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Project Work Plan

U.S. Geological Survey, Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES)

Fiscal Year 2005 Study Work Plan

Study Title: Tides and Inflows in Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) Surface-Water Model Development
Study Start Date: October 1, 1999 Study End Date: September 30, 2005
Web Sites: TIME.er.usgs.gov
Location (Subregions, Counties, Park or Refuge): Total System Everglades National Park
Funding Source: USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES)
Other Complementary Funding Source(s): none

Principal Investigator(s): Raymond W. Schaffranek
Study Personnel: Ami L. Riscassi, Daniel J. Nowacki
Supporting Organizations: National Park Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, South Florida Water Management District
Associated / Linked Studies: TIME Ground-Water Model Development

Overview & Objective(s): The objective of this study is to develop the surface-water component of the TIME model by incorporating hydrologic process-study findings in a hydrodynamic/transport model. The model provides the capability to analyze the effects of freshwater inflows on coastal marine ecosystems along the interface of the southern Everglades wetlands with the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay. Model development is being accomplished using coastal flow and salinity data coupled with measurements of wetland flow velocities and water levels. The study includes tasks focused on 1) monitoring wetland hydrologic processes and coastal dynamic forces, 2) translating processes and forcing mechanisms into empirical expressions and mathematical equations, 3) transforming these expressions and their correlations to ecosystem properties into numerical algorithms, 4) integrating process algorithms into a computer model framework, 5) tailoring the model to the Everglades wetlands and its coastal marine ecosystems, 6) calibrating the model using time series of water-level and flow data, and 7) documenting the model and any findings relevant to improved management of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. The TIME model fills a void in the CERP design by providing a linkage for wetland and estuarine models being used to evaluate restoration scenarios. Time also provides increased spatial resolution of hydrologic variability in the wetlands for development and refinement of the suite of ecological models in the Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS) being used to design, develop, and evaluate the CERP.

Specific Relevance to Major Unanswered Questions and Information Needs Identified: (Page numbers below refer to DOI Science Plan.)

This study addresses fundamental restoration needs of Everglades National Park and Florida Bay projects to improve the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of flow as identified and listed in the DOI Science Plan. The study supports the Combined Structural and Operational Plan (CSOP) project (p. 70) by providing a model to predict salinity in the mangrove community and northeast Florida Bay. The study provides input to the Florida Bay and Florida Keys Feasibility Study project (p. 76) on how restoration projects will alter the hydrology of Florida Bay. Flow velocity data collected in this study support the Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheet Flow Enhancement (DECOMP) project (p. 66) by providing information on sheet flow conditions in aquatic communities. This study addresses Scientific Information Needs identified by the Science Subgroup (1996) as reported in the NRC assessment of the Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative (CESI) "Science and the Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration" (2003) . The science needs include development of methods 1) to restore characteristic salinity and circulation patterns to estuaries, 2) to quantify water-management effects on salinities, water depths, and water flow in the mangrove zone, 3) to determine the acreage of favorable estuarine habitat, and 4) to restore the volume, timing, and distribution of freshwater flows to estuaries.

Status: The TIME model has been extended to encompass the entire wetlands of ENP using the recently completed set of NMD topographic data. Precipitation and evapotranspiration data sets and processes have been developed and incorporated into the model. Newly provided National Geodetic Vertical Datum adjustments for water-level gages have been applied to the model boundary-value data. The trial model simulation period has been extended to four months and sensitivity tests on various empirical coefficients and numerical model controls have been conducted. The model appears to capture prominent flow features in the sloughs and wetlands of ENP reasonably well.

Recent Products:

Two posters presented at USGS Surface Water and Hydroacoustics Workshops.

Abstracts submitted to National Conference on Ecosystem Restoration:

Schaffranek, R.W., and Riscassi, A.L., 2004, Sheet Flow Velocity in Everglades National Park, Florida.

Schaffranek, R.W., and Riscassi, A.L., 2004, Model for Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport through Freshwater-Wetland and Coastal-Marine Ecosystems in Everglades National Park, Florida.

Reports published:

Riscassi, A.L., and Schaffranek, R.W., 2004, Flow Velocity, Water Temperature, and Conductivity in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: June 2002-July 2003, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 04-1233, 56 p.

Schaffranek, R.W., 2004, Simulation of Surface Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions: SWIFT2D User's Manual, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Book 6, Chap. B-1, 115 p.

Planned Products: A summary report documenting the TIME surface-water model development is planned. A paper on thermal-driven vertical mixing in the Everglades will be submitted to the Wetlands Journal. A report on sheet flow data collected in Everglades National Park will be prepared for publication as a USGS Data Series Report. A report on the Park Road study is planned upon completion of the study.


Title of Task 1: TIME surface-water model development
Task Funding:
USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GE PES)
Task Leaders: Raymond W. Schaffranek
Phone: (703) 648-5891
FAX: (703) 648-5484
Task Status (proposed or active): Active
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 1: 12 months
Task Personnel: Raymond W. Schaffranek, Ami L. Riscassi, Daniel J. Nowacki
Task Summary and Objectives: The overall task objectives are to complete the TIME surface-water model development and to document sensitivity tests conducted during its development.

Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures: Effects of changes in sheet flow conditions on coastal ecosystems need to be factored into the design and evaluation of restoration scenarios. In support of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) http://www.evergladesplan.org, the model being developed in this study will provide a tool to gain insight into hydrologic and hydraulic factors that influence sheet flow behavior for effective restoration planning and the flow data being collected for the model development will provide background knowledge of current sheet flow conditions for restoration assessment, identified as a critical need in the CERP Monitoring and Assessment Plan (MAP) http://www.evergladesplan.org/pm/recover/recover_map_2004.cfm. Knowledge of sheet flow behavior is critical to the development and use of models to evaluate and compare restoration scenarios for implementation, refinement, and evaluation of the CERP. The work being undertaken this study year will include additional of new, and refinement of existing, numerical procedures and algorithms for representation of hydrologic processes in the SWIFT2D model formulation. This effort will include close collaboration with other Greater Everglades Ecosystem scientists undertaking hydrologic process studies. Data collected in support of the model development will be quality checked and processed for input to conduct numerical simulations. Advanced visualization methods will be developed using specialized animation software to display simulation results for sensitivity and performance testing, model calibration and verification, and ecosystem analyses.

Specific Task Product(s): A summary report documenting the TIME surface-water model will be produced upon completion of its development.

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