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Project Scope of Work
Project Scope of Work 2003
Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network for Construction, Instrumentation, and Ten-Year Operation of Seventeen Water Quality and Streamflow Monitoring Stations for Lake Okeechobee Watershed Project
Monitoring of the water quality, streamflow, and other physical parameters will be conducted at three scales in the Lake Okeechobee Watershed (LOW): Programmatic, Project, and Basin. Programmatic-scale monitoring is currently being conducted by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) through the collection of water quality and streamflow data at Lake Okeechobee inflow points. Project-scale monitoring details will be formulated during the planning and design of the Lake Okeechobee Watershed Project (LOWP). The Project Management Plan (PMP) for the LOWP states to meet the objectives of Basin-scale monitoring, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) will measure phosphorus and nitrogen loads in selected streams of the LOW drainage area for at least ten (10) years. After the PMP was developed, the LOW Project Delivery Team (PDT) further defined the terms 'basin' and 'sub-basin' in order to clarify the scope of the sub-basin-scale monitoring network. 'Basin' was defined as the drainage area controlled by an outlet structure discharging directly to Lake Okeechobee, while 'sub-basin' was defined as a sub-set of a basin. Since the PDT wanted to examine loads at several locations within basins, the name of the monitoring network was changed from 'basin-scale' to sub-basin-scale'. In November 2001, the USGS began Phase One, the initial planning phase of the sub- basin-scale monitoring network, which included the development of a ten (10) year monitoring network design proposal, schedule, and cost estimate.
The 20 basins, that constitute the LOWP drainage area, are generally referred to by the basin outlet structure or the main canal designation that drains the basin. The LOW basins are:
Water quality parameters and potential sites for the USGS sub-basin-scale monitoring network were selected based on input from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), SFWMD and other members of the LOW PDT. Using selection criteria developed by the PDT, 25 potential monitoring sites were identified. USGS personnel visited all 25 sites in the spring of 2002 and recommended 20 of those sites to the LOW PDT for Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network. In July 2002, USGS submitted a draft of the Basin-Scale Monitoring Network Design Proposal for Basin-Scale monitoring and a detailed cost estimate for review by the LOW PDT. The USGS retained the term 'Basin' in the proposal title to be consistent with terms in the PMP. In August 2002, the PDT reduced the number of Basin-Scale Monitoring Network sites from 20 to 16, and requested one additional site to make a total of 17. The PDT also requested low-level water quality detection limits for phosphorus and nitrogen species (see Analytical Methods in Task 7). USGS will submit an addendum to the Network Design Proposal for Basin-Scale Monitoring and a revised cost estimate. Note that some Figures and Tables referenced throughout this scope of work (SOW) are found in the July 2002 USGS Network Design for Basin-Scale Monitoring and/or addendum.
SCOPE OF WORK
This SOW details the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network which includes: construction of seventeen (17) water quality and streamflow monitoring stations, purchase and installation of monitoring equipment, initial equipment activation and calibration, data collection, processing, and reporting for year 1 through year 10. This SOW also presents a proposed time schedule, expected cost for year 1 through year 10, and staffing need and cost estimate assumptions. The eight tasks and their durations described in this SOW are based on the latest revisions and comments by the USACE, SFWMD, the USGS, and other members of the PDT to the Phase One Network Design Proposal for Basin-scale Monitoring.
Below are the seventeen water quality and streamflow monitoring stations for the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network:
The following is the list of major tasks and associated subtasks in the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Ten -Year Monitoring Network SOW:
The following is the detailed narrative of each of the eight tasks and associated subtasks listed above.
Task 1 - Project Oversight
This task includes all labor, travel, and per diem costs associated with Project Oversight for a Phase Two Ten-Year Sub-Basin Scale Monitoring Network. Task 1 is comprised of three subtasks:
Subtask 1a: Work Plan (Network Design Proposal)
Subtask 1b: General Oversight and Planning
Subtask 1c: Selection of Subcontractor for Construction of Monitoring Stations
Task 2 - Construction of Water Quality and Streamflow Monitoring Stations
This task includes all Subcontractor costs associated with the construction of seventeen (17) monitoring stations for Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network. The Subcontractor shall construct the monitoring stations at the pre-selected site locations (see Figures 2 and C-1 thru C-10 of the Network Design Proposal) according to specifications provided by the USGS. Note as stated in subtask 1c, USGS may elect to refurbish/construct three (3) of the seventeen (17) monitoring stations.
A 'typical' water quality and streamflow monitoring station shall consist of:
Walkway extending over the stream from the bank and/or a platform attached to a bridge
The Subcontractor will be responsible for purchasing all construction materials for completing a monitoring station installation. The Subcontractor will be responsible for construction and installation of the walkways and platforms with safety railing, enclosures for the DCP and Autosampler, stilling wells, support pole apparatus for the ADVMs, support poles and wood planks on which to attach the staff gages, and support poles on which to attach the ionization rods and satellite antennas. The Subcontractor will also be responsible for installing chain-link fencing and locked gates at some monitoring stations to prevent public access and/or vandalism. It is anticipated that the Subcontractor will construct an average of two (2) monitoring stations per week and complete all station construction by June 2003. All monitoring stations shall be constructed of durable materials able to last at least ten (10) years after initial construction is complete. Installation of the monitoring station equipment will be performed by USGS personnel and is described in more detail in Task 5. A site sketch for each network monitoring station location has been prepared (see Figures B-1 thru B-18 of the Network Design Proposal Addendum) for use in real estate matters and development of required equipment, supplies, and construction materials for each site. The site sketch also shows how monitoring equipment is sited and constructed, and how access to the equipment is recommended.
The SFWMD shall be responsible for obtaining all necessary permits and approvals to secure the right of ingress and egress to perform work on properties not owned or controlled by the SFWMD from local, state, and federal authorities, and private landowners. The Subcontractor shall be responsible for obtaining all other permits, licenses, and approvals from all local, state, and federal authorities for the performance of the work. All equipment, supplies and miscellaneous materials will become the property of the Government upon presentation and approval of an expense voucher and reimbursement by the Government. The Subcontractor shall be required to submit completed as-built drawings of all station installations to the USGS.
Task 3 - Initial Topographic Survey
This task includes all subcontractor costs to perform an initial topographic survey in year 1, in accordance with CERP criteria for vertical and horizontal datum control at all seventeen (17) monitoring stations. The contract for topographic surveys will be administered by either USGS or USACE. If the USACE administers the surveying contract, no costs would be incurred by the USGS under this task and this task will be deleted from the SOW.
Task 4 - Initial Monitoring Equipment and Other Miscellaneous Project Purchases
This task includes all costs associated with purchasing monitoring equipment for seventeen (17) monitoring stations and other miscellaneous equipment needed for the entire project. Task 4 is comprised of six subtasks:
Subtask 4a: Purchase of Equipment for Type 'A' Sites
Subtask 4b: Purchase of Equipment for Type 'B' Site
Subtask 4c: Purchase of Equipment for Type 'C' Site
Subtask 4d: Purchase of Equipment for Type 'D' Site
Subtask 4e: Purchase of Back-Up Monitoring Equipment
Subtask 4f: Other Miscellaneous Project Purchases
Task 5 - Instrumentation of Water Quality and Streamflow Monitoring Stations
This task includes all lump sum labor, travel, per diem and incidentals costs for USGS personnel to install all necessary equipment for data collection at seventeen (17) monitoring stations after construction is complete. USGS personnel will wire all monitoring equipment to a central datalogger. The datalogger will be programmed to collect data from monitoring equipment at specific intervals. The datalogger or the ADVM will trigger the autosampler to collect a stream water aliquot based on specific conditions. Lastly, the datalogger will be programmed to transmit all collected data via satellite transmitter and the GOES satellite system to the USGS database.
In the last decade, techniques for continuous streamflow monitoring have evolved from the more traditional "stage-discharge" approach, in which discharge is computed as a function of stream stage, into the area of hydroacoustics, which require a greater technical skill for measurements and data processing. Hydroacoustics velocity meters provide continuous "index" velocity measurements, which can be used to develop discharge ratings at sites where traditional stage-discharge relationships alone are inadequate. Both stage-discharge and index-velocity techniques are planned for the LOWP sub-basin-scale monitoring network. In general, the index-velocity technique will be used when the relation between stage and discharge is unstable due to backwater effects, reverse flows, and changes in channel roughness. All sites will initially be instrumented for index-velocity measurements until the hydraulics at a particular site are better understood. If a stage-discharge approach is deemed appropriate for a particular site, the index-velocity equipment may remain at the site to assist in triggering the autosampler, or it may be removed and used as back-up equipment for another site.
Task 6 - Streamflow Monitoring
This task includes all lump sum labor, travel, materials, and per diem costs for USGS personnel to perform streamflow monitoring for the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network. The work performed under this task includes preparation for streamflow monitoring, maintenance of continuous stage and index velocity equipment, initial streamflow monitoring prior to water quality sampling to determine an appropriate trigger volume for the autosamplers and/or adjustments to the trigger volume, and monthly streamflow monitoring in year 1 to establish and calibrate the rating curve at each monitoring station.
The discharge rating curve at each station will be developed according to USGS protocols presented in Rantz and others (1983a or b), and Kennedy (1984). Physical features that form the hydraulic control for the monitoring station may change over time (i.e. vegetal growth, channel scour), creating a "shift" in the stage-area and/or stage-discharge rating. In such cases, the rating curve will be adjusted or augmented as necessary in accordance with USGS guidelines presented in Rantz and others (1983a or b), and Kennedy (1984). The location of periodic discharge measurements at a station at high stage may be different than the "normal" measurement location at low or medium stage due to limited access and safety of personnel. If two different measurement cross-sections are necessary, they will be chosen so that there are no appreciable inflows between them (Rantz and others, 1983a or b). Expected measurements cross-sections in low and high stage conditions are labeled on site sketches (see Figures B-1 thru B-18 of the Network Design Proposal Addendum). The method of discharge measurement may also change depending on site conditions. Measurements may be made from a boat, bridge, culvert, or by wading into the stream, using acoustic meters such as a Flowtracker or an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Mechanical current meters such as Price AA or Pygmy meters may be used in rare cases as back-ups to the acoustic meters or if conditions dictate their use. Guidelines provided in USGS TWRI manuals will be followed when choosing an appropriate instrument.
Streamflow measurement methods proposed for Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network conform to procedures listed in draft CERP quality assurance and USGS protocols. In addition, USGS will operate from a comprehensive quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program to ensure quality data collection. Task 6 is comprised of six subtasks:
Subtask 6a: Planned Streamflow Monitoring
Subtask 6b: Additional Support for Storm Event Streamflow Monitoring
Subtask 6c: Monitoring Station Site Surveys by USGS
Subtask 6d: Data Processing
A number of mechanisms are in place to ensure QA/QC of the streamflow data collected by USGS personnel. Technical memoranda have been written at the national level that provides guidance for the proper collection, processing, and storage (as well as archival) of streamflow data. QA documents include the Surface Water Quality Assurance Plan, Flood Plan, ADVM Quality Assurance Plan (under development in most locations with guidance from Regional and National Hydroacoustic Committees), as well as safety guidelines that pertain to all areas of streamflow measurement data collection. Within these QA documents are the requirements for calibration of equipment and documentation of the calibration. In addition, the USGS Office of Surface Water reviews each field office every 3 years on project approach, data collection activities, data management, and data interpretation. Hydrologic data collected by USGS hydrologic technicians are evaluated annually by the technician responsible for each monitoring station, and then checked by another individual in the USGS. Moreover, a certain percentage of all streamflow data computed for the year is further reviewed by a senior USGS technician. The data are then processed through a series of scripts to prepare them for publication.
Subtask 6e: Maintenance and Repair
Subtask 6f: Capital Improvement Fund
Task 7 - Water Quality Monitoring
This task includes all lump sum labor, travel, materials, analytical, shipping, and per diem costs for USGS personnel to perform ten years of water quality monitoring for the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network. The work under this task includes preparation for water quality monitoring; collection of manual, flow-weighted composite, and QC samples in Year 1; routine maintenance of water quality equipment; and processing the water quality data. Water quality sampling methods proposed for Phase Two shall conform to procedures listed in draft CERP quality assurance and USGS protocols. In addition, the USGS will operate from a comprehensive quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program to ensure quality data collection. Task 7 is comprised of seven subtasks:
Subtask 7a: Water Quality Sampling
Water Quality Sample Collection
Two types of samples will be collected as part of the water quality monitoring network:
Both types of samples will be collected weekly, provided that there is flow during the week. The sample volume collected from the autosampler will be split; one half of the sample will be submitted for analysis and the other half will be archived at 4 degrees Celsius in a refrigerator at the USGS Orlando office. If the original sample is rejected at the laboratory due to bottle breakage, erroneous result, etc., the archived sample will be submitted in its place. However, if the original sample is analyzed successfully and results are received from the laboratory, the archived sample will be destroyed. For autosampled constituents, concentrations determined from the weekly flow-proportional composite samples will be used as the primary source of data for load computations. If both autosampler samples are rejected, results from the manual sample will be used to compute an instantaneous load. Dissolved phosphorus, dissolved ortho-phosphate phosphorus, dissolved ammonia nitrogen, and total suspended solids concentrations will be determined solely from weekly manual samples, because they are not stable in an unrefrigerated autosampler in pre-acidified bottles. All loads will be flagged based on whether they were calculated from the flow-weighted composite data or manual data.
Automatic sampler lines will be positioned in the center of flow at each site. Each automatic sampler will be triggered to collect a 100-milliliter aliquot of stream water after a set volume of streamflow has passed the site, as determined by velocity measurements from the ADVM and streamflow rating curve equations programmed in the datalogger. The volume of streamflow required to trigger the automatic sampler will be set to collect stream-water samples as frequently as possible without filling all the automatic sampler bottles before the site is serviced. The trigger volume will be chosen to permit some resolution during storm events and represent diurnal fluctuations in water quality constituents.
Water quality samples to be analyzed for some phosphorus and nitrogen species will be preserved with sulfuric acid to prevent changes in concentrations due to biological activity. Each autosampler bottle will be pre-acidified with 1 milliliter of 50% (by volume) ACS-grade or better sulfuric acid per 1 liter of sample water. During each site visit, stream-water samples contained in each autosampler bottle will be composited in a decontaminated plastic churn splitter. Sub-samples will then be withdrawn for analysis of total phosphorus, total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and total organic plus ammonia nitrogen. Autosampler bottles will then be replaced with a set of decontaminated bottles.
Weekly manual samples will be collected according to USGS techniques (USGS, 1997 to present). Following the Equal-Width-Increment (EWI) method, a sampling cross-section will be marked using a tag line or by placing marks on a bridge. Approximately 10 points along the cross section will be sampled using a weighted bottle sampler because stream velocities are anticipated to be below the operating threshold of standard USGS isokinetic water quality samplers. All samples taken from the cross section will be composited in a decontaminated plastic churn splitter. Sub-samples will then be withdrawn from the churn splitter. Total phosphorus and total organic plus ammonia nitrogen samples will be preserved with 1 milliliter of 1:7 sulfuric acid. The remaining water in the churn splitter will be filtered through a pre-cleaned 0.45-micron encapsulated filter for analysis of dissolved phosphorus, dissolved ortho-phosphate phosphorus, and dissolved ammonia nitrogen. All samples will be kept at a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius and will be analyzed within 28 days at the laboratory.
One site has an additional overflow channel that may divert water from the main channel during high flow events. The channel will be checked weekly, and if flowing, additional manual samples will be collected according to techniques mentioned in the previous paragraph. These manual samples will then be compared to manual samples collected from the main channel. If this overflow channel flows frequently and contributes a large percentage of the total streamflow, and if constituent concentrations in the two sample sets are significantly different, installation of automatic sampling equipment or construction of a separate gage may be necessary, and future costs for operation of the monitoring network will have to be adjusted.
During each site visit, field readings of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved-oxygen concentration, and pH will be made using calibrated instruments. Field meters will be calibrated according to USGS techniques (USGS, 1997 to present). A record of field meter calibration, calibration verification, and maintenance will be kept in accordance with USGS procedures (USGS, 1997 to present).
Sampling technicians will record all field notes on USGS-approved data sheets. Field notes typically contain the sample collector's names and initials, sampling method used, lot numbers of sample preservatives, filters, and certified water, water and site conditions during sampling, types of QA/QC samples collected, sampling points, field instruments used, the corresponding calibration notes, and a description of additional tasks performed at the site.
Water Quality Decontamination Procedures
To minimize contamination of water quality samples, clean sampling techniques will be used. In these techniques, one person is designated to perform all activities involving contact with the sample water and another person is designated to perform all activities involving contact with sample collection equipment, such as bridge cranes, boat motors, and pumps. All water quality sampling equipment will be decontaminated according to standard USGS techniques (USGS, 1997 to present). Sampling equipment will be soaked in a 2 percent solution of a non-phosphate detergent, such as Liquinox, scrubbed with nonmetallic brushes, rinsed with tap water, then rinsed with de-ionized water. The clean equipment will then be air-dried and stored inside double plastic bags. Sample bottles will be cleaned prior to use by rinsing twice with de-ionized water, and encapsulated filters will be cleaned prior to use by pumping 1 liter of de-ionized water through the filter.
Nine types of QC samples will be collected to document that the project is meeting QC requirements. Collecting a representative sample is crucial to obtaining accurate concentration data and load estimates. Therefore, the QC effort to verify that the stream is well-mixed and that the location of the autosampler intake is representative will be intensified early in the monitoring effort (during the first 1-2 years). The use of multiple autosampler intake ports may be investigated at a site if QC sampling shows that a single sampling port will not generate representative samples. The nine types of QC samples and sample acceptance criteria are presented in the table below:
* Note : Acceptance Criteria in Quality Control Requirements and Frequency Table has been modified since SOW was finalized please refer to Final Addendum to the Network Design Proposal for Basin-Scale Monitoring (USGS, July 2002) for current version of Acceptance Criteria.
Autosampler blanks and field equipment blanks will be prepared by rinsing the decontaminated equipment with inorganic blank water (water certified to be free of nutrients and other inorganic species). A sample of blank water will be collected, processed, and filtered as if a routine environmental sample were being collected. Split and duplicate samples are two or more samples collected so that the samples are considered to be essentially identical in composition. Split samples will be collected to assess variability introduced during processing at the laboratory. Split samples will be prepared by dividing a single volume of water into two samples, which will be processed separately at the laboratory. Duplicate samples will be collected to assess variability introduced during collection and processing in the field. The duplicate samples and routine manual samples will be collected simultaneously using the same collection procedures, but the duplicate samples will be poured into another churn splitter and processed separately.
Subtask 7b: Sample Shipping
Subtask 7c: Laboratory Analytical Costs
Water quality samples will be submitted to the USGS Ocala Water Quality and Research Laboratory (OWQRL) in Ocala, Florida, for analysis. Total suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations will be analyzed using USGS analytical methods, except total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, which will be analyzed using U.S. EPA method 351.2. The USGS OWQRL is certified to use these methods by the Florida Department of Health Environmental Laboratory Certification project (certification number E63507) and the U.S. EPA under 40CFR136. The USGS methods are nearly identical to the corresponding EPA methods. USGS analytical methods are described in detail in Fishman and Friedman (1989). Total suspended solids concentrations will be determined gravimetrically. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations will be determined using colorimetry. Detection limits for each constituent are presented in the table below:
a The USGS methods for dissolved ammonia nitrogen and total suspended solids have no known corresponding EPA methods. The USGS is approved to use method I-2522-85 for ammonia through a variance obtained from EPA Region 4. The Draft CERP QASR does not specify acceptable methods for analysis of dissolved ammonia nitrogen or total suspended solids.
Water quality samples will be identified by; a unique site name, number, date, time of collection, and a bottle type code, which will indicate the general type of analyses to be performed. Laboratory personnel will check the condition of all sample containers to determine if any bottles are cracked or broken, check the completeness of the sample documentation, and verify the sample preservation method. After the initial checks are complete, the sample information will be entered into the laboratory database. Chilled samples will be placed in refrigerators dedicated to the storage of specific sample types, such as nutrients. Non-chilled samples will be sorted by bottle code in an incoming sample storage room. Access to sample storage areas will be restricted to laboratory personnel. The assistant laboratory chief and laboratory QA/QC officer will check analytical data prior to release. The assistant laboratory chief is responsible for checking raw data entries, calculations, and extraction logs. The QA/QC officer is responsible for checking instrument analytical logs, calibration integrity, and all data entry into the laboratory database. A daily report is generated and provided to the laboratory chief and analyst on all QC data that exceed upper and lower warning limits. A report generated from the laboratory database is sent to laboratory management whenever over one-half of a parameter's holding time has expired.
Subtask 7d: Field Materials
Subtask 7e: Data Processing
Subtask 7f: Maintenance and Repair
Subtask 7g: Capital Improvements Fund
Task 8 - Data Interpretation and Reporting
This task includes all lump sum labor and reproduction costs for USGS personnel to perform data interpretation and reporting for the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network.
Task 8 is comprised of three subtasks:
Subtask 8a: Quarterly Load Calculations and Status Reports
Subtask 8b: Budget Reports
Subtask 8c: Summary Reports
PROPOSED YEAR 1 SCHEDULE (estimated for an NTP in January 2003)
Proposed Schedule for Years 2 through 10
The cost estimate attached represents a detailed breakdown of USGS's total cost for the Phase Two Sub-Basin-Scale Monitoring Network Construction, Instrumentation, and Ten-Year Operation of Seventeen Water Quality and Streamflow Monitoring Stations from Year 1 through Year 10. Costs presented are current (2002 costs for equipment and 2003 costs for labor and analytical). These costs will change over time due to changes in equipment costs, cost-of-living, and analytical costs, and therefore must be evaluated on an annual basis. In addition, the network of sites may need to be altered over time because of unexpected or changing site conditions that may cause problems with data collection at a site that cannot be cost-effectively resolved. These site condition problems may include excessive debris or vegetation, repeated vandalism of monitoring equipment, or roadway or bridge modifications. Although the network of sites has been thoroughly reconnoitered, some site conditions may not be initially evident. In some cases, data collection at another site may be deemed more critical and one site may be substituted for another site. Costs associated with these changes have not been included in the attached USGS estimate.
Attachment - A
Staffing Needs Assumptions
The enclosed represents USGS staffing needs for Year 1 through Year 10 for initial equipment installation, streamflow monitoring and water quality monitoring. USGS will form a dedicated project team composed of both full-time and part-time support staff to perform the tasks listed in the SOW. Some part-time support staff, such as water quality and hydroacoustics specialists, will be used primarily in the first 2 years of the project, to ensure that sites are instrumented properly and representative data are collected. The full project team includes:
Subtask 6a: Planned Streamflow Monitoring
Subtask 6b: Additional Support for Storm Event Streamflow Monitoring
Subtask 6d: Data Processing
Subtask 7a: Water Quality Sampling
Subtask 7e: Data Processing
Cost Estimate Assumptions
All sites were assumed to be dry or have no measurable flow for one-third of the year; therefore, no samples will be collected during this time. However, equipment will still be checked and maintained on a weekly basis. If rainfall is unusually high or low in some years and the number of samples is higher or lower than expected, water quality monitoring costs will need to be adjusted accordingly.
Water quality QC and streamflow rating curve development efforts will be intensified early in the project to ensure that data collected throughout the length of the project are accurate. Therefore, costs for water quality sampling will be higher in the first 2 years of the project, and costs for streamflow monitoring will be higher in the first 3 years.
The topographic survey estimate is a preliminary estimate of the cost to meet CERP guidelines for horizontal and vertical data control. Because a timeline for conversion to the 1988 datum is uncertain, the cost to convert equipment for water level monitoring to the 1988 datum and to reprocess previous years of data has not been included in the cost estimate.
A workspace with a nearby source of ice, potable water, and de-ionized water is needed within the project area at which to clean and store equipment, prepare samples, and store a boat. The USGS has investigated and estimated costs for several options, from renting a storage unit to purchasing a portable shed to be placed on SFWMD property. Based on discussion with Joe Albers, SFWMD, the USGS proposes that the latter option, placing a shed on SFWMD property and using their ice, potable water, and de-ionized water supplies, is the most cost-efficient option. This option was assumed in the cost estimate and was less than the cost of renting a public storage unit and obtaining ice and water from other sources for 10 years.
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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