

Orem, W. H.

Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Tree Islands of the Florida Everglades - A Disappearing Resource
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.SGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 03-26
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/03-26/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bernhardt, C. E.

Willard, D. A.; Marot, M.; Holmes, C. W.

Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Anthropogenic and natural variation in Ridge and Slough pollen assemblages
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2004-1448
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2004-1448/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, D. A.

Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
The Florida Everglades Ecosystem: Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts over the Last Two Millenia
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletins of American Paleontology
Issue_Identification: v. 361
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
Publisher: Paleontological Research Institute
Other_Citation_Details: in Paleoecology of South Florida, B. R. Wardlaw, ed.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Grimm, E. C.
Publication_Date: 1992
Title:
CONISS: a Fortran 77 program for stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis by the mothod of incremental sum of squares
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Computers & Geosciences
Issue_Identification: v. 13, issue 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science, Ltd.
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00983004>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Traverse, A.
Publication_Date: 1988
Title: Paleopalynology
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Boston, MA
Publisher: Unwin Hyman
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Stockmarr, J.
Publication_Date: 1971
Title: Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Pollen et Spores
Issue_Identification: v. 13
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Paris, France
Publisher: Museum national d'histoire naturelle
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Overpeck, J. T.

Webb, III, T.; Prentice, I. C.

Publication_Date: 1985
Title:
Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: Dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogs
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Quaternary Research
Issue_Identification: v 23, issue 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science, Ltd.
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00335894>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Willard, D. A.
Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Tree Islands of the Florida Everglades - Long-term stability and response to hydrologic change
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: factsheet
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Fact Sheet
Issue_Identification: 2004-3095
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3095>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Bernhardt, C.E

Willard, D. A.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title:
Marl prairie vegetation response to 20th century hydrologic change
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2006-1355
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr20061355>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, D. A.

Cronin, T. M.

Publication_Date: 2007
Title:
Paleoecology and ecosystem restoration: case studies from Chesapeake Bay and the Florida Everglades
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Issue_Identification: vol. 5, issue 9
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: ithica, NY
Publisher: Ecological Society of America
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed at the URL below by selecting the article.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/070015>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, D. A.

Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Landacre, B.; Marot, M.

Publication_Date: 2006
Title: Response of Everglades tree islands to environmental change
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Ecological Monographs
Issue_Identification: v. 76, n. 4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
Publisher: Ecological Society of America
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed at the URL below by selecting the article.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esajournals.org/toc/emon/76/4>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Langeland, K.
Publication_Date: 1990
Title: Exotic Woody Plant Control Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Circular
Issue_Identification: 868
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Florida
Publisher: Florida Coooperative Extension Service
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Flynn, W. W.
Publication_Date: 1968
Title:
The determination of low levels of polonium-210 in environmental materials
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Analytica Chimica Acta
Issue_Identification: v. 43
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume number.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00032670>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stuiver, M.

Reimer, P. J.

Publication_Date: 1993
Title:
Extended 14C database and revised CALIB 3.0 14C age calibration program
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Radiocarbon
Issue_Identification: v. 35, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tucson, AZ
Publisher: University of Arizona
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Talma, A. S.

Vogel, J. C.

Publication_Date: 1993
Title: A simplified approach to calibrating C14 dates
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Radiocarbon
Issue_Identification: v. 35, n. 2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tucson, AZ
Publisher: University of Arizona
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Benninghoff, W. S.
Publication_Date: 1962
Title:
Calculation of pollen and spore density in sediments by addition of exotic pollen in known quantities
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Pollen et Spores
Issue_Identification: v. 4
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Paris, France
Publisher: Museum national d'histoire naturelle
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Maher, L. J., Jr
Publication_Date: 1981
Title:
Statistics for microfossil concentration measurements employing samples spiked with marker grains
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Issue_Identification: v. 32, issues 2-3
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher: Elsevier Science B. V.
Other_Citation_Details:
The full article is available via journal subscription or single article purchase. The abstract may be viewed on the Science Direct website by selecting the volume and issue number.
Online_Linkage: <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00346667>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Stockmarr, J.
Publication_Date: 1973
Title:
Determination of spore concentration with an electronic particle counter
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Arbog
Issue_Identification: v. 1972, p. 87-89
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Copenhagen, Denmark
Publisher: Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Vogel, J. C.

Fuls, A.; Visser, E,; Becker, B.

Publication_Date: 1993
Title: Pretoria Calibration Curve for Short Lived Samples
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Radiocarbon
Issue_Identification: v. 35, n. 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tucson, Arizona
Publisher: University of Arizona

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: not applicable
Completeness_Report:
Pollen data from surface samples collected during the 1960s:

Column A (the sample ID) refers to the sites listing. Line 1 lists taxa identified in the samples. For lines 2-13, original raw data on total pollen grains were unavailable, so back-calculation from percentages to original counts was not possible. The numbers provided in these lines are percent abundances. For all other samples, the number of grains counted for each taxon was determined by back-calculation from percentages and total grains counted, as provided by Riegel, 1965.

Pollen from surface sample collected in 1995 and 1998:

Column A (sample ID) refers to the sites listing. Line 1 identifies taxa identified in the samples. Numbers provided for all taxa represent raw counts. Numbers of exotics counted refers to number of Lycopodium grains counted during each pollen count. For each sample, one tablet of Lycopodium grains was added before processing. Each tablet contains 12, 542 +/- 416 Lycopodium grains. Sample weight refers to the dry weight of sample processed. Pollen concentration (pollen grains/gram dry sediment) was calculated using the formula

pollen grains/gram dry sediment= [(pollen counted/exotics counted) x 12542]/sediment weight

Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Sampleing site locations were determined using GPS
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Core Collection and Sampling

We collected sediment cores using a piston corer with a 10 cm diameter core barrel. The core barrel was pushed through the sediments until it contacted the underlying limestone at all sites except in Loxahatchee NWR, where peat thicknesses in excess of 2 meters would require alternative coring strategies. After core collection, we extruded sediment from the core barrel and sampled it at 1 cm increments for the upper 20 cm and at 2 cm increments at greater depths. We described sediment lithology as samples were extruded. We dried samples in a 50 deg C oven and subsampled sediments at the base of each core and at 20 cm increments above the base for radiocarbon dating. Bulk peats were dated using conventional radiocarbon datin

Process_Date: 1997
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Geochronology

Age models for the last century of deposition are based on 210Pb (lead-210) and, where applicable, first occurrences of pollen of the exotic plant Casuarina which was introduced to south Florida in the late 19th century (Langeland, 1990). Lead-210 (210Pb) activity was measured by alpha spectroscopy using the method outlined in Flynn (1968) in which 210Pb and its progeny, polonium-210 (210Po), are assumed to be in secular equilibrium. Supported 210Pb activity was determined by continuing measurements until activity became constant with depth. Excess 210Pb activity was calculated by subtracting the supported 210Pb activity from the total 210Pb activity. Accumulation rates were calculated by fitting an exponential decay curve to the measured data using least squares optimization and making the assumptions of a constant initial excess lead-210 concentration (the CIC [constant initial concentration] model) . In pre-20th century sediments, models are derived from linear interpolation between radiocarbon data points obtained on bulk sediment samples, which were calibrated to calendar years using the Pretoria Calibration Procedure (Stuiver et al., 1993; Talma and Vogel, 1993; Vogel et al., 1993). The shorter hydroperiods and shallower water depths on tree-island heads result in seasonal drying and oxidation of sediments. We have noted that radiocarbon dates from tree-island head sediments appear to be artificially old relative to those in the tail and adjacent marsh. Cores collected in the near tail, directly downstream from the head, have radiocarbon dates and vegetational trends that are consistent both internally and with adjacent wetlands. Therefore, we used cores from the near tail as our representative sites to detect vegetation changes on teardrop-shaped tree islands and for comparison with patterns documented in the adjacent marsh.

Process_Date: 1997
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Analysis of Pollen Assemblages

Approximately 0.5-1.0 gram of dry sediment was used for palynological analysis. Pollen and spores were isolated from these samples using standard palynological techniques (Traverse, 1988; Willard et al, 2001a,b). After drying and weighing samples, Lycopodium marker tablets with known concentrations of Lycopodium spores were added to approximately 0.5 g of sediment for calculation of absolute pollen concentrations (Stockmarr, 1971). The samples were first acetolyzed (9 parts acetic anhydride : 1 part sulfuric acid) in a hot-water bath (100 deg C) for 10 minutes, then neutralized, and treated with 10% KOH in a hot-water bath for 15 minutes. Neutralized samples were sieved with 10 µm and 200 µm sieves, and the 10-200 µm fraction was stained with Bismarck Brown, mixed with warm glycerin jelly, and mounted on microscope slides. Raw data for pollen samples are reposited in the North American Pollen Database (NAPD) at the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology in Boulder, CO (<http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pollen.html>) and at the US Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) site (<https://sofia.usgs.gov>).

Pollen and spore identification (minimally 300 grains per sample) was based on reference collections of the United States Geological Survey (Reston, VA) and Willard et al. (2004). Absolute pollen concentrations were calculated using the marker-grain method described by Benninghoff (1962). Marker tablets of Lycopodium spores were the source of the exotic grains, and the quantity of Lycopodium spores in the marker tablets was determined by the manufacturer with a Coulter Counter following the procedures of Stockmarr (1973). Absolute pollen concentration was calculated using the formula (Maher, 1981): Pconc=RM/V,

Where: Pconc = pollen per gram dry sediment; R=pollen grains counted/marker grains counted; M=marker grains added; V=dry weight of sediment

Our interpretations of past plant communities are based on the quantitative method of modern analogs (Overpeck et al., 1985). We calculated squared chord distance (SCD) between down-core pollen assemblages and a suite of 197 surface samples collected throughout southern Florida in the early 1960s and 1995-2002 (Willard et al., 2001b and this research) to define the similarity between each fossil and modern pollen assemblage. Internal comparison among surface samples from ten vegetation types indicates that samples with SCD values < 0.15 may be considered close analogs (Willard et al., 2001b). If analogs were present for a fossil assemblage, we identified the source vegetation for the fossil assemblage as one of the twelve types represented in the modern database. We divided cores into pollen zones based on a combination of visual inspection, objective zonation using CONISS (Grimm, 1992), and modern analogs.

Process_Date: 2007
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Debra A Willard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648 5320
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648 6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: dwillard@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: Everglades tree islands, Ridge and Slough system, marl prairies
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 209

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.1
Longitude_Resolution: 0.1
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Degrees, minutes, and decimal seconds
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The data for each collection site include the sample id and raw abundance data for each species identified. In the 1960s dataset, raw abundance was back-calculated from percentage data because original raw data was unavailable. The data for the 1990s dataset include the sample number and map ID and percent abundance for each species. See the individual datasets for the species found at the sites.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: USGS personnel

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Ecosystem History of South Florida Estuaries Database
Distribution_Liability:
The field data contained in this database have been compiled, standardized and verified to the original records.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Access
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: The Access database is available as a zipped file
File_Decompression_Technique: The file must be "unzipped" before use
Transfer_Size: 4.2
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/>
Access_Instructions: The database may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: South Florida pollen data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content: Each file contains data for a specific time period
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/willard/willardsflpollen.html>
Access_Instructions:
Excel files for pollen data from the 1960's and 1990's, 2001 and 2002 are available from the SOFIA website.
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Florida and Biscayne Bay Pollen Data
Distribution_Liability: The data have no implied or explicit guarantees
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Excel
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Information_Content:
Pollen data is available as a separate spreadsheet for individual sample sites
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/willard/willardpollen.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Pollen - Core 19A
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: html
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: tables
Format_Information_Content: percent abundance of pollen for Russell Bank 19A site
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/97-460/table3.html>
Access_Instructions: Data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Pollen - Core 6A
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: html
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: table
Format_Information_Content: Percent Abundance of Pollen - Bob Allen Core 6A
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/95-628/table4.html>
Access_Instructions: The data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S.Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Core, Lead 210 and Pollen Assemblages
Distribution_Liability: No warrantees are implied or explicit for the data
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: html
Format_Version_Number: unknown
Format_Specification: tables
Format_Information_Content: The data are in Appendixes from OFR 2004-1448.
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
<https://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2004-1448/appendixes.html>
Access_Instructions: The data may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090522
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

This page is <https://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata/sflwww/willard_tree_islands_04.html>

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster
Generated by mp version 2.8.18 on Fri May 22 18:14:06 2009