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Adams, C. A., Oesterling, M. J., Snedaker, S. C., and Seaman, W., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems-Quantitative dietary analyses for selected dominant fishes in the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 747.
The stomach contents of 710 Bairdiella chrysura, 256 Cynoscion nebulosus, 479 Eucinostomus gula, 316 Lagodon rhomboides, and 868 Anchoa mitchilli of the mangrove estuarine areas in south Florida's Ten Thousand Islands were analyzed gravimetrically. Ontogeny of food habits, such as percentage composition of food related to age and growth (i.e., size class) and milligrams of food per kilogram of fish body weight, were determined. Analyses were made on specimens from Fahka Union Bay, an estuarine embayment receiving freshwater runoff from upland real estate developments, and Fahkahatchee Bay, a relatively undisturbed area. The items eaten by these fishes show that variation in food types occurs among fish species and, to a lesser degree, among habitats. Data indicate that, for certain species, the intake of food material (milligrams of food per kilogram of fish weight) may be related to osmoregulatory adjustments for salinity differences between these two bays.
Alexander, T. R., and Crook, A. C., 1973, Recent and long-term vegetation changes and patterns in south Florida: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 939.
This preliminary report includes methods, ecological history, and 10 completed samples of how data and maps for quadrats will be presented in the final report. Quadrats (sections) will number 100 and will be representative of the entire ecosystem. Vegetation change has been both major and minor. Agriculture, logging, and fire have had the greatest role, augmented by drainage. Examples are: the change from graminoid glade vegetation to a closed canopy of woody species on abandoned farmland and the invasion of cypress forests by maple and pine. In the saltwater-freshwater ecotone, mangroves have invaded inland, and freshwater species have been killed. For example, the cabbage palm population has been reduced. Coastal erosion has locally reduced mangrove forests. In the Conservation Areas, tree islands have been damaged by fire and flooding and even destroyed, and graminoid communities have adjusted to varying water depths. The latter are hard to document. Great changes in community structure have occurred where exotic plants have invaded and gone through a population explosion. Melaleuca, Schinus, and Casuarina are the greatest threat. No part of the study area is free from this threat to native communities. A bibliography is included.
Armbruster, J. T., 1972, Land use in the Big Cypress area, southern Florida: Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geology, Map Series no. 50, 1:250,000.
The energy circuit language is used to model and guide parameterization of the south Florida sawgrass marsh ecosystem. Included in the model are processes describing grass growth, water-level oscillations, rainfall, transpiration, phosphorus uptake, fire, peat deposition, and controlled inputs of surface water containing nutrients. Coefficients were estimated by using data from published sources, and the model was simulated on an analog computer. The responses of the sawgrass system under varying initial conditions and inputs are evaluated and discussed: The simulation suggests that high inputs of phosphorus lead to increased water loss (via transpiration) and larger fires as a result of larger accumulations of biomass. (Originally included as an appendix in "Models for Planning and Research for the South Florida Environmental Study.")
Birnhak, B. I., 1974, An examination of the influence of freshwater canal discharge on salinity in selected southeastern Florida estuaries: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 610.
Monthly determinations of surface- and bottom-water salinity were made within the canal (or stream) estuary complexes of six southeastern Florida coastal zones (St. Lucie River and Estuary, Loxahatchee River and Estuary, West Palm Beach Canal and Estuary, Hillsboro Canal and Hillsboro River Estuary, New River Canal and Estuary, and Miami River-Biscayne Bay Estuary) by means of a refractometer. Salinity data were arrayed against freshwater discharge volume and local rainfall to explore relationships among these parameters. Since rainfall during most of the sampling period (June 1971-May 1972) was atypically light, conclusions drawn from the sample data are tentative. Results to date (1) confirm the requirement for maintaining minimum freshwater canal discharges to inhibit extreme inland penetration of saline water during dry periods; (2) demonstrate the significance of these discharges in maintaining desired brackish salinity values in all zones studied except the Hillsboro Canal Estuary and Biscayne Bay, where oceanic influences in these shallow open lagoons overwhelm the relatively minor freshwater discharge of the Miami Canal; and (3) point to the need for further study to determine optimum canal discharge regimens for estuarine fish and wildlife management, particularly in the St. Lucie River, Loxahatchee River, West Palm Beach Canal, and the estuarine zones associated with them.
Birnhak, B. I., and Crowder, J. P., 1974, An evaluation of the extent of vegetative habitat alteration in south Florida 1943-1970: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 621.
The extent of vegetative habitat alteration in seven south Florida counties was estimated. The acreage historically occupied by each of 13 vegetative habitat types was determined by planimetry of a base map prepared by J. H. Davis, Jr., in 1943. Land areas currently occupied by urban and agricultural development were identified from recent land-use maps prepared by the Florida Coastal Coordinating Committee and the Florida Department of Transportation. The remaining amounts (in acres) of each type of habitat were determined by outlining upon the base map all acreage now converted to agricultural or urban usage, planimetering the area of each habitat type lost to development, and subtracting the amount of lost habitat from that which was historically present. The data were arrayed in both county and regional summaries to show the total acreage and percentage of each vegetative habitat type lost to each form of development and the total remaining acreage of each. A "naive extrapolation" of past trends in land use was performed to show the astonishing rate at which wild lands are being developed in the region and to demonstrate the need for constraints on population growth and land use in order to conserve supportive natural systems.
Boggess, D. H., 1970, The magnitude and extent of salt-water contamination in the Caloosahatchee River between LaBelle and Olga, Florida: Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geology, Inf. Circ. 62.
Brown, Mark, and Genova, Grant, 1974, Energy indices in the urban pattern: Gainesville, Fla., Univ. of Fla., Center for Wetlands.
Carter, M. R., Burns, L. A., Cavinder, T. R., Dugger, K. R., Fore, P. L., Hicks, D. B., Revells, H. L., and Schmidt, T. W., 1973, Ecosystems analysis of the Big Cypress Swamp and estuaries: US. Environmental Protection Agency PB-231 070.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 2-year study to obtain necessary biologic and hydrologic information for objective planning of wise use of south Florida's land, water, wildlife, and fisheries resources. Field investigations during 1971-72 intensively examined the details of biotic community interactions with hydrologic conditions of disturbed and relatively unaffected regions of the Big Cypress Swamp and contiguous tidal wetlands and estuaries. Process studies and experimental manipulation models were formulated for the various components of the ecosystem. Study results demonstrate the total dependence of the south Florida ecosystem on the hydroperiod. Canal drainage of upland wetlands, which include cypress swamps and wet-prairies, effected a 10-fold decrease in primary productivity. Drainage also effected a thinning of the forest canopy and induced a reduction in the rate of forest litter decomposition, resulting in a buildup of litter as increased fuel sources for destructive wildfires. Canal drainage of uplands also affected the estuaries, resulting in changes in the benthic plant communities, increased nutrients, increased metals in sediments, and a change in the abundance and diversity of fishes. For the first time, tidal streams were proven to be a major nursery area for young snook.
Craighead, F. C., 1964, Land, mangroves and hurricanes: Fairchild Tropical Garden Bull., v. 19, p. 5-32.
_____ 1971, The trees of south Florida, v. 7 of The natural environments and their succession: Coral Cables, Ha., Univ. of Miami Press, 212 p.
Crowder, J. P., 1974a, Exotic pest plants of south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 619.
From existing literature, personal experience and observation, and consultation with experts, the origins, modes of introduction, growth habits, and ecological impacts of seven species of naturalized exotic pest plants of south Florida (Melaleuca quinquenervia, Schinus terebinthifolius, Casuarina glauca, Casuarina equisetilolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verficillata, and Alternanthera philoxeroides) are described. The adaptability of Melaleuca quinquenervia to a wide range of soil and moisture conditions and its tendency to reproduce to stress (fire, mechanical damage) confer advantages upon this species that apparently encourage it to spread at the expense of native plants, in many instances displacing indigenous vegetation of value to wildlife. Schinus and Casuarina likewise displace native vegetation without providing significant wildlife habitat. The rampant spread of the aquatic species (Eichhornia, Hydrilla, Alternanthera) is documented, and their impact on water quality is described, especially as it relates to eutrophication. Possibilities and recommendations for biological and mechanical control are summarized. Biological controls of massive aquatic weed infestations in conjunction with preliminary mechanical harvest are suggested as an approach combining weed removal and nutrient reduction of overenriched waters.
_____ 1974b, Native reptiles and amphibians of south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 632.
The 74 native species of reptiles and amphibians of south Florida (Lake Okeechobee southward) are listed. Their distributions among six major habitats (xeric, mesic, alternohygric, hygric, halohygric, and edificarian-ruderal) are noted, with reference to the habitat classification schemes of other workers. Destruction of habitat is identified as the predominant factor in the declines of the region's reptile and amphibian species. Seven declining species of reptiles and amphibians are identified, and specific problems related to depletion of these species are discussed.
_____ 1974c, Some perspectives on the status of aquatic wading birds in south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 216.
Relationships between wading birds, water levels, and other biota oi the south Florida wetlands ecosystem are discussed, Data from other studies are consolidated to present information on wading birds in the Everglades National Park and the remainder of Florida south of Lake Okeechobee. A total of 35,000 breeding pairs of wading birds (excluding 22,500 pairs of cattle egrets) are all that is left of a once larger population of about 1.5 million in 1870. The effects of wetlands drainage on nesting success and broader implications of feeding and other ecological relationships of wading birds are discussed, with emphasis on population size, feeding efficiency, predator-prey relationships, and stress. Particular emphasis is placed on wood storks, white ibis, and cattle egrets. Recommendations for preserving these birds are presented with a discussion of artificial feeding habitat.
_____ 1974d, The biological impact of residential real estate development in the south Florida coastal wetlands: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 672.
The effects of dredging, filling, and canalizing in the coastal shallow waters and wetlands of south Florida are summarized and analyzed. A brief history is provided of the evolution of statutory control over construction in coastal waters. Recent stringent regulation of submerged land dredging and filling has generated an increase in interior, or so-called "upland," canal construction. Whether of the bayfill or upland type, canals and associated fills may adversely affect fish and wildlife habitat by direct destruction of wetlands, degradation of water quality, and habitat oversimplification. Maintenance dredging of existing residential canal systems creates recurrent problems in disposal of spoil materials. Recommendations are made for minimizing future adverse impact on wetlands, with emphasis on water dependency and navigation needs as essential criteria. Central joint-use facilities are cited as an alternative to individual house lot access to waterways. Means of utilizing tidal flushing are explored, and the general preference of riprap surfaces over conventional bulkheads is emphasized.
_____ 1974e, The effects of drainage and associated development in the Big Cypress Swamp: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 612.
The major adverse environmental impacts of development in the Big Cypress Swamp are described. Nutrient over-enrichment of waters receiving runoff from agricultural and urban areas is expected to reduce species diversity and ecosystem stability. Increases in water-borne pesticides are also expected to accompany development and could elevate levels significantly above the present relatively low concentrations in water, soils, and animal tissues in the Big Cypress. Major alterations to surface-water flows will disturb the critical periodicity of water delivery to the estuarine zones, produce surface-water depth fluctuations out of phase with the seasonally heavy feeding requirements of aquatic wading birds, and precipitate massive redistributions uf the dominant vegetative communities, with selection in favor of the less aquatic types. Drainage that causes a pulsing of freshwater flows to the sea will intermittently rrducc salinity to abnormally low levels in the gulf coast estuarine zone of the watcrshed and will increase the transport of silt and chemical pollutants to these valuable waters. The basic threat to the Big Cypress is identified as the piecemeal and uncoordinated devclopment of relatively small projects that will cumulatively have severe impacts on thc area's biological resources. Establishment of the proposed Big Cypress National Freshwater Reserve is cited as a means of preventing loss or degradation of these resources in the Big Cypress and in the northwestern estuarine area of Everglades National Park.
_____ 1974f, The exotic vertebrates of south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 214.
Species of introduced exotic vertebrates of south Florida (Lake Okeechobee southward) are identified and described. The principal factors responsible for their introductions are explored, and recommendations are made for alleviation of current problems caused by exotics and for prevention of further harmful introductions. Major problems were determined to be (1) the rapid spread of exotic tropical fishes, principally cichlids and the walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), and their displacement of native sunfishes, (2) the presence of a number of exotic psittacine birds with potential for depredations of fruit and grain crops, and (3) three species of giant herptiles (knight anole, marine toad, and Cuban tree frog) that prey upon their smaller native counterparts.
_____ 1974g, The freshwater fishes and fisheries of south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 631.
The freshwater sport and commercial finfishes and fisheries are described. Everglades sport fishery dynamics are summarized, with emphasis on the functions of canals and natural depressions as dry-season refuges for remnant stocks. Deleterious effects of unnaturally prolonged flooding and associated detrital accumulations are described. The marsh dependency of largemouth bass, bluegill, and redear sunfishes is considered, with attention given to the potentially deleterious effects of raising the Lake Okeechobee water regulation schedule. The impact of accelerated lake eutrophication (by excess input of nutrients from the developed lake watershed) is assessed through a survey of recent water-quality problems in the lake. Data suggest that the approximate trophic status of the lake lies well within the eutrophic category. Available data on sport- fisherman use are presented for Lake Okeechobee, the Everglades Conservation Areas, and the Big Cypress Watershed. The channel catfish commercial fishery of Lake Okeechobee is described, and a recommendation is made for increased harvest of commercial and sport fishes from the lake as a method of nutrient removal. Selected data from recent Everglades and Lake Okeechobee fish population and biomass studies are summarized for potential incorporation into a systems model.
_____ 1974h, Water management-The key to fish and wildlife values in south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 653.
Some probable effects of continued population growth and development in south Florida upon water quality, quantity, and distribution are described. Rampant urbanization, escalating demands for domestic and agricultural water, and the orthodox technological responses to water-supply problems are factors that presage a continuing decline in the quality of the region's aquatic habitats. Particular emphasis is placed upon the problems of cultural eutrophication and hydroperiod alteration. The upstream and downstream effects of backpurnping urban and agricultural runoff to interior water-storage basins are considered, and a recommendation is made against additional vertical storage of water in the Everglades wetlands.
Davis, J. H., Jr., 1943, The natural features of southern Florida, especially the vegetation, and the Everglades: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 25, 311 p.
_____ 1946, Peat deposits of Florida, their occurrence, development and uses: Florida Geol. Survey Bull, 30, 247 p.
Dineen, J. W., 1972, Life in the tenacious Everglades, in-depth report: Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, v. 5, no. I, 12 p.
Evink, C. L., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems-Biomass and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates of Fahka Union and Fahkahatchee Bays, Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 749.
Quantitative samples were taken to establish the biomass and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in the area of Fahka Union and Fahkahatchee Bays in south Florida. A series of 37 samples was completed during the period February to December 1972. Major taxonomic groups collected were Crustacea, Mollusca, Polychaeta, and Echinodermata. Biomass of macrobenthos in Fahkahatchee Bay ranged from 3.1 to 6.1 g/m2; macrobenthos in Fahka Union Bay ranged from 4.0 to 6.4 g/m3. Analysis of biomass data revealed no significant difference in the biomasses of the bays. Analysis of species occurring in the two bays showed that the bays have similar species, with a small difference in species diversity.
Finn, M. A., 1966, Humans, plants and animals in Florida, Fahkahatchee Strand: Natl. Parks Mag., v. 40, p. 10-13.
Florida University Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 1973, Projections of population, employment, and income, selected Florida counties, 1975, 1980, 1990, 2000: U.S. Bur. Outdoor Recreation PB-231 683.
This report contains projections of (1) population, by age and by sex, (2) employment, by specified categories, and (3) family income for selected Florida counties for 1975, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Control data for total population and employment were derived from regional and county estimates made under the OBERS program, a joint program of the Office of Business Economics and the Economic Research Service. The value of the projections in this report is their usefulness as a series of baseline reference points. Supporting data for the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation's report, "An Analysis of Outdoor Recreation Resources, Impacts, and Potentials in South Florida," was prepared as part of the South Florida Environmental Study.
Forthman, C. A., 1973, The effects of prescribed burning on sawgrass, Cladium jamaicensis Crantz, in south Florida: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 603.
Burning under prescribed conditions did not kill sawgrass culms, nor did it result in changes in the density or successional stage of the stands. The leaves of sawgrass were shorter and less rigid in the first post-burn year. Growth rates increased for about one month after burns and showed seasonal increases in April through June. The spring burn recovered more quickly than the fall burns. Certain nutrients, especially PO4, increased in the water around sawgrass after burns.
Freiberger, H. J., 1972, Streamflow variations and distribution in the Big Cypress watershed during wet and dry periods: Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geology, Map Series no. 45, approximate scale 1 :500,000.
Freiberger, H. J., and McPherson, B. F., 1972, Water quality at Miami International Airport: US. Geol. Survey open-file rept., 50 p.
The 268-foot AT&T Pennsuco Radio Tower was instrumented at the 5-, 105- , and 205-foot levels to investigate low-level temperature inversions in the vicinity of Site 14, the recommended location for the new Florida Regional Jetport. Data collected during the period February 22 to April 30, 1973, revealed that relatively strong ground-based inversions formed there nightly for an average duration of 14 hours. Generally, the inversions were stronger with east winds, which suggests temperature enhancement aloft by the heat plume from urban Miami. It is concluded, therefore, that urbanization creates poor dispersion conditions downwind from the heat island. Daytime inversions were observed for periods of one or two hours in association with troughs aloft, cold frontal passages, and sea-breeze fronts. The mean low-level temperature profile at rural Site 14 was that of an inversion. These results vividly show that low-level temperature inversions are quite pronounced in south Florida and, therefore, should be given paramount consideration in all air-quality planning.
Gleason, P. J., 1974, Chemical quality of water in Conservation Area 2A and associated canals: Florida Flood Control Tech. Pub. no. 74-1, 72 p.
Hagenbuck, W. W., Thompson, Richard, and Rodgers, D. P., 1974, A preliminary investigation of the effects of water levels on vegetative communities of Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 611.
The relation between water-level fluctuation and plant-community distribution on the 145,635-acre Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge was explored by means of ground transects and aerial photograph interpretation. Inundation curves for 15 plant species were prepared from data at 2,715 stations located primarily within seven 100-acre plots. The 15 species were grouped into four distinct communities based on similarities in inundation curves. Sampling data were extrapolated to estimate proportions of the study area occupied by each community and to predict changes that would accompany proposed adjustments in the water-regulation schedule. Aerial photographs of study plots were used to quantify the area of the four community types in each year of record (1948, 1952, 1962, and 1968). Changes in plant community distribution over the 20-year period were strongly correlated with water-level manipulations. Based on the demonstrated relation between seasonal water-level fluctuation and plant-community distribution, a 14- to 17-foot (mean sea level) water-regulation schedule was superior to the proposed 17- to 15-foot schedule in maintaining plant-community equilibria favorable to refuge management objectives.
Harriss, R. C., 1973, Distribution of pesticides in a south Florida watershed: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 684.
In almost all cases, the total organochlorine pesticides content of the 40 samples of soils and of canal and estuarine bottom sediments from the lower southwest Florida coast were below the detection limit of the analytical method used.
Hoffmeister, J. E., 1974, Land from the sea, the geologic story of south Florida: Coral Gables, Fla., Univ. of Miami Press, 143 p.
Hofstetter, R. H., 1973, Effects of fire in the ecosystems of southern Florida- An ecological study of the effects of fire on the wet prairies, sawgrass glades and pineland communities: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 940.
The role of fire in the major ecosystems of southern Florida is being studied in a continuing project. Results and recommendations are preliminary. Natural fires are caused by lightning and are common in the summer wet season. Man-caused fires now dominate and are characteristic of the later dry season. The latter are unnatural and more destructive. This destructiveness is promoted by altered hydrologic conditions. Vegetation, insects, spiders, small mammals, birds, biogeochemical cycles, and microclimate are coordinated in permanent plots and are being studied relative to fire and succession. Many of Robertson's plots, established in the Everglades National Park in 1960, are incorporated. The pinelands are the most threatened system in southern Florida. Without fire, succession leads to hardwood hammocks. Fire checks this succession. Species dependent on a shrub layer are reduced in diversity. No direct kill of birds or mammals by fire has been observed. Recommendations for incendiary fires, prescribed burning for fire abatement, and ecosystem management are presented. (Includes appendix "Seasonal Rhythms of Soil Arthropods in Miami Rock Ridge Pinelands" by Earl 0. McCoy.)
Horvath, C. J., 1973, The influence of Big Cypress land development on the distribution of heavy metals in the Everglades estuaries: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 941.
The distribution, chemical fractionation, and flux rates of heavy metals were investigated in the Big Cypress Swamp and the Everglades National Park. The study area included canals draining developed land and estuaries receiving runoff from both developed areas and natural wetlands. In the Barron River Canal, metals were present mainly in the dissolved ionic form, with the exception of iron and zinc, which occurred mostly in the dissolved organically complexed and particulate fractions. Dissolved metal concentrations in canals adjacent to actively cultivated fields were 2 to 6 times higher than those in canals draining uncultivated land. The degree of contamination was higher during the rainy season. The flux rates of heavy metals during high-flow conditions were generally twice as high as those during low flow. Iron had the highest flux rate under both flow conditions, followed by manganese, lead, cobalt, and zinc. Dissolved iron concentrations decreased sharply over the salinity gradient, while the concentrations of other metals showed a net increase. Concentration levels of heavy metals in Chokoloskee Bay were 1.5 to 3 times higher than those present in other Everglades estuaries receiving natural drainage. The degree of enrichment increased during the wet season.
Houde, E. D., 1971, Survey of the literature relating to sport and commercial fishes in south Florida: U.S. Natl, Marine Fisheries Service PB-231 669.
An annotated bibliography on literature relating to fish and fisheries in south Florida that has been published mostly in the period 1960-71 is included in this report. A total of 466 references is presented, plus 27 references on fish surveys done in the south Florida area. Twenty-eight journals were searched systematically for this report, and publications from many other zources are included.
_____ 1974, Chemical and biological conditions of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, 1969-72: Florida Bur. Geology Rept. Inv. 71, 94 p.
A brief history of the Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes, 1859-1970, was developed as a logical starting point for studying contemporary Indian society in Florida. It explores the way in which social, political, economic, religious, and other factors led to the development of a unique Indian lifestyle. Chapters focus on Indian cultural development during five distinct periods: (1) the end of the Third Seminole War to the establishment of missions and government agencies; ( 2 ) the era of Indian interaction with missionaries, traders, and government agents; (3) Indian reaction to education and Christian religion; (4) the establishment of Indian reservations in Florida; and (5) contemporary social, political, and economic development of the Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes. An extensive bibliography and footnotes are included with the report.
Klein, Howard, 1972, The shallow aquifer of southwest Florida: Florida Dept. Nat. Resources, Bur. Geology, Map Series no. 53.
Klein, Howard, Armbruster, J. T., McPherson, B. F., and Freiberger, H. J., 1973, Water and the south Florida environment: US. Geol. Survey PB-236 951.
Increasing population and the concomitant urban sprawl and industrial growth in south Florida have caused concern to agencies involved in land-use planning and water management as to the adequacy of water supplies, determination of water quality, and changes in environmental factors. This report describes the physical system, past and present, and the environmental problems that exist now and provides alternative solutions to these problems, with emphasis on alternatives that might be used to minimize deleterious effects on the environment of south Florida in years to come.
Klein, Howard, Schneider, W. J., McPherson, B. F., and Buchanan, T. J., 1970, Some hydrologic and biologic aspects of the Big Cypress Swamp drainage area, southern Florida: US. Geol. Survey open-file rept., 94 p.
Klein, Howard, Schroeder, M. C., and Lichtler, W. F., 1964, Geology and ground-water resources of Glades and Hendry Counties, Florida: Florida Div. Geology Rept. Inv. 37, 101 p.
Kurz, Herman, 1942, Florida dunes and scrub, vegetation and geology: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 23, p. 154.
Leopold, L. B., and others, 1969, Environmental impact of the Big Cypress Swamp Jetport: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 155 p.
Lindall, W. N., Jr., 1973, Alterations of estuaries of south Florida-A threat to its fish resources: Marine Fisheries Rev., v. 35, no. 10, p. 26-33.
Lindall, W. N., Jr., Hall, J. R., Fable, W. A., and Collins, L. A., 1973, A survey of fishes and commercial invertebrates of the nearshore and estuarine zone between Cape Romano and Cape Sable, Florida: U.S. Natl. Marine Fisheries Service PB-235 215.
Fishes and commercial invertebrates of the nearshore and estuarine zone between Cape Romano and Cape Sable, Florida, were sampled quarterly (May 1971-February 1972) with beach seine and otter trawl. One-hundred and fourteen species of fish (31,982 individuals) and six species of commercial invertebrates (2,864 individuals) were collected at 35 stations located in inland waters and to 10 miles in the Gulf of Mexico. Catches were decidedly higher at nearshore and inland stations than at stations located 5 and 10 miles offshore. Twenty-four species of fish not listed in previous studies in the Everglades region were identified. A systematic account of all species is provided.
Little, J. A., Schneider, R. F., and Carroll, B. J., 1970, A synoptic survey of limnological characteristics of the Big Cypress Swamp, Florida: Washington, Federal Water Quality Admin., 94 p.
Loveless, C. M., 1959, A study of vegetation in the Florida Everglades: Ecology, v. 40, no. 1, 9 p.
Luer, C. A., 1964, Orchids of the Fahkahatchee: The Florida Orchidist, v. 4, no. 7, p. 191-195.
Lugo, A. E., Evink, G. L., Brinson, M. M., Broce, A., and Snedaker, S. C., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems-Diurnal rates of photosynthesis respiration and transpiration in mangrove forests of south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 743.
Measurements of CO, exchange and transpiration were made. on the four south Florida mangrove-forest tree species (Rhizophara mangle, Avicennia nitida, Laguncularia racernosa, and Conocarpus erecta) at Rookery Bay, Florida. Mangrove species were studied by compartment (trunks, prop roots, pneurnatophores, seedlings, and shade and sun leaves) during two study periods: August 1971 and January-February 1972. R. mangle leaves had higher net daytime photosynthesis rates and lower nighttime respiration rates than A. nitida. Sun leaves had higher net daytime photosynthesis, while shade leaves had higher nighttime respiration. Data obtained from the gas exchange studies suggest a metabolic basis for the zonation of the four mangrove species.
Lugo, A. E., Sell, M., and Snedaker, S. C., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems-Mangrove ecosystem analysis: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 744.
A parameterized model of a mangrove ecosystem was simulated on an analog computer. The results suggest that: (1) maximum live-biomass accumulation is hurricane limited; (2) both in situ detrital accumulation and export are functions of tidal amplitude; (3) gross photosynthesis is sensitive to terrestrial nutrient inputs, and net production depends on the quantity of available nutrients; and (4) species zonation appears to be a function of nutrient availability as well as salinity gradients.
Lugo, A. E., and Snedaker, S. C., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems- Properties of a mangrove forest in south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 741.
A suite of parameters describing the physical environment and the structure and function of a mangrove ecosystem was evaluated. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of the dynamic properties of the ecosystem, with emphasis on auxillary energy sources, systems adaptions, and relationships with contiguous estuarine areas. Mangrove ecosystems are described as interface systems linking the terrestrial uplands with the coastal estuaries.
Lugo, A. E., Snedaker, S. C., Bayley, S., and Odum, H. T., 1971, Models for planning and research for the South Florida Environmental Study: US. Natl. Park Service PB-231 938.
The major subsystems of the south Florida regional ecosystem are described to focus attention on the critical problems and to set research priorities. The energy circuit language is used (as a substitute for differential equations) to identify the major stocks, flows, interactions and feedbacks, control mechanisms, and man-nature couplings characteristic of each of the 22 subsystems selected for evaluation. The models are based on the integrating role of energy in balances of man and nature and thus on energy as a common denominator for evaluating diverse kinds of data and information. The authors argue for an increased understanding of the behavior of whole ecological systems, of which man is one component, and for the evaluation of data for this purpose. The whole-systems research methodology is described.
Marshall, A. R., Hartwell, J. H., Anthony, D. S., Betz, J. V., Lugo, A. E., Veri, A. R., and Wilson, S. U., 1972, The Kissimmee-Okeechobee basin, A report to the Florida cabinet: Miami, Fla., Univ. of Miami [Florida] Center for Urban Studies, 64 p.
Martens, J. H. C., 1931, Beaches of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 21st-22d Ann. Rept., p. 71-119.
Mathis, J. M., 1973, Mangrove decomposition-A pathway for heavy metal enrichment in Everglade estuaries: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 738.
Red mangrove decomposition was studied as a natural pathway for heavy metal enrichment in estuaries of south Florida. Red mangrove leaves, major constituents of the highly organic suspended detritus of the estuaries, were analyzed in several decomposition stages for heavy metal concentration. Analysis revealed a 3- to 200-fold enrichment of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cd in the detritus compared to living leaves. This enrichment process is thought to be primarily due to absorption, complexion, and concentration of dissolved metals by the mangrove detritus and its associated microbiota. Comparisons between the Barron River estuary, which receives its drainage from agriculturally developed areas, and the Shark and Broad River estuaries, which receive drainage from undeveloped areas, revealed a significantly higher concentration of Cu and Cd in Barron River leaves and a higher concentration of Mn, Fe, and Cu in Barron River detritus than in the leaves and detritus of the uncontaminated estuaries. This increase in heavy metal concentrations is probably due to the metal-containing pesticides and fertilizers applied to farmlands drained by the Barron River estuary.
Mattraw, H. C., Jr., 1973, Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable metals in soils and sediments of a south Florida watershed: US. Natl. Park Service PB-233 526.
A study of exchangeable metal behavior was designed and tested for a disrupted Big Cypress watershed in south Florida. Essential considerations included isolation of an hydraulic equivalent fine fractions of soils and sediments and in situ measurements of sediment pH and eH. Measurements of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and exchangeable manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, cadmium, and. lead for four identifiable environments were compared with field data and laboratory measurements of pH, the amount of fine material, and the organic content to elucidate control mechanisms on exchangeable metal content. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance on CEC-normalized estuarine sediments indicated a cultural enrichment of exchangeable cobalt, copper, zinc, and lead in Chokoloskee Bay. (35 references.)
McCoy, H. J., 1972, Hydrology of western Collier County, Florida: Florida Div. Geology Rept. Inv. 63, 32 p.
McPherson, B. F., 1973a, Vegetation map of southern parts of subareas A and C, Big Cypress Swamp, Florida: U.S. Geol. Survey Hydrol. Inv. Atlas HA-492, scale 1:125,000.
_____ 1973b, Water quality in the conservation areas of the central arid southern Florida Flood Control District, 1970-72: U.S. Geol. Survey open-file rept., 39 p.
Moore, S. A., Jr., 1973, Impact of pesticides on phytoplankton in Everglades estuaries: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 618.
Six- and 24-hour bioassays were conducted to determine in situ the effect of selected organochlorine compounds on natural communities of estuarine phytoplankton. The effect of organochlorine concentration observed was to reduce phytoplankton utilization of bicarbonate, thereby also reducing photosynthetic production of organic material. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1215) phytotoxicity occurred at PCB levels less than 5 µg PCB/l. P, P'-DDT phytotoxicity initiated at concentrations of 10 µg DDT/I. Phytotoxicity by dieldrin is inconclusive. No phytotoxicity was observed in one ecosystem. A typical dose-response toxicity was observed in a second ecosystem and indicated apparent dieldrin toxicity at 15 µg dieldrin/l. Nannoplankton and netplankton difference in Aroclor 1242 sensitivity was observed. Ten and 25 µg/l PCB did not inhibit nannoplankton, which contributed approximately 73 percent of the phytoplankton production. Netplankton production was inhibited by more than 50 percent in both the 10 and 25 µg/l PCB concentrations. Biochemical modes for organochlorine action are discussed in conjunction with difficulties in interpreting the effects of organochlorine compounds on phytoplankton. An objection to basing water-quality standards on organochlorine concentrations is raised.
National Audubon Society, 1973, Status of colonies of large wading birds in south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 633.
Colonies of wood storks, Mycteria arnericana, and other wading birds were surveyed in south Florida, excluding Everglades National Park, and the locations of colonies during 1971 and 1972 were given. Populations of birds were estimated by direct aerial and ground counts. A total of 1,368 breeding pairs of wood storks were counted in 1971, of which 1,200 were found in Corkscrew Swamp. About 1,500 storks were fledged in 1971, but only 200 fledged in 1972. Most other large wading birds did not breed in 1971 because of drought; however, about 37,000 pairs (including 10,000 cattle egrets) nested in 1972. Comparison of these counts with counts made by previous workers indicates a drastic long-term decline in wading bird populations in south Florida, from about 2.5 million to 150,000 birds in the last 100 years. Recommendations are presented in an attempt to preserve wading bird populations from an increasing loss of habitat and food supply.
Nicholas, J. C., 1973, Land utilization in south Florida-A description of the historical development of urban and agricultural land use patterns: U.S. Bur. Indian Affairs PB-231 942.
This report consists of four studies designed to yield an overall view of the burgeoning growth of the south Florida region and the potential impact that these growth patterns might have on the Indian tribes residing in the region. The first report is "Land Utilization in South Florida: A Description of the Historical Development of Urban and Agricultural Land Use Patterns," prepared to provide the historical perspective. needed in order to project south Florida to the year 2000. The remaining three reports constitute a projection trilogy concerned with population, employment, and land use. Four population series were employed in these studies: (1) Office of Business Economics projections, (2) the Jerome Pickard projection, (3) the naive extrapolation, and (4) the Florida Social Science Advisory Committee projection. The report "Population Projections for South Florida" details the various population series for the aggregate area and for the individual counties to the year 2000. The report "Employment Projections for South Florida" projected employment to the same date, with alternative levels of employment projected based upon the four population series. In each of the reports the relevant area of south Florida is taken as being the counties of Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, Glades, Hendry, Lee, Martin, and Palm Beach.
Nicholas, J. C., and Kersey, H. A., Jr., 1973, Recommendations concerning employment, income, and educational opportunities for the Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes in Florida: U.S. Bur. Indian Affairs PB-231 943.
In this report, a research team concentrated on developing an estimate of present and future employment opportunities for the Indian tribes, as well as a general land-use forecast for the current reservation lands to the year 2000. A clear perception of future development in the south Florida region abutting their reservation lands, including the possible location of a jetport, and an assessment of both the problems and the potential economic gain that it poses, should greatly benefit the Seminole and Miccosukee people in planning for the future. A set of general educational recommendations has been prepared on how the tribes might best proceed in developing programs for their school-aged children, adult education, and vocational-technical training.
Ogden, J. C., Brown, R. A., and Salesky, Norman, 1973, Grazing by the echinoid Diadema antillarum Philippi-Formation of halos around West Indian patch reefs: Science, v. 182, no. 4113, p. 715.
Ogden, J. C., Robertson, W. B., Davis, G. E., and Schmidt, T. W., 1974, Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in upper food chain levels, Everglades National Park and vicinity: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 359.
A general concern over possible environmental pollution by manmade poisons prompted the extensive survey of chlorinated insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and metals in upper trophic levels of material collected in and adjacent to the Everglades National Park. Collections were made between 1971 and 1973, and analyses were conducted by WARF, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin. The resulting analyses provide a baseline for future analyses and clues for particular poisons or particular species in need of more intensive study. These data revealed that DDT, DDE, DDD, dieldrin, and PCBs appear to exist in concentrations well below amounts known to have either acute or chronic effects. Less is known of the significance of the various metal concentrations reported here, although levels of mercury in freshwater vertebrates and arsenic in marine species are great enough to deserve more intensive study.
Ornes, W. H., and Steward, K. K., 1973, Effect of phosphorus and potassium on phytoplankton populations in field enclosures: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 650.
In an enrichment experiment within a sawgrass community, phosphorus and potassium were added to field enclosures in amounts equivalent to what generally occurs in sewage effluent. This resulted in phytoplankton blooms and dynamic shifts in dominant phytoplankton genera. Also, the aquatic macrophytes Chara sp. and Utricularia sp. disappeared after 22 weeks of treatment. Both polluted and clean water phytoplankton genera appeared in the control and treated enclosures. The experiment results indicated a disrupted environment. Thus, more study should be conducted before utilizing the sawgrass marshes as living filters for wastewater.
OVERVIEW, 1969, Beyond the impasse-The Dade Jetport and south Florida environment: Washington, D.C., OVERVIEW, 1700 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., 47 p.
Parker, G. C., Ferguson, G. E., Love, S. K., and others, 1955, Water resources of southeastern Florida: US. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1255, 965 p.
Pool, D. J., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems- Mangrove leaf area indices: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 745.
Leaf area index (LAI) on total leaf surface per unit ground area is one parameter that may be used to estimate the photosynthetic capacity of individual plants or entire ecosystems. Techniques used for determining LA1 in south Florida mangrove ecosystems included: (1) planimetric method, (2) light table, (3) plumb-line method, (4) photographic records, (5) canopy closure, and (6) light transmittance. Leaf area of the mangrove communities measured ranged from 0.8 to 5.1 m2/m2. All sites had a canopy closure of over 95 percent with low light transmittance. Early successional ecosystems have leaf area indices lower than the older closed-canopy forests.
Pool, D. J., and Lugo, A. E., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems-Litter production in mangroves: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 746.
Seventy 0.25-m2 baskets were placed in three different types of mangrove forests in the Ten Thousand Islands and at one site at Rookery Bay in Naples, Florida. Results of litter-basket collections and separations are reported by component and by species. Total litter fall ranged from 1.4 g/m2/day (estimated 511 g/m2/ year) to 2.3 g/m2/day (estimated 840 g/m2/year). The total litter fall was composed of 75 to 85 percent leaves, 10 to 15 percent wood, and 4 to 5 percent miscellaneous (insect parts, grass, flowers, seeds, etc.). In 1972, the Rookery Bay site had the greatest daily rates of litter fall in the months of January, February, and March (2 to 5 g/m2/day), with total litter fall remaining stable during the remainder of the year. High rates of litter fall are associated with low temperatures and seasonal storms.
Prochaska, F. S., and Cato, J. C., 1974, Landing, values and prices in commercial fisheries for the Florida Keys region: Gainesville, Florida Sea Grant Pub. SUSF-SG74-004, Univ. of Florida, 20 p.
Recent waterfowl kill and survey data for south Florida are summarized. The harvest in the Everglades Region (an administrative region of the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission) increased by 66 percent from the previous season, reflecting in part a 36-percent greater hunter effort in the former period. Aerial survey counts for the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Conservation Areas 2 and 3, Lake Okeechobee, and the southwest Florida coast are presented. In the past, considerable fluctuation has occurred in the regional waterfowl populations. The present long-term trend is a reduction in numbers of most species, largely attributable to the general decline in North American waterfowl populations and the availability of select waterfowl habitat in central and northern Florida and in States farther north. Heavy airboat traffic in central south Florida areas disturbs some resting waterfowl and displaces them to Central and South America and the West Indies.
Rodgers, D. P., and Crowder, J. P., 1974, Threatened wildlife of south Florida: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 654.
The 34 endangered or otherwise threatened wildlife species (as classified by the Department of the Interior) of south Florida are identified and described. The listing includes 23 species or subspecies of birds, 6 of mammals, and 3 of reptiles. Eleven of these are found exclusively in Florida; several others are found only in Florida within the United States portion of their ranges. Thirteen are officially classified by the Secretary of the Interior as endangered species, entitled to protection under provisions of Federal endangered species legislation. Direct physical alteration or destruction of habitat (including drainage of wetlands)., depredations by market hunters, and pesticides are identified as principal factors in population declines of the region's threatened species. Problems peculiar to each species are considered in detail. Recommendations are made for the protection and enhancement of surviving populations.
The population status of the Florida black bear, the white-tailed deer, and two endangered wildlife species, the American alligator and the Florida panther, were studied in the Everglades Region of Florida. Questionnaires were distributed to field personnel of the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and the Florida Department of Natural Resources to obtain information on population levels of bear and panther. Individuals who reported panthers were interviewed. Records of panther and bear at the Everglades National Park were examined. Nocturnal and diurnal alligator counts along canals were made. Aerial deer counts, pre- and post-hunting season sex ratio changes, and deer harvest information were used to estimate deer populations. Black bear and panther population estimates were 145 and 92, respectively. Most of these animals occur in Collier County. The estimated deer population of the Everglades Region (4.5 million acres) is about 20,000. The calculated 1971-72 legal deer harvest from the Everglades Wildlife Management Area (800,000 acres) was 900. With increased protection from poaching in recent years, alligator populations have increased, despite the loss of more than 1.5 million acres of habitat. This habitat destruction is largely attributable to agricultural, residential, commercial, and industrial development.
Schemnitz, S. D., and Schortemeyer, J. D., 1972, The influence of vehicles on Florida Everglades vegetation: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 613.
The influence of off-road recreational vehicles (airboats and half-tracks) on Everglades vegetation and soils was measured intensively on six fenced plots. Pre- and post-treatment measurements of vegetation heights and biomass were made. Treatments selected at random consisted of single and repeat runs of vehicles on marked transects. Soil depth and compaction were also measured. Post-treatment recuperation of vegetation was more rapid on wet prairie and muck burn plots than on sawgrass plots and more rapid on wet plots than on dry ones. Half-track damage to vegetation was more severe than airboat traffic damage. Recovery of vegetation after 4 or 5 months averaged 59 percent for airboat traffic and 48 percent for half-tracks on the basis of height changes. There was no significant difference in soil compaction or in the variety of plant species in vehicle treatment areas and undisturbed control transects. Soil moisture readings were greater in half-track ruts than in adjacent controls. Water temperatures in half-track ruts were higher than temperatures in nearby water shaded by sawgrass. Examination of older half-track trails ot known age showed contrasting results. One trail network in Conservation Area 3 was essentially erased after 9 months of regrowth. Track trails in the Everglades National Park were more persistent.
Seaman, W., Adams, C. A., and Snedaker, S. C., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems-Biomass determinations in shallow estuaries-Technique evaluation and preliminary data: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 748.
A new type of portable drop net was developed and used to quantitatively harvest fishes from 16-m2 sample areas in shallow estuaries. The technique is shown to be suitable for sedentary benthic and vegetation-inhabiting fishes, including eels, gobies, erreids, syngathids, juvenile pinfish, sciaenids, and flat fishes. The technique and preliminary results are evaluated and compared with reports in the literature describing techniques to estimate fish biomass.
Snedaker, S. C., and Pool, D. J., 1973, The role of mangrove ecosystems- Mangrove forest types and biomass: U.S. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-231 742.
Five physiognomic types of mangrove forests are identified on the basis of local topography, coastal position, and relationship to terrestrial runoff and tidal flushing. Estimates of biomass, by compartment, are reported for an overwash forest, a fringe forest, a riverine forest, a single-tree island, and white mangroves (Laguncularia racemosa) colonizing dredge-spoil banks. Forest biomass (dry weight, above ground) ranges from 11 to 25 kg m-2. Standing stock detritus contributes up to 39 percent of the total biomass and is related to storm damage.
Sproul, C. R., Boggess, D. H., and Woodward, H. J., 1972, Saline-water intrusion from deep aquifer sources in the McGregor Isles area of Lee County, Florida: Florida Div. Geology Inf. Circ. 75, 30 p.
Starck, W. A., II, 1968, A list of fishes of Alligator Reef, Florida, with comments on the nature of the Florida reef fish fauna: Undersea Biology, v. 1, no. 1, p. 1-40.
Stephens, J. C., 1969, Peat and muck drainage problems: Am. SOC. Civil Engineers Proc., Jour. Irrigation and Drainage Div., v. 95, p. 285-305.
Steward, K. K., and Ornes, W. H., 1973a, Assessing the capability of the Everglades marsh environment for renovating wastewater: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 652.
Everglades vegetation was enriched with simulated effluents in order to determine the feasibility of recycling wastewater through the marshes. Weekly application of nutrients increased assimilation of nutrients by the plants but did not increase growth. This indicated that growth was not limited by lack of nutrients. Only 12 percent of the applied nutrients was assimilated into the vegetation. Of the amount remaining, 3 percent was used to produce algal blooms, 43 percent settled to the bottom, 5 percent remained dissolved in the water, and 37 percent was unaccounted for. The dense algal blooms, which were maintained throughout the experiment, were believed to have been responsible for the disappearance of several floral components of the ecosystem. Because of the low capacity for nutrient assimilation and because of potential alterations in species composition, it appeared unlikely that the marsh system could be used to renovate wastewater.
_____ 1973b, Investigations into the mineral nutrition of sawgrass using experimental culture techniques: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 609.
Sawgrass (Cladium jamaicensis Crantz) seedlings were grown in virgin soil in a greenhouse to determine the mineral-nutrient status of plants in the field, as well as their response to nutrient enrichment. Additions of small quantities of phosphorus produced significant increases in dry weight, shoot length, and vegetative reproduction of new plants. Growth responses of seedlings were highly related to P levels in tissues. There appeared to be an optimum P level in tissue, however, as higher levels inhibited dry-matter production, shoot elongation, and new shoot production. This was a significant finding, indicating that serious consequences may result from discharging nutrient-rich waters into Everglades marshes. Critical P concentration was determined to be higher in seedlings than in sawgrass plants irorn the field. It was concluded that experimentally determined critical nutrient levels do not adequately diagnose the nutrient status of plants in the field.
_____ 1973c, The autecology of sawgrass (Mariscus jamaicensis) in the Florida Everglades: U.S. Natl. Park Service PB-231 608.
Investigations were conducted in 1971 and 1972 to characterize typical stands of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicensis Crantz), the dominant plant species in the southern Everglades. The mature stands exhibited little seasonal variation within the parameters of standing crop, plant density, and concentration of most inorganic nutrients. Plant nutrient requirements were determined to be low, since the tissue levels of nutrients were low as compared to those of other species of Everglades macrophytes. Levels of available nutrients in soil were variable and had no seasonal pattern. Most nutrients were in adequate supply. Waters in the marsh contained on an average 3, 10, and 8 percent of the N, P, and K, respectively, contained in a comparable area of sawgrass standing crop. Concentration of most nutrients in plants regrowing after fires was high during early growth stages but decreased to levels found in older plants after 3 to 5 months. After 18 months' growth, burned stands of sawgrass had produced only 38 percent of the standing crop contained in mature stands prior to burning. The apparent low nutrient requirements of sawgrass may partially explain the dominance of this plant in the marsh community.
In the year 1900, peninsular Florida south of Polk and Orange Counties was the home of only 43,344 people, just under 8 percent of the State's total, and over a third of them lived in Key West. The region, aptly described as one huge refuge for wildlife and plant life, was as yet largely unexploited and undisturbed. Though it had been explored, mapped, and described during the Second Seminole War, 1835-42, the reports were not generally known. The interior remained a mystery until it began to be "rediscovered" and widely reported about 1870 by hunters, naturalists, and surveyors who described what was there and what was happening to it. Gatherers of hides and feathers and sportsmen were killing ruthlessly. Settlers and developers were clearing and burning and draining and lowering the water table and thereby altering the environment. Some species were disappearing, and others were threatened. The Everglades National Park became a refuge for the surviving remnant, but man's activities threatened them even there.
U.S. Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Southeast Region, 1973, An analysis of outdoor recreation resources, impacts, and potentials in south Florida: PB-231 760.
This report describes briefly the 11 physiographic provinces of south Florida, relating to the recreational potentials and problems of the area. The socioeconomic climate in terms of projections of population, employment and income for target years, and the relationship of these factors to outdoor recreation are analyzed for the study area. State, county, and local recreation programs are noted, analyzing in depth local recreation programs. This report identifies program functions and enabling legislation most likely to enhance or increase outdoor recreation opportunity where most people live-in the urban environment. A complete inventory of public park and open space areas in south Florida at the various levels of government has been assembled. A recreation utilization system that denotes land classes and capacity standards was adopted in order to catalog inventory data. Totals indicate the amount of specified types of recreation facilities available for each county within the study area. A detailed analysis of study-area-resident recreation participation rates is given. This report reviews regionally significant natural resources remaining south of Lake Okeechobee, their recreational values, impacts, and actions needed to preserve them.
U.S. Department of the Interior, 1974, United States list of endangered fauna: Washington, 22 p.
Voss, G. L., Bayer, F. M., and Robins, C. R., 1969, The marine ecology of Biscayne National Monument-A report to the National Park Service: Miami, Fla., Univ. of Miami [Florida] Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmosphere Sciences, 128 P.
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
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