Project Work Plan
Department of Interior USGS GE PES
Fiscal Year 2012 Study Work Plan
Study Title: Ecology, Modeling, and Monitoring of Crocodilians in the Greater Everglades
Study Start Date: 2003
Study End Date: 2016
Location (Subregions, Counties, Park or Refuge): DOI lands in south Florida, the Greater Everglades
Funding Source: GE PES
Other Complementary Funding Source(s): to University of Florida from National Park Service
Funding History: FY03; FY04; FY05; FY06; FY07; FY08; FY09; FY10; FY11. In the past, this study was co-funded as a companion study to MAP crocodilian study. Unfortunately, MAP funding was eliminated prior to FY12. This project is therefore undergoing redesign to complete critical portions of the crocodilian study.
Principal Investigator(s): Kristen Hart, Mike Cherkiss
Project Personnel: Jeff Beauchamp
Supporting Organizations: National Park Service
Associated / Linked Projects:
- CERP MAP study (USACOE, not funded past FY 2011): American Alligator Distribution, Size, and Hole Occupancy and American Crocodile Juvenile Growth & Survival.
- CESI study: Relative Distribution, Abundance, and Demographic Structure of the American Alligator in Relation to Habitat, Water Level, and Salinity.
- A Monitoring Program: The American Crocodile in Northeastern Florida Bay, Everglades National Park.
Overview & Objective(s): Many important questions concerning the effects of Greater Everglades restoration on crocodilian populations remain unanswered, such as the impacts of Decompartmentalization, the role of alligator holes as aquatic refugia, and the effects of hydrology on crocodilian population growth and condition. Further, the methods for monitoring and evaluating restoration success are not clear or have not been adapted for use during Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). Also, we need to continue to update and validate restoration tools such as population models for use in alternative selection, performance measure development, and prediction. This project will directly address the questions outlined above, develop monitoring methods, and validate restoration tools for use in CERP.
- Develop and test monitoring methods and tools necessary for evaluation of restoration success in crocodilian populations
- Understand the effects of Decompartmentalization and other CERP projects, focusing on those on DOI lands, on restoration of crocodilian populations
- Identify and quantify the extent of aquatic refugia maintained by alligators throughout the system and develop relationships necessary to predict restoration of refugia
- Identify and quantify home and core ranges maintained and used by crocodilians in the Cape Sable/ Florida Bay region and Shark River to understand habitat-use relationships throughout an annual cycle
- Validate and update ecological models for use in prediction of the effects of restoration
Specific Relevance to Major Unanswered Questions and Information Needs Identified: (Page numbers below refer to DOI Science Plan.)
- This study was previously part of a larger study funded and guided by science questions identified by the NPS (Critical Ecosystem Studies Initiative) and USACOE (CERP Monitoring and Assessment Plan or MAP).
- This study previously addressed questions identified in DOI's Science Plan in Support of Ecosystem Restoration, Preservation, and Protection in South Florida (DOI's Everglades Science Plan) including:
- The role of alligator holes in providing dry season refugia was identified specifically as a science need for the Ten Mile Creek Reservoir - Assisted Stormwater Treatment Area Project (CERP MAP p. 35), the Water Preserve Area Projects (CERP MAP p. 45), and the Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheetflow Enhancement Project (CERP MAP p. 65, 69);
- L-31N Seepage Management Pilot and Everglades National Park Seepage Management Projects (CERP MAP p. 48) and Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheetflow Enhancement Project (CERP MAP p. 65, 69) by providing ecological monitoring and assessment of restoration impacts on the alligator;
- habitat suitability models and spatially explicit demographic models;
- Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee NWR Internal Canal Structures project as it (1) provides monitoring and assessment of responses of aquatic communities and habitats (CERP MAP p. 37) and (2) helps understand the ecological effects of hydrology and water quality on refuge resources (p. 40);
- Southwest Florida Feasibility Study Project by providing modeling to predict species-level responses to habitat change (CERP MAP p. 50) and monitoring of key indicators (CERP MAP p. 51);
- improvement of ecological models to make them more suitable for application and analysis as identified in the Combined Structural and Operational Plan Project (CSOP p. 64).
- This study now addresses several science objectives in the USGS Science Plan in Support of Greater Everglades Restoration. Primarily, this work is concentrated under Goal 2B "Restore, Preserve, and Protect Natural Habitats and Species - Ecological Indicators." The tasks address all 5 science objectives:
- We examine the effects of hydropattern on crocodilians and develop information required for restoration targets (2B-SG1);
- We have used historical data sets and simulations to predict the historical status of crocodilian populations throughout the Everglades (2B-SG2);
- We continue a long-term monitoring program to establish baselines and examine the current state of Greater Everglades crocodilian populations (2B-SG3 and SG4);
- We are using cutting-edge satellite-telemetry tools to track the daily movements of crocodilians in three sites within the Greater Everglades;
- We have developed simulation models as tools for predicting the effects of restoration (2B-SG5).
Status: We are continuing to provide parameter information to contribute to population and simulation modeling efforts. We have established monitoring of crocodilian population growth, abundance, condition, and size distribution throughout the Greater Everglades. We have also implemented monitoring of juvenile growth, hatchling survival and nesting effort and success of American crocodiles. We are investigating quantitative and field methods to improve the precision and accuracy of our monitoring through the use of double-observer surveys, artificial surrogates, and most recently radio- and satellite-telemetry on both alligators and crocodilies, and mark recapture. We have completed mapping alligator holes and aquatic refugia within Everglades National Park and have a manuscript in press. We also have several crocodile modeling papers in preparation. All previously-developed models are fully functional and available for use in comparison of restoration alternatives.
Mazzotti FJ, Hart KM, Jeffery BM, Cherkiss MS, Brandt LA, Fujisaki I (2012) The role of the American alligator (Alligator mississppiensis) and American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) as an indicator of ecological change in the Greater Everglades ecosystem. Poster presentation, 4 June, INTECOL, Orlando, Florida, USA and oral presentation, 24 May, Crocodile Specialist Group meeting, Manila, Philippines.
Mazzotti FJ, Hart KM, Cherkiss MS, Jeffrey BM, Beauchamp JS, Larrivee EJ (2012) Spatial Ecology of the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in the Estuarine Areas of Everglades National Park. Poster presentation, 4 June, INTECOL, Orlando, Florida, USA and oral presentation, 24 May, Crocodile Specialist Group meeting, Manila, Phillipines.
Fujisaki I, Mazzotti FJ, Hart KM, Rice KG, Ogurcak D, Rochford M, Jeffery BM, Brandt LA, Cherkiss MS (2012/In press). Use of alligator hole abundance and occupancy rate as indicators for restoration of a human-altered wetland. Ecological Indicators.
Fujisaki I, Mazzotti FJ, Dorazoi RM, Rice KG, Cherkiss M, Jeffery B (2011) Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight surveys. Wetlands. 31:147-155. DOI 10.1007/s13157-010-0120-0.
Cherkiss MS, Romanach SR, Mazzotti FJ (2009) The American Crocodile in Biscyane Bay, Florida. Estuaries and Coasts. DOI 10.1007/s12237-011-9378-6
Beauchamp JS, Cherkiss MS, Rochford MR, Mazzotti FJ (2009) A recent capture of a large American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 37(4):149-150.
Mazzotti FJ, Best GR, Brandt LA, Cherkiss MS, Jeffery BM, Rice KG (2009) Alligators and crocodiles as indicators for restoration of Everglades ecosystems. Ecological Indicators 9S(2009):S137-S149.
We plan on submitting additional peer-reviewed manuscripts on 1) Phenology of crocodile hatching in the Greater Everglades (including Turkey Point); 2) mark-recapture analyses of crocodiles in the Greater Everglades; 3) satellite-telemetry of crocodilians in the Greater Everglades. A University of Florida Master's thesis (by Jeff Beauchamp) will also be produced in FY13 on satellite-tracking of crocodiles in the Greater Everglades.
Cherkiss is collaborating on several other papers:
Title: "Modelling the Response of the American Crocodile to Climate Change and Sea-level Rise" Target journal: Regional Environmental Change, Submission date: July 31, 2012
Title:"The Impact of Climate Change on the American Crocodile: Measuring population response to shifts in hydrology", Target journal: Ecological Modelling, Submission date: August 15, 2012
Green TW, Slone DH, Swain ED, Cherkiss MS, Lohmann M, Mazzotti FJ, Rice KG (2012) Evaluating effects of Everglades restoration on American crocodile populations in South Florida using a spatially-explicit, stage-based population model. Wetlands (in review)
We will present results of our studies at several national and international meetings during FY12 (INTECOL and Crocodile Specialist Group). Daily satellite-tracking results for crocodilians in the Greater Everglades are available on http://www.seaturtle.org/tracking/?project_id=580 and http://www.seaturtle.org/tracking/?project_id=677.
Title of Task 1:
Task Funding: GE PES
Task Leaders: Kristen Hart, Mike Cherkiss
Task Status (proposed or active): Active
Task priority: High
Time Frame for Task 1: FY12
Task Personnel: Jeff Beauchamp, Mat Denton
Task Summary and Objectives: The purpose of this task is to continue to evaluate the relative distribution, abundance, and demographic structure of crocodilians in various habitats in relation to water levels and salinities; however, our focus is now on collecting pertinent data on DOI lands, especially ones where restoration projects are planned or initiated. The relative distribution and abundance of crocodilians is a key indicator component of the conceptual ecosystem models for Big Cypress, marl prairie/rocky glades, ridge and slough, and mangrove transition zone ecosystems and has been identified as a performance measure in the CERP monitoring and assessment plan. Demographic data are needed for development of models to assess the potential impacts on crocodilians from operation of CERP projects.
Prior to our PES and MAP funded work, the only surveys for alligators in Everglades National Park were systematic reconnaissance flight (SRF) surveys for nests and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission night surveys for alligators in and adjacent to Water Conservation Areas 2 and 3 (a component of their public hunt program). We argued that these two field efforts, while valuable, were not sufficient to provide critical nesting information on crocodilians. For example, as restoration projects occur in ecosystems such as the rocky glades and the mangrove transition zone, it will take more than 10 years for dispersing juveniles to become nesting animals, and therefore to be detected in SRF or FWC surveys. Evaluating the relative distribution, abundance, and demography of crocodilians allows for a more rapid assessment of the impacts of CERP projects on target systems.
As important as crocodilians are in the Greater Everglades ecosystem (see Mazzotti et al. 2009 Ecologial Indicators), surprisingly little was known about them outside of Everglades National Park until our group initiated sampling. In this project crocodilian monitoring will be continued on DOI lands in the Greater Everglades (i.e., in A.R.M. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park). Although with previous MAP funding we were able to conduct system-wide monitoring of both species of crocodilians, we now focus on DOI lands where specific restoration projects are either already underway or beginning soon.
Work to be undertaken during the proposal year and a description of the methods and procedures:
During FY12, we will concentrate our work on:
- Continue monitoring of crocodilian population density, body condition, and size distribution throughout the Greater Everglades and further develop relationships to hydrologic condition including interaction with the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN);
- Continue monitoring of American crocodile juvenile growth and hatchling survival throughout south Florida but with a focus on DOI lands;
- Publish research on satellite-tracking crocodilians over annual cycles and in relation to habitat features of the Greater Everglades landscape;
- Publish research on alligator hole use throughout the Greater Everglades;
- Provide data essential for validation of the population models.
Surveys will be conducted during the peak wet dry seasons. Replicates using spotlight surveys along with capture surveys of alligators will be used to assess the relative distribution, abundance, and demographic structure of the American alligator. Established survey routes of estuarine rivers and freshwater canals and marshes extending from the mangrove fringe of Everglades National Park north to US 41 and within Arthur R. Marshall National Wildlife Refuge will continue to be performed at night by skiff, airboat, and truck. Environmental data including habitat type, air and water temperature, salinity, wind, and spot water levels will be recorded. Regional hydrologic data will be obtained from the SFWMD and the USGS through EDEN. To determine demographic structure (size class and sex) structure, semi-annual capture surveys will be performed using the same vehicles and locations described above. Alligators will be captured by hand, noose, dart, or tongs. Total length, snout-vent length, tail girth, and weight will be measured, and sex determined. In addition the relative condition of alligators will be determined by doing a condition factor analysis (Leslie 1997).
Crocodile nesting effort and success will be determined by searching known and potential nesting habitat in the Cape Sable area of Everglades National Park during July and August activity (tail drags, digging or scraping) or the presence of eggs or hatchlings. Hatched eggshells or hatchling crocodiles are evidence of successful nests. The number and causes of egg failure will be noted whenever possible. Nesting surveys of active nest sites and areas of suitable nesting habitat will be performed by skiff and truck throughout the hatching period (July-August). Growth, survival, and body condition of crocodiles will be initiated by capturing and marking hatchlings during nest success surveys, and therefore available for recapture during future surveys. Crocodiles will be captured by hand or Pilstrom tongs. Total length, snout-vent length, and weight will be measured and all hatchlings will be scute clipped.
Specific Task Product(s): This study will develop an index of relative abundance and condition of crocodilians in different habitats in relation to water levels and salinities. The results will be reported in technical reports, fact sheets, scientific and public presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The survey routes and data summaries are available via RECOVER website. The data from this study will be used to update and validate population models (e.g. ATLSS) and can be used for the development and validation of other assessment tools (i.e. HSI models).
Bayliss, P. 1987. Survey methods and monitoring within crocodile management programmes. Pages 157-175 In Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis, and P. J. Whitehead (eds). Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Leslie, A. J. 1997. The ecology and physiology of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, in Lake St. Lucia, Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa. PhD Dissertation: Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.
Woodward, A. R., and C. T. Moore. 1990. Statewide alligator surveys. Final Report: Bureau of Wildlife Research, Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL.
Work to be undertaken during future FY's and proposed funding:
The PES project will fund USGS participation in crocodilian monitoring. As such a proportion of USGS salaries for Cherkiss, Beauchamp, and Denton will be covered using these project funds. USGS vehicles, and associated travel and supplies will also be covered using these funds.